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An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure.
Digital Cross Connect or DXX is a system that covert the signals from one communication medium to another. Typically DXX was used to convert the high level TDM signals in telephone systems for example DSI bit streams into another DSI streams. DXX devices are available for both T – carrier and E- Carrier based circuits. DXX are also used to connect two different data streams like Frame Relay and Serial Communication. DXX circuits can be used switch traffic from one circuit to another in case of a network failure among the network. For example if a frame relay network gets deactivated for any reason, DXX can convert the traffic to another network like ATM. In this case DXX switches can manipulate the traffic circuits between different networks and network types. It is also used to provide interoperability between network devices and network speeds. With DXX, higher levels of flexibility can be provided which in any other case can cause greater costs to the network operations. This flexibility comes with DXX at lower costs. With DXX, synchronization becomes possible with higher network seeds and lower network speeds. One important thing to be noted is that DXX are not packet
Two T1as and one SDH. In response to higher bandwidth and capacity demand. The line data rate for E1 is 2. where a single physical wire can be used to carry many simultaneous voice conversations. This arrangement is also inevitable in longer networks like the ones that expand over weeks or months. carriers and ISPs are now offering E3 (34 Mbps) dedicated access connections. What is E1 line In telecommunications. PDH and SONET.048 Mbit/s (full duplex) which is split into 32 time slots. Now it is widely used in almost all countries outside USA. This type of arrangement can’t be made in packet networks that operate over short period of time. It can even provide compatibility between rather new SDH. you can divert two different streams of T1 to SDH and vice versa making a communication of 4 Mbps possible through the network. To improve availability of network-based applications.network switches. Anticipating these trends. SXX are also capable of interconnect fiber optic equipment and D1/ T1/ E1 etc. If the speed of SDH is 40 mbps and the speed id T1 is 2 Mbps then with the help of two DXXs. DXX are different from packet switches in a way that packet switches provide the transportation to different network destinations while in the case of DXX. What is E3 line Businesses that connect to the Internet using dedicated access services are experiencing traffic growth due to increased interest and dependence on resourceintensive applications. each being allocated 8 bits in turn. E-carrier system. network architects and designers are searching for solutions that can extend their current bandwidth and transmission capacity. DXX switch between circuits and are a special means for circuit switched networks. it has a specific set of destinations to which it switches traffic in circuits. worldwide standards have been created and deployed. which is revised and improved version of the earlier American T-carrier technology. Digital Cross connects can connect extremely high speed networks with lower speed networks to achieve a mutually synchronized speed for common data transformation in the network. It is a ideal for voice traffic because voice is sampled at the same 8khz rate so E1 line can carry 32 simultaneous voice conversions. Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer . Cisco Systems offers the Cisco 12000 Series 6-Port and 12-Port E3 Line Cards. designed to simplify the deployment and delivery of E3 leasedline services with the Cisco 12000 series Internet router. Canada and Japan.
By placing remote DSLAMs at locations remote to the telephone exchange. located in the telephone exchanges of the service providers. a DSLAM aggregates the DSL lines over its Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). providing capabilities for LAN segments longer than physically-similar unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Ethernet connections. residential neighborhoods. Customer Premises Equipment that interfaces well with the DSLAM to which it is connected may take advantage of enhanced telephone voice and data line signaling features and the bandwidth monitoring and compensation capabilities it supports. a DSLAM is also a large collection of modems. Role of the DSLAM The DSLAM equipment at the telephone company (telco) collects the data from its many modem ports and aggregates their voice and data traffic into one complex composite "signal" via multiplexing. In addition to being a data switch and multiplexer. often pronounced deeslam) allows telephone lines to make faster connections to the Internet. via an access network (AN) also called a Network Service Provider (NSP) at up to 10 Gbit/s data rates.e. This is due to the nominal line impedance (measured in Ohms but comprising . and other businesses operating their own private telephone exchange. and may also serve multiple data and voice customers within a neighborhood Serving Area Interface (SAI). Each modem on the aggregation card communicates with a single subscriber's DSL modem. DSLAMs are also used by hotels. sometimes in conjunction with a digital loop carrier. Like traditional voice-band modems. Depending on its device architecture and setup.. a DSLAM's integrated DSL modems usually have the ability to probe the line and to adjust themselves to electronically or digitally compensate for forward echoes and other bandwidth-limiting factors in order to move data at the maximum connection rate capability of the subscriber's physical line. The aggregated traffic is then directed to a telco's backbone switch.Transmission Convergence]) protocol(s) stack.The DSLAM acts like a network switch since its functionality is at Layer 2 of the OSI model. and/or Internet Protocol network (i. lodges. that connects multiple customer Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) to a high-speed Internet backbone line using multiplexing techniques. This modem functionality is integrated into the DSLAM itself instead of being done via an external device like a traditional computer modem. since the balanced line type is generally required for its hardware to function correctly. The DSLAM traffic is switched to a Broadband Remote Access Server where the end user traffic is then routed across the ISP network to the Internet. an IP-DSLAM using PTM-TC [Packet Transfer Mode . This compensation capability also takes advantage of the better performance of "balanced line" DSL connections. A DSLAM may or may not be located in the telephone company's central office. only between ISP devices and end-user connection points. telephone companies provide DSL service to locations previously beyond effective range. It is a network device.A Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM. Therefore it cannot re-route traffic between multiple IP networks. frame relay.
A permanent telephone connection between two points set up by a telecommunications common carrier. synonymous with virtual connection and virtual channel. a virtual circuit (VC). After a connection or virtual circuit is established between two nodes or application processes. Leased line A leased line is service contract between a provider and a customer. thus supporting 'weaker' signals (however the solid-state electronics required to construct such digital interfaces is more costly). The fee for the connection is a fixed monthly rate. Typically. SCTP. the sender and receiver IP address and port number. The primary factors affecting the monthly fee are distance between end points and the speed of the circuit. Leased lines can be used for telephone. Unlike traditional PSTN lines it does not have a telephone number. where a virtual circuit is established on top of either the IP protocol or the UDP protocol. where a reliable virtual circuit is established on top of the underlying unreliable and connectionless IP protocol. Virtual Connection In telecommunications and computer networks. the carrier can assure a given level of quality. packets or frames from higher level protocols. It is sometimes known as a 'Private Circuit' or 'Data Line' in the UK or as CDN (Circuito Diretto Numerico) in Italy. Guaranteed QoS is not provided. Because the connection doesn't carry anybody else's communications.both resistance and inductance) of balanced lines being somewhat lower than that of UTP. Some are ringdown services. a leased line is always active. is a connection oriented communication service that is delivered by means of packet mode communication.e. each side of the line being permanently connected to the other. Unlike dial-up connections. and some connect two PBXes. data or Internet services. i. whereby the provider agrees to deliver a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations in exchange for a monthly rent (hence the term lease). . • • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). A virtual circuit protocol hides the division into segments. The virtual circuit is identified by the source and destination network socket address pair. a bit stream or byte stream may be delivered between the nodes. leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices.
25 provides reliable node-to-node communication and guaranteed QoS. Frame relay is unreliable. but may provide guaranteed QoS. Frame relay. A queuing delay induced by several such data packets might exceed the figure of 7.25. making it suitable for wide area data networking as well as real-time media transport. where the circuit is identified by a virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI) pair. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a cell-based switching technique that uses asynchronous time division multiplexing. Network switch A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connect network segments. ATM exposes properties from both circuit switched and small packet switched networking. 155 Mbit/s SDH (135 Mbit/s payload) was considered a fast optical network link. The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990. The term network switch does not generally encompass unintelligent or passive network devices such as hubs and repeaters.544 Mbit/s T1 link.8 milliseconds. such as a 1. where the VC is identified by a VCI. ATM uses a connection-oriented model and establishes a virtual circuit between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. This differs from other technologies based on packet-switched networks (such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet).8 ms several times over. a typical full-length 1500 byte (12000-bit) data packet would take 77.Examples of network layer and datalink layer virtual circuit protocols.544 to 45 Mbit/s in the USA. ranging from 1. in addition to any packet generation delay in the shorter speech packet. At the time of the design of ATM. At this rate. a 1500 byte packet would take up to 7.42 µs to transmit. In a lower-speed link. in which variable sized packets (known as frames when referencing Layer 2) are used. . This was clearly unacceptable for speech traffic. which needs to have low jitter in the data stream being fed into the codec if it is to produce good-quality sound. but may provide guaranteed QoS. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches. and 2 to 34 Mbit/s in Europe. ATM is unreliable. It encodes data into small fixed-sized cells (cell relay) and provides data link layer services that run over OSI Layer 1 physical links. X. where data always is delivered over the same path: • • • X. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). where the VC is identified by a virtual channel identifier (VCI). The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. and many PDH links in the digital network were considerably slower.
and the two "conversations" will not interfere with one another. then A and B can transfer data back and forth. Interconnection of different Layer 3 networks is done by routers. the switch is used to create a mirror image of data that can go to an external device. may interconnect a small number of devices in a home or office. or an all-purpose converged device such as a gateway access to small office/home broadband services such as DSL router or cable Wi-Fi router. If there are any features that characterize "Layer-3 switches" as opposed to general-purpose routers. In switches intended for commercial use. network. Using a switch is called microsegmentation.. A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is known as a multilayer switch.11. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch.hn and 802. and D) on 4 switch ports. packet switch (or just switch) plays an integral part in most Ethernet local area networks or LANs. A network bridge. including Ethernet. ITU-T G. This allows you to have dedicated bandwidth on point-to-point connections with every computer and to therefore run in Full duplex with no collisions. operating at the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. in which the bridge learns the MAC address of each connected device. User devices may also include a telephone interface for VoIP. C. In most of these cases. This is a trivial case of bridging. If you have 4 computers (e. In the case of a "hub. In some service provider and other environments where there is a need for a great deal of analysis of network performance and security. This connectivity can be at any of the layers mentioned. In other cases. Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. switches may be connected between WAN routers as places for analytic modules. interconnecting technologies such as Ethernet and token ring are easier at Layer 3. as in Linksys 8-port and 48-port devices. Since most switch port mirroring provides only one mirrored stream. Single bridges also can provide extremely high performance in specialized applications such as storage area networks. which would then necessitate retransmissions. or transport (i. the end-user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology." they would all share the bandwidth and run in Half duplex. resulting in collisions. A standard 10/100 Ethernet switch operates at the data-link layer of the OSI model to create a different collision domain for each switch port.e. network intrusion detection and performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports. data link. network hubs can be useful for fanning out data to several read-only analyzers. While Layer 2 functionality is adequate for speed-shifting within one technology. such as intrusion detection systems and packet sniffers. Classic bridges may also interconnect using a . for high-density Ethernet connectivity. Role of switches in networks Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers.g. B. built-in or modular interfaces make it possible to connect different types of networks. Fibre Channel. end-to-end). it tends to be that they are optimized. A. Some vendors provide firewall.The network switch. while C and D also do so simultaneously. in larger switches. ATM.. Some of these functions may be on combined modules. including physical.
By using an internal forwarding plane much faster than any interface. a switch used for end user access typically concentrates lower speed (e. The older IEEE 802. so frames that are in error because of a collision will not be forwarded. Fragment free checks the first 64 bytes of the frame.spanning tree protocol that disables links so that the resulting local area network is a tree without loops. this is rarely the case in general LAN applications. combine the best features of both routers and bridges. with forwarding stopping for 30 seconds while the spanning tree would reconverge.1w. such as storage area networks. 3. it forwards data link layer frames using a layer 2 forwarding method. which is the application of linkstate routing technology to the layer-2 bridging problem. The IETF is specifying the TRILL protocol. Fragment free: A method that attempts to retain the benefits of both "store and forward" and "cut through". where the input and output interfaces are the same speed.1D spanning tree protocol could be quite slow. 2. In LANs. 10/100 Mbit/s) into a higher speed (at least 1 Gbit/s). of which the second through fourth method were performanceincreasing methods when used on "switch" products with the same input and output port speeds: 1.g. spanning tree bridges must have topologies with only one active path between two points. . they give the impression of simultaneous paths among multiple devices. Store and forward: The switch buffers and. This way the frame will always reach its intended destination. Once a bridge learns the topology through a spanning tree protocol. Devices which implement TRILL. but the newest edition of IEEE 802. While there are specialized applications. typically. There is no error checking with this method. The reference design involves TPX4004 and CY7C15632KV18 72-Mbit SRAMs.1D-2004. While "layer 2 switch" remains more of a marketing term than a technical term the products that were introduced as "switches" tended to use micro segmentation and Full duplex to prevent collisions among devices connected to Ethernets.Cypress Semiconductor design and manufacturing company along with TPACK offers the flexibility to cope with various system architecture for Ethernet switches through reference design. Error checking of the actual data in the packet is left for the end device in Layer 3 or Layer 4 (OSI). According to Ethernet specifications. typically a router. where addressing information is stored. There are four forwarding methods a bridge can use. A Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol was introduced as IEEE 802. In contrast to routers. performs a checksum on each frame before forwarding it. Alternatively. Cut-through switches have to fall back to store and forward if the outgoing port is busy at the time the packet arrives. 4. a switch that provides access to server ports usually connects to them at a much higher speed than is used by end user devices..1w extensions as the base standard. Adaptive switching: A method of automatically switching between the other three modes. Cut through: The switch reads only up to the frame's hardware address before starting to forward it. collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame. called RBridges. adopts the 802.
The crossing wires in a cable or in a connector adaptor allows: • • • connecting two devices directly. for example DTE-DTE or DCE-DCE. Due to the overwhelming prevalence of IPv4 and Ethernet in general networking. The name came from the physical concept of the ether. such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). It is Internet Standard STD 37. switches or router (DCE) together. DECNET.Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a computer networking protocol for determining a network host's link layer or hardware address when only its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address is known. Such distinction of devices was introduced by IBM. ARP has been implemented in many types of networks. along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones. PCs.11 and other LAN technologies. as well as the modern high capacity networks. This function is critical in local area networking as well as for routing internetworking traffic across gateways (routers) based on IP addresses when the next-hop router must be determined. Token Ring. i. IEEE 802. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in 1982. The combination of the twisted pair versions of Ethernet for connecting end systems to the network. and ARCNET. Ethernet Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). by a modified cable called a crosslink. letting two terminal (DTE) devices communicate without an interconnecting hub knot. usually connected asymmetrically (DTE-DCE). Examples • • a Null modem of RS-232 Ethernet crossover cable . CHAOS. ARP is most frequently used to translate IPv4 addresses (OSI Layer 3) into Ethernet MAC addresses (OSI Layer 2). It has been used from around 1980 to the present. possibly to work as one wider device. largely replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring. is the most widespread wired LAN technology. Xerox PARC Universal Packet. output of one to input of the other. such as Internet Protocol (IP) network.e.3. FDDI. FDDI. Crossover cable A crossover cable connects two devices of the same type. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format and Media Access Control at the Data Link Layer. linking two or more hubs. Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802.
may use Frame Relay for connecting rural stores into their corporate WAN.25. Frame Relay does not provide an ideal path for voice or video transmission. Frame Relay relays packets at the data link layer (layer 2) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model rather than at the network layer (layer 3). the end may loom for the Frame Relay protocol and encapsulation. Switch to hub. This speeds up overall data transmission. used between local area networks (LANs) over a wide area network (WAN). PC to PC. For most services. With the advent of MPLS. which means that the protocol does not attempt to correct errors. Network providers commonly implement Frame Relay for voice (VoFR) and data as an encapsulation technique. while the service-provider figures out the route each frame travels to its destination and can charge based on usage. it may be used today in the context of many other network interfaces.• • Rollover cable A loopback is a type of degraded "one side crosslinked connection" connecting a port to itself. When a Frame Relay network detects an error in a frame. both of which require a steady flow of transmissions. for instance. Router to PC Frame Relay Frame Relay is a standardized wide area networking technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. dedicated connection without having to pay for a full-time leased line. whose designers expected analog signals. The frame-relay network handles the transmission over a frequently-changing path transparent to all end-users. Thus a retail chain. it simply drops that frame. . Hub to hub. Frame Relay offers a fast packet technology.25 packet-switching technology. Frame Relay has its technical base in the older X. However many rural areas remain lacking DSL and cable modem services. which means that the customer sees a continuous. However. In such cases the least expensive type of "always-on" connection remains a 64-kbit/s frame-relay line. The designers of Frame Relay aimed to a telecommunication service for cost-efficient data transmission for intermittent traffic between local area networks (LANs) and between end-points in a wide area network (WAN). A frame can incorporate packets from different protocols such as Ethernet and X. Frame Relay puts data in variable-size units called "frames" and leaves any necessary error-correction (such as re-transmission of data) up to the end-points.25. Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a frame-relay node. usually for test purposes. Originally designed for transport across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) infrastructure. under certain circumstances. voice and video transmission do use Frame Relay. designed for transmitting data on analog voice lines. It varies in size up to a thousand bytes or more. Use crossover cables for the following connections: Switch to switch. Router to router. Unlike X. the network provides a permanent virtual circuit (PVC). It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period. VPN and dedicated broadband services such as cable modem and DSL.
Congestion control in frame-relay networks includes the following elements: 1. usually a router. due to the bursts in some services. The technology has become a stand-alone and cost-effective means of creating a WAN. Once the network has established a connection. based on the relation of the requested traffic descriptor and the network's residual capacity. The Frame Relay network uses a simplified protocol at each switching node. 3. It also serves generally to achieve high network performance. The network decides whether to accept a new connection request.Frame Relay originated as an extension of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Admission Control. frame-relay networks require some effective mechanisms to control the congestion. The average rate (in bit/s) at which the network guarantees to transfer information units over a measurement interval T. Excess Burst Size (BE). The technology used by the carrier to transport the data between the switches is variable and changes between carrier (i. When offered load is high. Frame Relay switches create virtual circuits to connect remote LANs to a WAN. . Its designers aimed to enable a packet-switched network to transport the circuit-switched technology. The maximum number of uncommitted information units (in bits) that the network will attempt to carry during the interval. and the carrier switch. This T interval is defined as: T = Bc/CIR. it is difficult to troubleshoot its performance. Frame Relay does not rely directly on the transportation mechanism to function). Committed Burst Size (BC). 4. The Frame Relay network exists between a LAN border device. Committed Information Rate (CIR). As a result. The traffic descriptor consists of three elements: 2. Frame Relay defines some restrictions on the user's information rate. the offered load has largely determined the performance of Frame Relay networks. and which characterizes the connection's statistical properties. It allows the network to enforce the end user's information rate and discard information when the subscribed access rate is exceeded. The traffic descriptor consists of a set of parameters communicated to the switching nodes at call set-up time or at service-subscription time. Without a firm understanding of Frame Relay. temporary overload at some Frame Relay nodes causes a collapse in network throughput. Therefore. This provides the principal mechanism used in Frame Relay to ensure the guarantee of resource requirement once accepted. The maximum number of information units transmittable during the interval T.e. It achieves simplicity by omitting link-by-link flow-control. The sophistication of the technology requires a thorough understanding of the terms used to describe how Frame Relay works. the edge node of the Frame Relay network must monitor the connection's traffic flow to ensure that the actual usage of network resources does not exceed this specification.
16. two separate one-gigabit VLANs using a single one-gigabit interconnection can both suffer reduced throughput and congestion. VLANs are created to provide the segmentation services traditionally provided by routers in LAN configurations.Virtual LAN A virtual LAN. This continues until the left−most bit. the decimal equivalent would be 255 as shown here: 11111111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 (128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255) And this is sample shows an IP address represented in both binary and decimal. 1. but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network switch. is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain. The bit just to the left of that holds a value of 21. or most significant bit. So if all binary bits are a one. By definition. and traffic flow management. of an octet holds avalue of 20. The address is made up of 32 binary bits which can be divisible into a network portion and host portion with the help of a subnet mask. VLANs address issues such as scalability.00000001. The value in each octet ranges from 0 to 255 decimal.00010111.100). which holds a value of 27. 23. an IP address is said to be expressed in dotted decimal format (for example172. security. Each octet is converted to decimal and separated by a period (dot). To physically replicate the functions of a VLAN. Here is how binary octets convert to decimal: The right most bit. parallel collection of network cables and switches/hubs which are kept separate from the primary network. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN. or 00000000 − 11111111 binary. regardless of their physical location. VLANs must share bandwidth. The 32 binary bits are broken into four octets (1 octet = 8 bits). security. 10.81. or least significant bit. Routers in VLAN topologies provide broadcast filtering. it would be necessary to install a separate. However unlike a physically separate network. Understanding IP Addresses An IP address is an address used to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. 19 (decimal) 00001010. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices. and network management. address summarization. switches may not bridge IP traffic between VLANs as it would violate the integrity of the VLAN broadcast domain. commonly known as a VLAN. For this reason.00010011 (binary) Class Diagram .
0 .255. and C networks have default masks.255.0 Class C: 255.0.Network Masks A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node. B.0. also known as natural masks.0.0 Class B: 255. as shown here: Class A: 255. Class A.255.
A maximum of 16. with the highest order bit set to 0 (zero) and a 7-bit network number.294. A maximum of 2.0. Class B networks are now referred to as “/16s” since they have a 16-bit network prefix.Class A Networks Each Class A network address has an 8-bit network prefix. Class C networks are now referred to as “/24s” since they have a 24-bit network prefix.648) individual addresses and the IPv4 address space contains a maximum of 232 (4.073.741. it represents 25 percent of the total IPv4 unicast address space.0. Class B Networks Each Class B network address has a 16-bit network prefix.097.0.0/8) is reserved for the “loopback” function.967.824) addresses.0.0 (also written 127/8 or 127. followed by a 16-bit host number. The host calculation subtracts two because the all-0s (all zeros or “this network”) and all-1s (all ones or “broadcast”) host numbers may not be assigned to individual hosts.534 (216-2) hosts per network.777.0 is reserved for use as the default route and the /8 network 127.152 networks can be defined with up to 254 (28-2) hosts per network. A maximum of 126 (27 -2) /8 networks can be defined. .147. with the three highest order bits set to 1-1-0 and a 21-bit network number.384 networks can be defined with up to 65.0. Class A networks are referred to as “/8s” (pronounced “slash eight” or just “eights”) since they have an 8. with the two highest order bits set to 1-0 and a 14-bit network number. the /8 address space is 50 percent of the total IPv4 unicast address space. followed by an 8-bit host number. Today. The calculation subtracts two because the /8 network 0. Since the entire /16 address block contains 230 (1.483. followed by a 24-bit host number.214) hosts per network.0. Since the /8 address block contains (2.bit network prefix.296) addresses. Class C Networks Each Class C network address has a 24-bit network prefix. Each /8 supports a maximum of 224 -2 (16.
00001111.00000000. B. it represents 12. Each data link on this network would then have a unique network/subnetwork ID. Any address bits which have corresponding mask bits set to 1 represent the network ID.00001111.0 = 11111111. B.0.00000000 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− net id | host id netid = 00001000 = 8 hostid = 00010100.15. you are only able to use one network from your Class A.15.00010100.20.1 Understanding Subnetting Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A.0. 8. If you break a major network (Class A.20. which is unrealistic.1 = 00001000. If you do not subnet. Network Mask of Class A An IP address on a Class A network that has not been subnetted would have an address/mask pair similar to: 8. with every node on that link being a member of the same network.15. or C) into smaller subnetworks. In order to subnet a network. extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID. If you break a major network (Class A. 8. or C) into smaller subnetworks.1 255.0. then identifying the network and host ID is easier. Any device. connecting n networks/subnetworks has n distinct IP addresses. To see how the mask helps you identify the network and node parts of the address. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID. convert the address and mask to binary numbers. For example.5 percent (or oneeighth) of the total IPv4 unicast address space. or gateway. or C network. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID.870. B.00000000 Once you have the address and the mask represented in binary. one for each network / subnetwork that it interconnects.1 = 00001000. Any address bits that have corresponding mask bits set to 0 represent the node ID. it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks.00001111. or C network.0.20.00010100. or gateway.00000001 = 20.0.00000001 255.Since the entire /24 address block contains 229 (536. Any device.912) addresses. given a Class C .0 = 11111111. it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks.00000000.00000000. with every node on that link being a member of the same network. Each data link on this network would then have a unique network/subnetwork ID.15.00000000. B.0.0. connecting n networks/subnetworks has n distinct IP addresses.00000001 255. one for each network / subnetwork that it interconnects.
Yet.0/16.255. which is an IP address and some indication of the length of the mask.16.255. these subnets have been created.16. where each domain takes its IP addresses from a higher level.255.255.255.17. when advertising to other providers.00000000 255.32 255. Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Introduction .5.224 host address range 97 to 126 184.108.40.206.0 −−−−− 11001220.127.116.11. Class B.11111111.255. if an ISP owns network 172. For example. Class C.224 host address range 65 to 94 204. CIDR moves way from the traditional IP classes (Class A. an IP network is represented by a prefix.0.255.160 255.224 host address range 1 to 30 204. you have taken three bits (indicated by "sub") from the original host portion of the address and used them to make subnets. This allows for the summarization of the domains to be done at the higher level. you can create subnets in this manner: 18.104.22.168 255. the ISP only needs to advertise 172.64 255.17.0/24.11111111.0.17.network of 204.255. 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed (it is very important to remember this).224 host address range 225 to 254 CIDR Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) was introduced to improve both address space utilization and routing scalability in the Internet.0.00010001. and so on). 172.0/16. So.17.224 host address range 161 to 190 204.0. with this in mind. So network 172.17. then the ISP can offer 172.5.11100000 −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−|sub|−−−− By extending the mask to be 255.255.0/22.214.171.124.16.192 255.255.255.224 − 11111111. each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses.128 255. With these three bits.224 host address range 193 to 222 204.00000101.255.224 host address range 129 to 158 204. it is possible to create eight subnets.126.96.36.199.5.255.255. and so on to customers.2.255. In CIDR.0.0.224 255.17.17.5.0/24. 204. Length means the number of left−most contiguous mask bits that are set to one.0 255. With the remaining five host ID bits.255.0 which has a natural mask of 255. It was needed because of the rapid growth of the Internet and growth of the IP routing tables held in the Internet routers.188.8.131.52 255.17. CIDR also depicts a more hierarchical Internet architecture.224 host address range 33 to 62 204.0 can be represented as 172.17.255.
Fiber optic cables connect the headend or hub to optical nodes in a point-to-point or star topology. These taps pass the RF signal and block the AC power unless there are telephony devices that need the back-up power reliability provided by the coax power system. the downstream signal could be on a wavelength at 1310nm and the return signal could be on a wavelength at 1550nm. Depending on the design of the network. . Educational and/or Governmental (PEG) channels as required by local franchising authorities or insert targeted advertising that would appeal to a local area. the signal can then be passed through a splitter to multiple TVs. or in some cases. Radio frequency amplifiers are used at intervals to overcome cable attenuation and passive losses of the electrical signals caused by splitting or "tapping" the coaxial cable. The optical portion of the network provides a large amount of flexibility. The coaxial portion of the network connects 25 to 2000 homes (500 is typical) in a tree-and-branch configuration off of the node. The drop is then connected to the house where a ground block protects the system from stray voltages. wavelength division multiplexing can be utilised to combine multiple optical signals onto the same fiber. combined onto a single electrical signal and inserted into a broadband optical transmitter. smaller distribution cables are connected to a port of the trunk amplifier to carry the RF signal and the AC power down individual streets. It has been commonly employed globally by cable TV operators since the early 1990s. Trunk cables also carry AC power which is added to the cable line at usually either 60V or 90V by a power supply and a power inserter. A regional or area headend/hub will receive the video signal from the master headend and add to it the Public. This optical transmitter converts the electrical signal to a downstream optically modulated signal that is sent to the nodes. The distribution line is then "tapped" into and used to connect the individual drops to customer homes. The various services are encoded. and out to a neighbourhood's hubsite. and finally to a fiber optic node which serves anywhere from 25 to 2000 homes. A master headend will usually have satellite dishes for reception of distant video signals as well as IP aggregation routers. See diagram below for a typical architecture for an HFC Network. sometimes to regional headends. line extenders. For example. If there are not many fiber optic cables to the node. modulated and upconverted onto RF carriers.Hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network which combines optical fiber and coaxial cable. then the picture quality of all the TVs in the house will go down requiring the use of a "drop" or "house" amplifier. The power is added to the cable line so that trunk and distribution amplifiers do not need an individual. Trunk coaxial cables are connected to the optical node and form a coaxial backbone to which smaller distribution cables connect. in a protected ring topology. Optical filters are used to combine and split optical wavelengths onto the single fiber. external power source. There are also techniques to put multiple downstream and upstream signals on a single fiber by putting them at different wavelengths. If needed. The tap terminates into a small coaxial drop using a standard screw type connector known as an “F” connector. which are smaller distribution amplifiers. boost the signals to keep the power of the television signal at a level that the TV can accept. The fiber optic network extends from the cable operators' master headend. If too many TVs are connected. Some master headends also house telephony equipment for providing telecommunications services to the community. From the trunk cables.
Video on demand. etc. The HFC network can be operated bi-directionally. As detailed above.Transport over HFC network By using frequency division multiplexing. Architecture . an HFC network may carry a variety of services.. The return-path or upstream signals carry information from the home to the headend/hub office. such as video content. much more of the frequency band is dedicated to the forwardpath than the return-path. telephony. meaning that one direction has much more datacarrying capacity than the other direction. Years ago. and from the home to the headend/hub office. voice and internet data. Other countries use different band sizes. meaning that signals are carried in both directions on the same network from the headend/hub office to the home. Traditionally much more information is sent in the forwardpath due to video content only needing to be sent to the home. In order to prevent interference of signals. and high-speed data. such as internet data and telephony. The forward-path or downstream signals carry information from the headend/hub office to the home. digital TV (SDTV or HDTV). which required very little bandwidth. the sections are 52 MHz to 1000 MHz for forward-path signals. such as control signals to order a movie or internet data to send an email. As additional services have been added to the HFC network. the return-path is being utilised more. In countries that have traditionally used NTSC System M. the return-path was only used for some control signals to order movies. but are similar in that there is much more bandwidth for downstream communication instead of upstream communication. the frequency band is divided into two sections. so the HFC network is structured to be non-symmetrical. The forward-path and the return-path are actually carried over the same coaxial cable in both directions between the optical node and the home. including analogue TV. and 5 MHz to 42 MHz for return-path signals. Services on these systems are carried on Radio Frequency (RF) signals in the 5 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency band.
It may have interfaces to connect to traditional PSTN networks like DS1 or DS3 ports (E1 or STM1 in the case of non-US networks). Circuit switched networks rely on dedicated facilities for inter-connection and are designed primarily for voice communications. A Call Agent may control several different Media Gateways in geographically dispersed areas over a TCP/IP link. however. he Call Agent takes care of functions including billing.Softswitch A softswitch is a central device in a telecommunications network which connects telephone calls from one phone line to another. with physical switchboards to route the calls. signalling. it may have interfaces to connect to ATM and IP networks and in the modern system will have Ethernet interfaces to connect VoIP calls. call routing. call services and so on and is the 'brains' of the outfit. hardware and software is not independent. entirely by means of software running on a computer system. Softswitch is the concept of separating the network hardware from network software. The call agent will . A single device containing both the switching logic and the switching fabric can be used for this purpose. A softswitch is typically used to control connections at the junction point between circuit and packet networks. This work was formerly carried out by hardware. In traditional circuit switched networks. The Media Gateway connects different types of digital media stream together to create an end-to-end path for the media (voice and data) in the call. The more efficient packet based networks use the Internet Protocol (IP) to efficiently route voice and data over diverse routes and shared facilities. modern technology has led to a preference for decomposing this device into a Call Agent and a Media Gateway.
and may call upon the media server to provide these services. the Media Gateway may be connected to several access devices. and all sorts of media such as video) by encapsulating these into packets. The softswitch generally resides in a building owned by the telephone company called a central office. Next generation networking (NGN) is a broad term to describe key architectural evolutions in telecommunication core and access networks that will be deployed over the next 5–10 years. The central office will have telephone trunks to carry calls to other offices owned by the telecommunication company and to other telecommunication companies (aka the Public Switched Telephone Network or PSTN). .instruct the media gateway to connect media streams between these interfaces to connect the call . is the functional component that provides call-related features. The general idea behind NGN is that one network transports all information and services (voice. Feature server as a part of softswitch The feature server. and last call return. data. The feature server works closely with the call agent. NGNs are commonly built around the Internet Protocol. Capabilities such as call forwarding. often built into a call agent/softswitch. and therefore the term "all-IP" is also sometimes used to describe the transformation toward NGN. Next Generation Network A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet based network able to provide Telecommunication services in which service related functions are independent from underlying transport technologies. like it is on the Internet. These access devices can range from small Analog Telephone Adaptors (ATA) which provide just one RJ11 telephone jack to an Integrated Access Device (IAD) or PBX which may provide several hundred telephone connections. if implemented in the network. Looking towards the end users from the switch.all transparently to the end-users. are implemented in the feature server. call waiting. These features do not require the subscriber to explicitly request them but tend to be triggered within the call handling logic.
many of the largest carriers use H.25. There is ongoing standardization to provide integration and interoperability of IP-based and PSTN network services and applications.323. In the wired access network. PC. It implies amongst others the migration of voice from a circuit-switched architecture (PSTN) to VoIP. data.323 as the protocol of choice in their core backbones. as part of the evolution from TDM circuit switched voice of today. most of the telcos are extensively . To support NGN. Next Generation Networks are based on Internet technologies including Internet Protocol (IP) and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). At the application level. NGN implies a consolidation of several (dedicated or overlay) transport networks each historically built for a different service into one core transport network (often based on IP and Ethernet). Nonetheless. there is a more defined separation between the transport (connectivity) portion of the network and the services that run on top of that transport. billing. From a practical perspective. making it possible to remove the voice switching infrastructure from the exchange In cable access network. SIP has been more widely adopted. NGN is commonly associated with voice (a vision for the future of packet-based voice networks). Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) seems to be taking over from ITU-T H.NGN is a brand new network integrating voice. The telephone network (both fixed + mobile) and the Internet are likely to converge into what some people refer to as “Next Generation Networks” or “NGN”. However in voice networks where everything is under the control of the network operator or telco. they can do so by defining it directly at the service layer without considering the transport layer .323 is like the "fiber backbone". This means that whenever a provider wants to enable a new service. tend to be independent of the access network (de-layering of network and applications) and will reside more on end-user devices (phone. For this reason as domestic VoIP services have been developed. opening up the possibility that H. set-top box). NGN implies the migration from the dual system of legacy voice next to xDSL setup in local exchanges to a converged setup in which the DSLAMs integrate voice ports or VoIP. In an NGN. NGN convergence implies migration of constant bit rate voice to CableLabs PacketCable standards that provide VoIP and SIP services. and also migration of legacy services such as X. it is now possible for H. Frame Relay (either commercial migration of the customer to a new service like IP VPN.i. With the most recent changes introduced for H. It is an open and integrated network architecture which includes interfaces to support management functions such as service provisioning. or technical emigration by emulation of the "legacy service" on the NGN).323 was the most popular protocol.323 may again be looked upon more favorably in cases where such devices encumbered its use previously. NGN involves three main architectural changes that need to be looked at separately: • • • In the core network.323. including voice. though its popularity decreased in the "local loop" due to its original poor traversal of Network address translation (NAT) and firewalls.323 devices to easily and consistently traverse NAT and firewall devices. So really SIP is a useful tool for the "local loop" and H. and video services. services are independent of transport details. fault removal etc.e. Increasingly applications. Initially H. Both services ride over DOCSIS as the cable data layer standard. fax.
As soon as this kind of device started using the Media Gateway Control Protocol. Control layer is separated from transport layer to provide all types of emerging multimedia services and to keep at the same time existing services provided by ATM. It enables correct integration of different protocols within NGN. Data Services Transported through a multi service Packet Networks: To become capable of integrating a variety of data services which today run on IP. 3. 2. The most important function of the Softswitch is creating the interface to the existing telephone network. NGN Characteristics • Packet-based transfer . Operators are shifting onto NGN taking into account the following 1. which in turn reduces the operating cost drastically. the name was changed to Media Gateway Controller (MGC). SS7) to the packet-based one (IP). ATM. PSTN. thus reducing operating cost. which converted (using gateways) voice and data from their analog or digital switched-circuit form (PSTN. For voice applications one of the most important devices in NGN is a Softswitch a programmable device that controls Voice over IP (VoIP) calls. This was originally a VoIP device. Consolidated Control and Reduced Operating Cost: NGN is a centrally managed network.researching and supporting IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). FR. A Call Agent is a general name for devices/systems controlling calls. Moreover all new services can be managed centrally as the same are provision from one platform using less resources. the Softswitch as a term may be defined differently by the different equipment manufacturers and have somewhat different functions. Consolidation of Different Overlay Networks: To utilize the existing Circuit switch networks instead of dismantling them. However. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardized NGN architecture for an Internet media-services capability defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). One may quite often find the term Gatekeeper in NGN literature. which gives SIP a major chance of being the most widely adopted protocol. It controlled one or more gateways. Benefits of Migration onto NGN One Integrated network for voice and data. IP/LPMS bases services. through Signalling Gateways and Media Gateways. Horizontally integrated layer on common transport layer based on packet technology which can be shared by different services.
• • • Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces generalized mobility Unrestricted access by users to different service providers Architecture NGN Network Architecture .
Interoperabilty across networks to allow to carry end to end services for flows in different network domains Network Elements Packet based networks .Operational Elements Business continuity required to maintain ongoing dominant services and customers that require carrier-grade service Flexibility to incorporate existing new services and react quickly to the ones that appear on real time (main advantage of IP mode) Profitability to allow feasible return on investments and in the best practices market values Survivability to allow service assurance in case of failures and external unexpected events Quality of Service to guarantee the Service Level Agreements for different traffic mixes. conditions and overload.
defined by ITU-T. and the media gateway controller managing it H. keep. SDH. Converts TDM circuits/ trunks (64kbps) flows into data packets.• • Trend is to use IP based networks over various transport possibilities (ATM. and vice versa Softswitch/MGC • • • • Referred to as the Call Agent or Media Gateway Controller (MGC). maintenance and termination from packet mode terminals. .248/MEGACO allows to set up.248 Protocol • • Known also as MEGACO: standard protocol. H. and terminate calls between multiple endpoints as between telephone subscribers using the TDM SIP • Session Initiation Protocol in order to handle call establishment.g. media server. WDM…) IP based networks must offer guarantees of Quality of Service (QoS) regarding the real time characteristics of voice. video and multimedia Access Gateways • • • Allows the connection of subscriber lines to the packet network Converts the traffic flows of analogue access (Pots) or 2 Mb/s access devices into packets Provides subscriber access to NGN network and services Trunking Gateways • • Allows interworking between classical TDM telephony network and Packet-based NGN networks. Provides the “service delivery control” within the network in charge of Call Control and handling of Media Gateways control (Access And/or Trunking) via H.248 protocol Performs signalling gateway functionality or uses a signalling gateway for Interworking with PSTN N7 signalling network Provides connection to Intelligent Network /applications servers to offer the same services as those available to TDM subscribers Application Server (AS): • • A unit that supports service execution. message server). e.g. to control Call Servers and NGN special resources (e. for signalling and session management needed during a communication between a media gateway.
164 number and DNS" IETF).164 ) and the network addresses related to the packet mode networks ( RFC 2916 "E. STP in SS7). CAC • Call Acceptance Control function in order to accept/reject traffic in the network that allows guarantee of QoS for services with a Service Level Agreement BGP • Border Gateway Protocol to negotiate flow routing procedures and capacities across different NGN network domains CAPACITY OF NGN MEDIA GATEWAYS MEDIA GATEWAY UNIVERSAL MEDIA GATEWAY ACCESS GATEWAY MAXIMUM CAPACITY 256 E1s 5000 Subscribers NGN Development . MPLS • Multiprotocol Label Switch or protocol that assigns labels to information packets in order to allow the node routers to treat and route flows in the network paths according to established priority for each category.Signalling Gateway (SG): • A unit that provides signalling conversion between the NGN and the other networks (e.g. ENUM • Electronic NUMbering: Protocol that allows to establish a correspondance between the traditional telephone numbering (E.
Why Selecting NGN Networks There are many factors involved in the selection of NGN Networks which are as follows Factors such as: • • • • • • Lower port cost Open platform Reduced space and power requirements New revenue streams Improved competitive position Lower operating costs .
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