Lab report:electronics
University of Dhaka, Department of physics Physics.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Lab report:electronics
University of Dhaka, Department of physics Physics.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Experiment :C-3

Study of exponential relaxation time constant of a RC circuit.

Submitted to Mr.Golam Dastegir Al-Quaderi and

Dr. Ratan Chandra Gosh

SH 236 Student of Physics Department, Uinversity of Dhaka. [Dated April

16,2011]

1

Experiment : Study of exponential relaxation time constant of a RC circuit. Theory : The time required to

charge a capacitor to 63% (actually 63.2%) of full charge or to discharge it to 37% (actually 37.8%) of its

initial voltage is known as the time constant of discharges exponentially the circuit. as q = if q

q

o

o

et/ is the initial charge of a capacitor then it , here = RC is the characteristic time or relaxation time. It

is convenient to measure time for the quantity to drop one half of of its initial value and from this half time

we can rewrite:

t

1/2

= et

1/2/

= 1/2 or, t

1/2

= ln2 = 0.693

or, = t

1/2

resistor, a capacitor and a circuit board.

Figure 1.1 Charging & discharging of a Capacitor.

Figure 1.2 Circuit diagram of RC circuit.

2

naac Chara

Purc

20 10

Frequency X X

c

f

y

T

B

=t

1/2

y

.X

c

)T

B

X Constant = 1.44 t

1/2 Hz div div Hz ms ms ms ms

50 0.40 10.80 49.35 1.89 0.75 1.09 100 0.65 10.00 97.70 1.00 0.65 0.95 200 1.30 9.90 195.40 0.50 0.67

0.96 0.91 300 1.20 6.80 293.10 0.50 0.60 0.86 400 1.00 5.20 390.80 0.49 0.49 0.71 500 0.82 4.19 480.50

0.48 0.40 0.57 600 0.69 3.33 586.20 0.51 0.35 0.50 700 0.61 3.00 683.90 0.48 0.29 0.43 800 0.58 2.60

781.60 0.49 0.29 0.41 900 0.49 2.30 879.30 0.49 0.24 0.35 1000 0.42 2.05 977.70 0.49 0.21 0.30 2000

1.00 4.40 1954.0 0.11 0.11 0.17 5000 0.90 3.50 4885.0 0.05 0.045 0.064 10000 0.42 1.78 9770.0 0.057

0.024 0.034

Frequency X X

c

f

y

T

B

=t

1/2

y

.X

c

)T

X Constant = 1.44 t

1/2 Hz div div Hz ms ms ms ms

50 0.40 10.80 49.35 1.89 0.75 1.09 100 0.65 10.00 97.70 1.00 0.65 0.95 200 1.20 9.90 195.40 0.50 0.60

0.86 0.90 300 1.10 6.80 293.10 0.50 0.55 0.79 400 0.90 5.20 390.80 0.49 0.44 0.63 500 0.78 4.19 480.50

0.48 0.38 0.55 600 0.70 3.33 586.20 0.51 0.35 0.51 700 0.60 3.00 683.90 0.48 0.28 0.41 800 0.58 2.60

781.60 0.49 0.28 0.41 900 0.50 2.30 879.30 0.49 0.24 0.35 1000 0.45 2.05 977.70 0.49 0.22 0.32 2000

1.00 4.40 1954.0 0.11 0.11 0.17 5000 0.85 3.50 4885.0 0.05 0.045 0.064 10000 0.42 1.78 9770.0 0.057

0.024 0.034

3

Calculation :

When dial frequency=100 Hz Then true frequency, f

y

and X = 0.65, X

c

= 0.65

We know, T

B

= 1/(f

y

.X

c

) = 1/(97.7 10.0)ms

=0.001s =1ms

Half time, t

1/2

=T

B

.X =1 0.065ms

=0.65ms

Time constant, = 1.44 t

1/2

Mean =(1.09 + 0.95 + 0.96 + 0.86 + 0.71)/5 ms = 0.91ms

Result : Time constant of given RC circuit is 0.91 ms. This result(avearge) is not ac- curate because when

e took higher frequency the capacitor is not fully charged and thus our result has some errors. For higher

frequency current the capacitor failed to charge fully because the Time period (T) is becoming lower .The

orig- inal Time constant for this RC circuit is 1.0ms which was in our experiment , when the frequency is

under 300 Hz. Discussion : We are taking the half time of the circuit,but it is not the actual t

1/2

the capacitor failed to reach its maximum value(fully charged).On the contrary we are an arbitrary

charged capacitor as fully charged and thus t

1/2

1/2

lower when frequency is increasing.

At higher frequency the time period (T) becomes smaller than actual and the signal doesnt have

enough time to reach final destination. However there is another cause of error, that is the tolerence of

the given resistor. The resistence is 10k and the golden color denote 5% tolerence so

= RC= 5% (RC)=RC/20

So the correctedshould be:

==[0.90 (0.90/20)]ms = 0.945ms or 0.855ms.

4

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