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• Computer Graphics : It involves display manipulation and storage of pictures and experimental data for proper visualization using a computer. • Typically graphics system comprises of the host computers with support of
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fast processor, large memory, frame buffer display devices, input devices, output devices interface devices.
Gaurav Raj, Lovely Professional University, Punjab 2
Conceptual Framework for Interactive Graphics
Gaurav Raj, Lovely Professional University, Punjab
Punjab 4 .Typical Application Areas • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GUI Plotting in business Office Automation Desktop Publishing Plotting in Science and Technology Web/Commercial/Business publishing and advertisements CAD/CAM Design(VLSI. Construction. Lovely Professional University. Circuits) Scientific visualization Entertainment Simulation and Simulation Study Cartography Multimedia Virtual reality Process monitoring Digital Image processing Education and Training 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj.
Lovely Professional University. Punjab 5 .GUI – Graphics User Interface • Typical Component used– – – – – – – – – 1/13/2011 Menus Icons Cursors Dialog Boxes Scroll Bars Buttons Valuators Grids 3-D Interfaces Gaurav Raj.
Application Packages • Various application package and standards available – Core Graphics – GKS – SRGP – PHIGS. SPHIGS and PEX 3D – OpenGL(With ActiveX and Direct3D) – X11 Based Systems 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University. Punjab 6 .
Programmers Hierarchical Intaractive Graphics Systems – Various tools and utilities available for web based design include – JAVA. 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. XML. Punjab 7 .• GKS.Graphics Kernel System – Developed by ISO and ANSI • SRGP. VRML and GIF Animators – Certain compilers with their own graphics libraries. Lovely Professional University.Simple Raster Graphics Package • PHIGS. API support and help for programming 2D/3D graphics.
Punjab 8 . 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. green. – Computer graphics is about using this pen automatically through programming. – move at lightning speed to a specific pixel – draw the pixel with a specific color — a red. and blue (RGB) vector value. • At the heart of a graphics system there is a magic pen. Lovely Professional University.Display • A graphics display is a drawing area comprised of an array of fine points called pixels (picture elements).
1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. and Image • A real or imaginary object is represented in a computer as a model.Object. – which can be used to find all the points on the object corresponding to the pixels in the drawing area. Punjab 9 . Model. the application program will control the pen through a graphics library to generate the corresponding image. Lovely Professional University. • An image is simply a 2D array of pixels. and is displayed as an image. – Given a model. • A model is an abstract description of the object’s shape (vertices) and attributes (colors).
Java. – bound in C. Lovely Professional University. and polygons) • OpenGL is a graphics library. • Primitive models or simply primitives stand for some simple shapes (such as points.Primitive and Graphics Library • A graphics library provides a set of graphics commands or functions. DirectX includes a graphics library Direct3D 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. lines. Punjab 10 . – specify primitive 2D and 3D geometric models to be digitized and displayed. or other programming languages on different platforms.
special purpose image generators (ESIG) • Since then. Punjab 11 . 2D • 1987 MIT’s X lib for windows under UNIX OS • 1988 GKS-3D. MAC. programs were few • 1985 GKS (the Graphical Kernel System). hardware expensive & graphics app. Sun work-stations. PHIGS (ANSI and ISO standard). SGI’s GL. Software from low-level. device dependent packages to higher-level device-independent packages • 2003 JOGL – Java for OpenGL from Sunmicrosystem 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Evolution of advanced GUI’s and graphics environments.Brief History • 1963 Evan Sutherland’s seminal doctoral work “Sketchpad: a manmachine graphical communication system” • 1977 3D Core Graphics System by ACM SIGGRAPH Committee • 1980’s. OpenGL supported on PC. SGI work-stations. Lovely Professional University. • 1993 OpenGL (Open standard from SGI) • Since then.
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Lovely Professional University.Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Punjab 13 .
Punjab 14 .Color CRT 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University.
Lovely Professional University.1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Punjab 15 .
Lovely Professional University. Punjab 16 .1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj.
Image is stored as a distribution of charges on the inside surface of the screen.Type of CRT Display Devices 1. 4. 7. Storage Tube – It is a CRT with a long persistence phosphor Provides Flicker – Free Display No refreshing necessary A slow moving electron beam draws a line on the screen. 2. Screen has a storage mesh in which the phosphor is embedded. 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University. Limited interactive support. Punjab 17 . Refresh and Raster Scan Display System DVST(Direct View Storage Tube) 1. Calligraphic or Random Scan Display System 3. DVST (Direct View Storage Tube) 2. 5. 6. 3.
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Phosphor Coated Screen 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Punjab 19 . Lovely Professional University.
1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University.Drawbacks • Modifying any part of the image requires redrawing the entire image. • Erasing takes approx.typically a few seconds are necessary for a complex image.5 second.DVST. • Change in the image requires to generate new charge distribution in the DVST. 0. Punjab 20 . • Slow process of drawing. All lines and character must be erased. • No animation possible with DVST.
• Characters are also made of sequence of strokes (or short lines) • Vectored – Electron beam deflected from end.Order of deflection is dictated by the arbitrary order of the display commands. stroke. Punjab 21 .point to endpoint. Lovely Professional University. • Phosphor has short persistence – delay in 10 -100 micro seconds 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. • Random Scan . line drawing displays.Calligraphic or Random Scan Display System • Also called vector .
Lovely Professional University. • Display program has the commands for point.Calligraphic or Random Scan Display System • Display must be refreshed at regular interval minimum of 30 Hz(fps) for flicker free display. • The display processor must cycle through the display list to refresh the phosphor. Punjab 22 .Memory space allocated to store the display list or display program for the display processor to draw the image. • The display processor interprets the commands in the refresh buffer for plotting. • Refresh Buffer. 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. line and character plotting.
Conceptual Block Diagram Calligraphic Refresh Display I 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University. Punjab 23 .
Punjab 24 . Lovely Professional University.Conceptual Block Diagram Calligraphic Refresh Display II 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj.
Punjab 25 . • Scope of animation with segmentation mixture of static and dynamic parts of the picture. • The vector generator converts the digital coordinate values to analog voltages for the beam deflection circuits. 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj.Calligraphic or Random Scan Display System • The Display processor sends digital and point coordinate values to the vector display. Lovely Professional University. • The Beam deflection circuits displays the electron beam for writing on the CRT’s phosphor coating. • Recommended refresh rate is 40 -50 Hz.
array of gray-scale pixels • Monocrome – Bi-level • Gray Scale – multiple level(1-15) • Color – (R. or refresh buffer which is RAM with 1024*1280.G.# of distingushable lines per inch 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj.RASTER DISPLAYS • Store the primitives in a famebuffer. or V*H addressable pixels.Dealing with aliasing • Resolution . Lovely Professional University. Punjab 26 .B) • Scan-Conversion(rasterization ) – Objects are converted into discrete pixels in frame buffer. • Aliasing – Jagging or Stair casing of lines/ edges • Anti-Aliasing . • Bitmap – array of 1/0 (pixels) • Pixmap.
LASER PRINTER (HARD COPY DISPLAY DEVICE) Framebuffer CRT (CATHODE RAY TUBE) 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Lovely Professional University. Punjab 27 .
RASTER DISPLAY SYSTEMS Graphics Card (Video Card) • Graphics card: handle scan-conversion and other advanced graphics functions 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. Punjab 28 . Lovely Professional University.
Punjab 29 . Lovely Professional University.• Frame Buffer(Bit Planes) : RAM with the generated pixmap and attribute ready to display. • Interlaced: fine as long as adjacent scan lines display similar information • # of bits for color : Direct(RGB Mode) and indirect(Index Mode) 1/13/2011 Gaurav Raj. • Video Controller : refresh the display.
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