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Prepared by





1) Introduction 1.1) Benefits of Programmable Logic Controllers

2) Architecture of PLC 3) Programming with PLC 3.1) Structure of the Ladder Diagram 3.2) Comparison between Relay Logic and Ladder Logic 3.3) Implementation of Boolean Expressions using Ladder Logic. 3.4) Programmable Logic Controller Timers. 3.5) Programmable Logic Controller Counters 4) Case Studies 4.1) Automatic Pump on/Off 4.2) Sequential Motor Operation Using Timers 4.3) Sequential Motor Operation Using Compare Instructions 4.4) Real Time Clock 4.5) Annunciator 4.6) Automatic Load Shedding.


This is to certify that Mr. Himanish Gupta has successfully completed his training on PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) by submitting the project report, and his performance was found to be satisfactory, during the period of training.

Signature of Organization:


The development of microprocessors brought a great revolution in the field of computing. Microprocessors form the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer that is capable of performing arithmetic and logical functions defined by a given program. The CPU receives the data from the input devices like the keyboard and the mouse, in the form of binary signals and stores the data for further processing. It performs the arithmetic and logical operations on the input data in accordance with the previously stored instructions (programs), and delivers the results to the user via the output devices like the monitor and the printer. Along with the development of the microprocessors, Control Engineering has also evolved with time. In the past humans was the principle method of controlling a system. Later electrical control was introduced where it was mainly based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. They were used to make the simplest Logical and Control Decisions. The recent development of the low cost computer has brought forth the recent technological miracle the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970 s and since then has begun the most common choice for the control operations. Early machines were mainly controlled by mechanical means such as cams, levers, gears and other basic mechanical devices. As complexity grew so did the need for a sophisticated control system. So the electrical relays came into play. These elements were wired as required to provide control logic necessary for the particular type of machine operation. This was an acceptable system for a machine which did not required to be changed or modified. But as the manufacturing techniques improved the plant changeover to new products became more desirable and necessary. A constant demand for better and more efficient manufacturing and process machinery has led to the requirement for higher quality and reliability in control techniques. With the availability of intelligent, compact solid state electronic devices, it has been possible to provide control systems that can reduce maintenance, down time and improve productivity to a great extend. By installing efficient and user friendly industrial electronics systems for manufacturing machinery or processors, one can obtain a precise, reliable and prolific means for generating quality products. Considering the varied demand and increasing competition, one has to provide for flexible manufacturing process. One of the latest techniques in solid state controls that offers flexible and efficient operation to the user is PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS . The basic idea behind these programmable controllers was to provide means to eliminate high cost associated with inflexible, conventional relay controlled systems. Programmable controllers offer a system with computer flexibility. The PLC that was developed during this time was not very easy to program. The language was cumbersome to write, requiring highly skilled programmers. These early PLCs were merely relay replacements and could do very less. The at first gradually and then rapidly developed into an sophisticated and highly versatile control system components. Units today are capable of performing

5 complex mathematical functions and are capable of the performing complex mathematical functions like numerical integration and differentiations and operate at a fast microprocessor speeds that are available. Older PLCs were capable of handling discrete inputs and outputs (i.e. ON-OFF type signals), while today s system can accept analog voltages and current and as well as a wide range of voltage levels and pulsed signals. PLCs are also designed to be rugged. Unlike their personal computers they can typically withstand vibration, shock, elevated temperatures and electrical noise to which the manufacturing equipment is exposed.

1.1) Benefits Of Programmable Logic Controllers

y Programmable controllers are made of solid state components and hence provide high reliability. They are flexible and changes in sequence of operation can easily be incorporated due to programmability. They may be modular in nature and thus expandability and easy installation is possible. Use of PLC results in appreciable savings in Hardware and wiring cost. They are compact and occupy less space. Eliminate hardware items like Timers, counters and Auxiliary relays. The presence for timers and counters has easy accessibility. PLC can control a variety of devices and eliminates the need for customized controls.

y y y

As more manufacturers become involved in the PLC production and development, and PLC capabilities expand, the programming language is also expending. Also manufacturers also tend to develop their own versions of the ladder logic. Then the system designers settle on a particular PLC, which is personally comfortable to program.

What is a PLC?
A Programmable controller is a solid state user programmable control system with functions to control logic, sequencing, timing, arithmetic data manipulation and counting capabilities. It can be viewed as an industrial computer that has a central processor unit, memory, input output interface and a programming device. The central processing unit provides the intelligence of the controller. It accepts data, status information from various sensing devices like limit switches, proximity switches, executes the user control program store in the memory and gives appropriate output commands to devices like solenoid valves, switches etc. Input output interface is the communication link between field devices and the controllers; field devices are wired to the I/O interfaces. Through these interfaces the processor can sense and measure physical quantities regarding a machine or process, such as, proximity, position, motion, level, temperature, pressure, etc. Based on status sensed, the CPU issues command to output devices such as valves, motors, alarms, etc. Programmer unit provides the man machine interface. It is used to enter the application program, which often uses a simple user-friendly logic. According to NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, USA), the definition of PLCs is A Digital Electronic device that uses a programmable memory to store instructions and to implement specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control machines and process. A Programmable Logic Controller by any company has all of the following functional units: y y y y y Processor (Logic Server) Memory Unit Input / Output (I/O) Program Loader Power Supply

1) Processor
The subsection of the processor that actually performs the program execution will be called the central processing unit (CPU) with reference to input and output vector table CPU executes the user program and continuously updates the output vector table. The output vector table has a dual nature; its first function is to receive immediate information from the CPU and pass if on to the output modules of the I/O section; but secondly, it also must be capable of passing output information backward to the CPU, when the user program instruction that the CPU is working on calls for an item of output information. The input image table does not have its dual nature.

7 Its single mission is to acquire information from the input modules and pass that information forward to the CPU when the instruction that the CPU is working on calls for an item of input information.

2) Input/Output Modules
Inputs are defined as real-world signals giving the controller real- time status of the process variables. These signals can be analog or digital, low or high frequency, maintained or momentary. Typically, they are presented to the Programmable Controller as a varying voltage, current and resistance value. Signals from thermocouples and RTD are some common examples of analog signals. Some flow meters and strain gauges provide variable frequency signals, while push buttons, limit switches and the electromechanical relay are some examples of digital closure type signals. The register input is another type of input signal that reflects the computer nature of the programmable controller. There are three common categories of output: discrete, register and analog. Discrete outputs can be pilot lights, solenoid valves, or annunciator windows. Register outputs can drive panel meters or displays. Analog signals can drive signals to variable speed drives or to current ot pressure converters and thus to control valves. The I/O section contains input modules and output modules. Functionally, the input modules are equivalent to the signal converters (i.e. Analog to Digital or high power to low power). All modern PLC input modules use optical devices to accomplish electrically isolated coupling between the input circuit and the processor electronics. Each input device is wired to a particular input terminal on the I/O section. Thus if the switch is closed, 5v dc appears on input terminal, converts this dc voltage to a digital 1 and sends it to the processor via programmable peripheral interface (PPI). Conversely, if the switch is open, no dc voltage appears on input terminal. Input section will respond to this condition by sending a digital 0 to the processor. The other input terminals behave identically.

3) Memory Unit
The memory unit of PLC serves several functions. It is the library where the application program is stored. It is also where the PLCs executable program is stored. An executable program serves as the operating system of the PLC. It is the program that interprets, manages the user s application program. Finally the memory unit is the part of the programmable controller, where the process data from the input modules and the control data from the output modules are temporarily stored as data tables. Typically, an image of this data tables is used by the processor and, when appropriate sent to the data tables.

4) Program Loader
The program loader allows the engineer or technician to enter and edit the program to be executed. In its simplest form it can be a hand held device with keypad for program entry and a display device (LED or LCD) for viewing the program steps or functions. PLC manufacturers are now providing a separate personal computer which allows the programmer to write, view and edit the program and download it into the PLC. This is accomplished by proprietary software available from the PLC manufacturer. This software also allows the programmer or the engineer to monitor the PLC when it is running a program. With this monitoring system, such things as internal coils, registers, timers, and other items which are not visible externally can be monitored to determine proper operation. This feature of the program loader is to debug the existing program of errors. Communication is done via a cable connected to a special programming port on the controller. Connection to the personal computer is mainly through the serial port or through a dedicated card installed in the computers. Here in Ardent PLC manufacturer is Honeywell. Here this company provided a personal computer in order to load the program to the PLC. A software named Soft Master is mainly used for the interfacing the PLC with the computer. The PLC kit is connected to the serial port. The steps of executing a program is given below:y y y y y y Online Online Connection Setting Connect Select RS232C

After that we get a pop up window showing whether the connection has been established. Online Online Write Ok (Program is written in the PLC memory)

Change Mode (From Stop to Run Mode)

Monitor Start Monitoring (For viewing the outputs and the status of the various limit switches and the output ports)

5) Power Supply
The power supply unit drives the I/O logic signals, the central processing units, the memory unit and some peripheral devices. The power supply unit converts power line voltage to those required by the solid state components. The power supply unit is 24V

Scan Time of PLC

As long as the PLC is left in the RUN mode, the processor executes the user program over and over again. Figure depicts the entire repetitive series of events. Beginning at the top of the circle representing the scan cycle, the first operation is the input scan. During the input scan, the current status of every input module is stored in the input image table, bringing it up to date. Following the input scan, the processor enters its user program execution. Sometimes called program scan . The program executes with reference to input and output image tables and updates output image table. Throughout the user program execution, the processor continuously keeps its output image table up to date, as stated earlier. However, the output modules themselves are not kept continuously up to date. Instead, the entire output image table is transferred to the output module during the output scan following the program execution. The scan time of the PLC is the sum of the time taken for input to enter the input vector table, time taken for program execution and output being sent to the output vector table and finally to the output contacts. The schematic is shown below.


Input Vector Table


Output Vector Table


Operation of the PLC

The function of the operating system is to present the user with the equivalent of an extended machine or virtual machine that is easier to program than the underlying hardware. Due to this operating system, PLC is very easy to program. It can be programmed using electrical schemes with familiar relay symbols so that a plant electrician can easily access the PLC. Even though he does not know the assembly language or even if he may not have any familiarity with computers and electronics, he will be able to program the PLC. The function of PLC Operating system is: 1. Loads the user program from programming device to program memory. 2. To read status of input devices. 3. To execute user program. 4. To form and update input image table. 5. As per the status of output image table controls the output devices. 6. To provide user-friendly functions. When the user completely enters his program in user memory, he transfers control from STOP mode to RUN mode. In RUN mode the control of the whole system is transferred to operating system. Now operating system takes care of the whole system such that the whole system becomes automatic and appears as magic to users.


Type of PLC
There are two kinds of PLC. The modular PLC and the rack type PLC. There are given in detail below:

1) MODULAR TYPE PLC: In the modular type of PLC all the parts i.e. Processor, memory, input/output modules are accommodated in the singular module. Input and output terminals are limited in modular type PLC and there is no provision to increase the input, output terminals. For example the PLC used by had only eight inputs and one common terminal. This arrangement is also the same for the output terminals. The rack type PLC is much smaller and cheaper than the rack type PLC.


Rack type PLC consists of separate processing module, Input and output Modules. These modules are mounted on a motherboard like board, on which separate slots are allotted for the processor, input modules and output modules as shown. The number of terminals for an I/O module is fixed but one can mount multiple I/O card in the I/O slots to increase the terminal numbers. A rack type PLC is often large and can hold multiple cards. When necessary multiple numbers of racks can be connected together. For example we can add a certain number of I/O terminals in addition to the given terminals. The rack type PLC is of higher cost and it is also the most flexible and easy to maintain.



User Software
This is the software that the control engineer writes and stores the program in the user memory in order to perform the required control over the machine process. This user software can contain both configuration data and language program.

Configuration Data
The configuration data contains information that tells the processor what its environment is and how it should execute the language program. The configuration process typically consists of y y y y Assigning I/O points to particular I/O racks, Telling the processor how much memory and I/O it has, Assigning specific memory for tasks, Assigning many other items for the program loader.

Language Program
The modern PLC is required to do more in terms operator interfacing, communications, data accusation and supervisory control. There are different types of languages used for PLC programming, such as LADDER Language, Boolean Language, High-Level Language, State language, etc. Among these the Ladder Language is still the primary language of the PLC. This is because the Ladder Language has the following advantages: y y y y It is readily understood and maintained by skilled workers who are familiar with relay logic. It provides graphic display of the program execution by showing the power flow through the ladder diagram, thereby providing a higher debugging facility. Program is sufficiently fast. It generates more readable program for sequence control.

Program Loader
The primary importance to programming goes to the program loader. It provides an environment for entering the program. Actually the major portion of the time spent in programming and debugging a PLC is spent to interact with the program loader. A program loader has the following features. y It provides an environment for entering programs.

12 y y y y y It contains sophisticated debugging tools that will reduce the time taken for eliminating errors from the program. It provides an environment for monitoring program execution in real time. It generally provides displays that show power low through the relay ladder diagram. It allows the user to obtain hard copies of the program. It allows the user to get cross references of variable usage, enter comments on the program and defines name for all variables.

There are usually two types of the program loaders, namely the hand held program loader and the computer based program loaders. The hand held loaders are small but cheap that typically use keyboards and LED displays. While on the other hand in the computer based program loaders use a personal computer running in MS-DOS or Windows operating system as a means to upload the program in the PLC memory. In this type of loaders the manufacturers provide loader software that enables the communications between the user and the PLC.

3.1) Structure of the Ladder Diagram

The first PLCs were programmed with a technique that was based on relay logic wiring schematics. This eliminated the need to teach the electricians, technicians and the engineers to how to program a computer. But now a days the ladder logic is preferred than the relay logic because it is more flexible and cheap. An example of ladder logic is given below.

Now in order to interpret this diagram we have to imagine say that the power is on vertical line on the left hand side called the left bus rail. On the other side the vertical line is called the right bus rail. In this given figure the left bus rail and the right bus rail are clearly depicted. The line connecting the left bus rail and the right bus rail is called the rung. On the rung we have an input contact and an output contact. If the input contact is made the power will flow from the left bus rail to the right bus rail. An input may automatically come from a sensor or from any switching device. The output of this device mainly depends in the input signal. If there is an input signal output will be obtained.

13 There are two types of input contact namely the normally closed and the normally open contact. Their related diagrams are shown below.

All the possible logics of the Programmable Logic Controller are formulated using the ladder logic owing to its convenience and simplicity.

This diagram shows the output contact that is mainly used in the ladder logic. These contacts in case of modular PLC are connected either to the LEDs for output indications or connected to the various operating devices which controls the operations.


3.2) Comparison between Relay Logic and Ladder Logic

Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans was the main method of controlling a system. More recently electricity has been use for control and early electrical controls were based on relays. Theses relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logic control decisions. The development of the low cost computers has brought the most recent evolution in the field control and automation, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). The PLC was introduced in the 1970s and since then is being widely used as the main device for automation and control. The main advantages of PLC are:      Cost effective for controlling complex systems. Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control. Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime. Reliable components make this likely to operate for years before failure.

Ladder logic is the main programming method for programming the PLC. The main advantage of the ladder logic over the relay logic is that it can be reprogrammed in case of the change of logic or due to change of the operational procedures. But in case of relay logic in order to change the control procedures we have to rewire the relays in order to implement the new logic.

3.3) Implementation of Boolean Expressions Using Ladder Logic

The process of converting control objectives into a ladder logic program requires structured thought. Boolean algebra provides the tools needed to analyze and design these systems. Boolean algebra was developed in 1880s by James Bool. It was found extremely useful for designing digital circuits and is still heavily used by electrical engineers and computer scientists. The techniques can model a logical system with a single equation. Boolean equations consist of variables and operations and look very similar to normal algebraic equations. Three basic operators are AND, OR, and NOT. However there are more complex operators like XOR (Exclusive OR), NAND (Not AND), NOT (Not OR). The Boolean equation form can be simplified or rearranged to form ladder logic, or a circuit. They are explained in detail below.


AND Logic
The Boolean Expression for AND logic is Qo=Io.I1. This logic can be implemented using ladder diagram as given below.

Here Io and I1 are two normally open input contacts and Qo is an output contact. Its corresponding truth table is given below.

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

OR logic
The Boolean expression for OR logic is Qo= Io+I1. The implementation of this logic using ladder diagram is given below.

Here Io and I1 are normally open input contacts and Qo is the output contact. The corresponding truth table of the OR logic is shown below.

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1


NOT Logic
The Boolean expression for NOT Logic is given by Qo= (Io ) . The implementation of this logic using ladder diagram is shown below.

Here Io is a normally closed contact and Qo is generally an input contact. Its corresponding truth table is shown below.

0 1

1 0

Exclusive OR(X-OR) Logic

X-OR means exclusive OR. The Boolean expression of X-OR is given by Qo= Io.(I1) + I1.(Io) . The implementation of this logic using Ladder diagram is given below.

Here two inputs Io and I1 are used as both normally open and normally closed contact. Qo is output contact. Its truth table is given below.

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0


3.4) Programmable Logic Controllers Timers

More complex systems cannot be controlled with combinational logic alone. The main reason for this is that we cannot, or choose not to add sensors to detect all conditions. In these cases we can use events used by PLC include first scan of the PLC.

Classification of PLC Timers

Normal PLC timers are of mainly two types they are on-delay timers and of-delay timers. An on-delay timer will wait for a set time after a ladder logic have been true before turning on, but will turn off immediately. In case of the off delay timer will turn on immediately but will delay before turning off. Another classification of the timer is retentive type and non retentive type timer. A retentive type timer will remember the count value even if the timer is turned off, and it will start counting from that previous stop point. A non-retentive type of timer will start timing the delay from zero every time it is switched off. These timers are represented as TON (On-Delay Timer), TOFF (Off-Delay timer) and retentive type timer known as TMR.

Parameters of a Timer
Timers have three parameters Time base, Preset Value and Accumulated Value  Time Base: It is base time of a timer. It is mainly the time after which the timer value will increase by one. It is mainly denoted by (T.B).  Preset Value: It is the total number of cycles the timer will undergo before it finally turns off or turns on. It is mainly denoted by (P.V).  Accumulated Value: It stores the current time value of the timer. It shows us how time is covered by the timer. Let us consider an example. We take an on-delay timer (TON) it has a time base of 0.1sec and a preset value of 100. This means that the actual time delay is 10 sec. Hence we can say that the total time delay Total Time Delay = Time Base * Preset Value The accumulator value is initially zero. After it is switched on it increases itself till it reaches 100. It shows that the time delay is over.

In this figure we can see a retentive type of timer which has a tag name T1 and preset value 5.


3.5) Programmable Logic Controllers Counters

The counter counts the rising edges of the pulses, driving its input signal and counts once only when the input signal is switched from off to on. There are two basic counter types they are up-counter ad downcounter. When the input to the up-counter goes true the accumulator value will increase by 1. If the accumulator value reaches the pre-set value the counter DN bit will be set. The down counter will gradually decrease the accumulator value until the pre-set value is reached.

Types of Counters
There are 4 counter instructions such as CTU, CTD, CTDU and CTR. Some brief information about these counter operations are given below:


Up Counter (CTU) increases the current value. Down Counter (CTD) decreases the current value. Up/Down Counter (CTUD) compares the input value from both counters input. Ring Counter Increases the current value and the current value is cleared as 0 when the current value reaches the pre-set value.

UP Counter (CTU)
The up counter increases the current value at the rising edges of the input. The controller output contact is turned on when the current value reaches the pre-set value. When the reset input is turned on, the counter output contact is turned off.

Down Counter (CTD)

The down counter decreases the current value at the rising edges of the input. The output contact is turned on when the current value reaches the pre-set value. When the reset input is turned on, the counter output contact is turned off.

Up/Down Counter (CTUD)

The current value is increased with the rising-edge of the up-count input signal, and decreased with the rising edge of the down-count input signal. The counter output contact is turned on when the current value is same or more than the pre-set value. The counter output contact is turned off when the current value is same or less than the pre-set value.


4) Case Studies
Various automatic processes were studied using PLC. Various problems were worked out and debugged and was applied. Various experiments were also conducted on the modular PLC training kit. The PLC we used for conducting our experiments were manufactured by Honeywell and its model number is RC232C. This PLC kit was used in combination with a personal computer and the PLC kit was connected to the serial port or the com port of the computer. The software was used as an operating interface of the PLC which was provided by the company itself. This software known as Soft Master was used to write the ladder logic oriented programs in the PLC memory and to monitor the mode of operations of the PLC. Some of the case studies that were discussed are shown below.

4.1) Automatic Pump ON/Off

Let us consider a tank which has two sensors connected in their upper level and lower level. Let Ls1 and Ls2 be two such sensors. This tank has an inlet flow of water which is connected to a pump and also an outlet flow. Pump will start when the water level falls below the Ls1 and will stop when the water level exceeds Ls2. Solution
Let us consider Ls1 and Ls2 which are two level switches as Po and P1 which are two input contacts of the PLC. Now for this problem the following observations are made: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Level < L1 L1 < Level < L2 Level <=L2 L1 < Level <L2 Level < L1 PUMP is ON PUMP is ON PUMP is OFF PUMP is OFF PUMP is ON

These above observations occur sequentially and they are responsible for automatic operation of the PUMP. The logical ladder diagram is shown below.


Here P1 and P0 are normally closed contacts and P20 is the PUMP output. Now in this problem we are assuming that Ls1 = P0 and Ls2 = P1 Pump output is assumed to be P20. The following steps will explain the working of the PLC in detail: 1) 2) 3) 4) (Level < L1), P0 = 0, P1 = 0 and hence P20 = 1. So the PUMP is ON. (L1 < Level < L2), P0 = 1, P1 = 0 and hence P20 = 1. So the PUMP is ON. (Level <= L2), P0 = 0, P1 = 0 and hence P20 = 0. So the PUMP is OFF. (L1< Level < L2), P0 = 1, P1 = 0 and hence P20 = 0.The PUMP remains OFF.

After the water Level Falls below L1 again this cycle repeats.

4.2) Sequential Motor Operations by Using Timers

Draw the ladder diagram to fulfill the following sequences. Motor 1 (P20) starts as soon as start switch is on, where start switch is P0. After 10 sec, Motor 1 stops and Motor 2 (P21) starts. After 5 seconds Motor 2 stops and Motor 3 (P22) starts. Again after 10 seconds Motor 3 stops and again Motor 1 starts. Solution:
In this problem we provide timed sequential operation of the three motors. Let us consider, System Start be P0 and System Stop be P1 The outputs are operations of motors 1, 2, 3 for contacts P20, P21, P22 respectively. MOTOR 1 = P20 MOTOR 2 = P21 MOTOR 3 = P22 The following steps are followed during the time of sequential motor on and off. They are given below: 1) When P0=1 the Motor 1 readily starts (P20). 2) After 10 seconds the Motor 1 (P20) stops and Motor 2 starts (P21). 3) After 5 seconds Motor 2 (P21) stops and Motor 3 starts (P22).

21 4) Again after 10 seconds Motor 3 (P22) stops and gain Motor 1 starts (P20). The corresponding Ladder Diagram is given below:

Here P0 is the start switch which starts the Motor 1 (P20). It is a normally open contact which when zero is off and when one the Motor is on. Here P1 is a normally closed contact which acts as a stops switch. Its main operation is to stop the sequential operation. When this contact P1=0 then the contact is made and operation occurs. But when this input turns to on the normally closed contact will be open and the operation will stop. So when the input contact P0 switched on the Motor 1 (P20) readily starts its operation. Now using the status of the Motor 1 output P20 we use a retentive type timer with tag name T0 to count 10 seconds. After 10 seconds the Motor 2 is switched on by the timer T0 and at the same time T0 switches off the Motor 1. Similarly after 5 seconds Motor 2 is switched off by another retentive timer T1 and Motor 3 is switched on. And after 10 seconds a on delay timer resets the retentive type timer. If one needs to stop the operation the stop button should be pressed.


4.3) Sequential Motor Operation by Using Compare Instructions

Draw the ladder diagram to fulfill the following sequences. Motor 1 (P20) starts as soon as start switch is on, where start switch is P0. After 10 sec, Motor 1 stops and Motor 2 (P21) starts. After 5 seconds Motor 2 stops and Motor 3 (P22) starts. Again after 10 seconds Motor 3 stops and again Motor 2 starts. Then after 5 seconds Motor 2 stops and Motor 1 starts. Solution:

In this problem we provide timed sequential operation of the three motors. Let us consider, System Start be P1 The outputs are operations of motors 1, 2, 3 for contacts P20, P21, P22 respectively. MOTOR 1 = P20 MOTOR 2 = P21 MOTOR 3 = P22

The following steps are followed during the time of sequential motor on and off. They are given below: 1) When P0=1 the Motor 1 readily starts (P20). 2) After 10 seconds the Motor 1 (P20) stops and Motor 2 starts (P21). 3) After 5 seconds Motor 2 (P21) stops and Motor 3 starts (P22). 4) Again after 10 seconds Motor 3 (P22) stops and gain Motor 2 starts (P21). 5) After 5 seconds Motor 2 stops (P21) and Motor 1(P20) starts.

The corresponding Ladder Diagram is given below:


In this problem P1 is the start switch. If it is switched on then the on delay timer starts with the tag name T0. Here in this problem we have made use of the compare instruction. In this problem if the present time is less than 10 sec then we switch on the Motor 1(P20). Now when the present time becomes more than 10 seconds then Motor 1(P20) stops and Motor 2 (P21) starts. When the present time exceeds 15 seconds, Motor 2 (P21) stops and Motor 3 (P22) starts and continues to run until it reaches 25 seconds. Now when the present time exceeds 25 seconds again Motor 2 (P21) starts and Motor 2 stops.


4.4) Real Time Clock

Create a 24 hour time delay after, with 10 second alarm after every hour. Draw the ladder diagram to fulfill the logic. Solution:
In this problem a 24 hour clock is to be made which will give a signal after every hour. Here P0 is the on switch. Here an on delay non- retentive type timer is used which calculates minutes. After every minute it increases the counter with tag number C0. After the counter C0 reaches 60 it increases the counter C1 which is the hour counter. After each increment of hour counter the alarm sounds for 10 seconds. This arrangement is made up of an non-retentive off-delay timer. When the hour counter reaches 24 then one day is complete.


4.5) Annunciator
Design a Ladder diagram which detects the occurrence of a fault in anywhere in the line and raises an alarm. When the acknowledge switch is pressed then the alarm stops. If the fault is removed, then the normal operation resumes. If the fault still persists then the alarm is sounded again. This device which announces the occurrence of fault in an electric circuit is known as annunciator. Solution:
Let us consider P1 to be the fault condition and P2 be the acknowledgement switch. M0 is the Reset button. M1 be the Relay 1. M2 be the Relay 2. M3 be the Relay connected to the acknowledgement switch. M4 is the Relay of the Hooter. P20 be the Lamp 1. P21 be the Lamp 2. P22 be the alarm or the hooter. For normally closed condition relays 1 and 2 are normally closed contacts are open because the relay is energized. In this case the alarm is off and the indicator is also off. Now for the fault condition any one of the channel is de-energized and the normally closed contacts are open and the hooter turns on along with the indicator. Now after pressing the accept switch the normally open contacts are closed and the hooter turns off. But the fault still persists. Now after the repairing is done in the whole logic is reset. Now if the fault is cleared the normally closed contacts remains closed and the current flow is normal. But is the fault reappears the indicator along with the hooter will turn on indicating the persistence of fault in any of the two channels. Now in this ladder diagram we have normally closed contact P1. This normally closed contact represents the distribution lines which have no fault conditions. If any fault condition arises then this normally closed contact will open and the hooter will sound along with the illumination of the indicator. Now when the acknowledgement switch is pressed then the hooter will stop.


4.6) Automatic Load Shedding

Design a ladder diagram for a motor generator shedd that conforms to the following specifications. Start motor generator and at 10 second interval connect Load 1, Load 2 and Load 3. If the motor current exceeds 750A; shade Load 3. If motor current still exceeds 750A shade Load 2. Repeat the above for Load 1. No load is to be picked up again unless the current drops below 700A. In this case if ever the current drops below 700A all the loads are to be picked up at an interval of 10s. Solution:
In this following ladder diagram let us assume the following considerations. P0 Input when the current falls below 700A.P1 Input when the current rises above 750A. P20 is Load 1, P21 is Load 2 and P22 is Load 3. M1, M2 and M3 are memory addresses.


This ladder diagram uses an on-delay timer, a counter and a subtraction or SUBB instructions. When the motor generator a timer also starts which has a time base 0.1 and preset value of 100. Now after every 10 seconds it increments the counter and along with it attaches a load after checking a compare instruction. Thus each load gets attached after 10 sec interval one by one initially. Now the sub instructions decrements the value of the counter if the amount of current exceeds 750A and it starts to shade the load one by one.


5) Reference

I completed this project with great encouragement from my friends and my faculty in Ardent Computech who was always available to help me and guide through me training period and was always there to make suggestions and clarify my doubts. I also used Google to collect extra information and pictures which made my project very decorative and full of valuable information.