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ONLY FOR TUTORS FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS Wednesday 13 January 2010 Time Allowed: Two hours From 3 to 5 EL120:

English Phonetics and Linguistics NOTES TO TUTORS/MARKERS: 1. Students are required to answer THREE questions as follows: Question No 1 from Part A : Obligatory One question from Part B ( Question 2 OR Question 3) One question from Part C ( Question 4 OR Question 5) On the table below, tutors are requested to tick the questions which the student has answered. 2. Distribution of marks between Content and Language Accuracy (Lang) is as follows: Levels 1-2 Courses: For language & communication errors a maximum of 3.5 marks will be deducted from students' mark on each question. Marker's Initials &

PAR Questi Mark Marks Earned/Deducted T on Alloca 1 2 3


ted (per questi on) 18 16 16

Mark for Content (out of allocated mark)

Mark deducted (For lang. & com. errors)

Earned Signature Mark (1 minus 2)


1 2 3 4 5

TOT 50 AL Sec Tutor's Signature: Name : Date: Section Tutor Remarks


GENERAL MARKING GUIDELINES Before the actual marking begins, 1)Branch course coordinator (staff tutor) meets with tutors of the course concerned and mark a

random sample of students exam scripts to ensure marking consistency. 2)In the meeting, branch course coordinator also reads and distributes the marking instructions/answer keys, and General Marking guidelines adopted by the University. 3)In courses which have more than one tutor, one tutor should mark some answers of the answer script and another tutor should mark the rest of the answer script. This type of group marking is meant to ensure marking uniformity and objectivity within the same section/group, over the different sections/groups. It is required by the University as an effective tool toward standardization. A.Marking Instructions 1. Use a red ballpoint pen or red pen. 2. Marks should be written in the right-hand margin at the end of the students answer and they should be ringed (circled). 3. Ticking is needed to ascertain what the marker had accepted. Markers are also required to

write notes/comments to justify the mark given for each answer. No page should be left without some marking proof. 4. Candidate errors should be underlined, and a word of explanation added. 5. If a student answers more questions than required, mark only the first set of questions that suffice to count as the minimum required. 6. An answer crossed through by a student should not be given any mark. 7. Marks of individual answers should then be transferred to the cover page of the exam script, and should be added up, doublechecked, recorded in numbers and in writing, and signed alongside by the marker. 8. When the exams final mark is transferred to the students final assessment form, double check all marks (continuous assessment, final exam, and final mark). The final mark should be rounded to a whole number (integer). 9. All matters related to the marking of exams should be treated with strict confidentiality.

10.Before marks are entered, markers should be invited to a meeting by the branch course coordinator (staff tutor) to discuss marking issues and final results. 11.The branch programme coordinator should be informed by the course coordinator of all such meetings. He is responsible for assuring uniformity across all courses of the programme within the Branch. Marking Grid CONTENT (70%) LANGUAGE & ORGANIZATION (30%) Excellent answers Has an showing confident introduction and wide-ranging defining plan knowledge of core of essay. material, good Body divided understanding of into several any relevant paragraphs. theory, and a Conclusion capacity to address which directly the question in a relates structural, direct arguments to

and effective way, thoughtfully and with insight. Originality of thought, or ideas from outside the course are an added asset. Examples are to the point. B Very good answers to showing secure B knowledge of + course materials. Adopting an analytical approach and providing relevant discussion covering most of the key issues. Distinguished from A answers by being less insightful or by showing less comprehensive knowledge of the

topic. Evidence that essay has been edited. Error-free grammar & register. Wide range of specialized terminology. First four criteria above maintained Demonstrates extensive grammar control. Terminology specialized but less varied.

course. C Competent to answers reflecting C adequate + knowledge of the more directly relevant course material and concepts, with reasonable structure and adequate coherence related to the question set. D Answers which omit some concepts/evidence and/or lack coherence/structur e, and/or make minor errors while still demonstrating basic understanding. Or Bare pass answers which

Introduction and/or conclusion short but still satisfactory. Evidence of editing. Less grammar control than above. Good range of specialized terminology. Introduction and/or conclusion short but acceptable. no evidence of editing. Few grammatical errors that impede communicatio

show awareness of some relevant material and attempt to relate it to the question.

Bare fail answers which attempt to draw upon relevant material but do not

n. Above average range of specialized terminology. Slightly confused introduction and/or conclusion, but body still fair. No evidence of editing. Some error types that impede communicatio n. Fair range of specialized terminology. No introduction and /or no conclusion.

Body badly organized or irrelevant. Poor grammar control (extremely limited range of grammar & register). Limited or not specialized range of terminology. *Prepared by Prof. Najib Al-Shehabi (language & organization rubrics were proposed by Dr. Zena Abu Shakra, former FLS Programme Coordinator, AOU Lebanon Branch; content column slightly adapted from UKOU supplementary notes.) Additional note for essay-type questions: Extra credit should be given to students who present a valid and well-organized argument of the topic of the question, while sustaining a clear line of reasoning. Moreover, students who manifest wider knowledge and ability to use

reflect sufficient knowledge of the course and/or neglect the focus required by the question, and/or are incomplete in some important aspects whilst being acceptable in others.

specialized terminology in a scholarly fashion must, too, be rewarded. Always make sure that the mark you give is justified by your remarks on the exam text. Part A Question (1). Define FOUR of the following items (4.5 marks each).Illustrate your answers with examples. 1. Morphology is the study of word structure or word formation. A word can be made up of 1 morpheme e.g cat or more than one e.g drivers: 3 morphemes : drive/ er/ s/. Morphemes can be free e.g drive = they can stand by themselves or bound e.g. er/ s = they cant stand by themselves or they have to be attached to the root or free morpheme 2. A compound sentence consists of two or more coordinated independent clauses. In other words, a compound sentence does not contain any dependent or subordinate clauses. Consider the following example: (12) a. You can wait here, and I will get the key.

This sentence contains two independent clauses coordinated by means of the coordinator and.

Affixes are bound morphemes ( this has to be mentioned) which can be either prefixes e.g dis in disbelief or suffixes e.g able in manageable Phonetics is the study of human sounds. It describes the speech organs and shows how sounds are divided into consonants, vowels and diphthongs. It classifies consonants into place and manner of articulation and vowels according to the position of the tongue in the mouth.

5 A ditransitive verb is a verb which takes two objects. For example: Peter gave Mary (indirect object) a pound (direct object) 6. Approximant sound: Approximant [or glide] [2 sounds] There are two approximant sounds in English:

/j/ as in the first sound in the word yesterday /w/ as in the first sound in the word water

In the production of these sounds the active articulator moves close towards the passive articulator but without a point of contact. In other words, there is no closure; the air glides in the space left [without friction]. The verb glide means to move easily without stopping and without effort or noise. Part B: Answer either question 2 OR 3. Question (2) answer part (i) and (ii) (i)Divide the following words into morphemes and say whether the bound morphemes are derivational or inflectional. Follow the example: Word Morpheme division actors Act /or /s Unbreakable Un/ break/ able Disconnecte Dis/connect Derivationa Inflectiona l l Or s Un able Dis Ed

d Syntactic wonderful

/ ed Syntax/ tic (t)ic Wonder/ ful ful

Give each word / 2 marks: 1 mark for division and 1 for derivation/ inflection. (Total 8) (ii)The following sentence has 8 words. Classify them into function words or content words. I broke my hand falling from the stairs I , my, from, the, : function/ grammatical words Broke, hand, falling: content/ lexical words Give 1 mark for each word. Total: 8 So the grand total for Q 2 is 16 Question (3) Using a tree diagram, give a representation of each of the following sentences. *Students may use abbreviations rather than the full phrase, e.g. they may write Cl instead of Clause., S for sentence, NP, VP etc.

1. The teacher will read and the students will write SENTENCE CL2 CL1





Au N Det x stu writ wil den e l ts the V

Co nj

Aux N

De t

tea rea Wil che Th and d l r e

2. John saw the big frog SENTENCE



Det Adj John saw

N the big frog

Each tree diagram is given (8) marks. Total (16) Part C: Answer either question 4 OR 5.

Question (4) Describe the place of articulation and manner of articulation of the following consonants in English (2 marks each, total 16): t, v , , s, b, k, m, h

Place & Manner 1. Stop/ plosive 2. Fricative 3. Affricate

Labi Post Labi Bila oDe Alve Pal Vel Glo obial dent ntal olar alve atal ar ttal velar al olar b v s t k h

4. Nasal 5. Approxi mant 6. Lateral approxi mant 7. Trill

*Students are not required to draw the above table. If they do, this would be an added asset. The following information is required: Place of articulation articulation t is: alveolar v is labio-dental is: dental s is: alveolar b is: bilabial k is: velar m is: bilabial h: is glottal Question (5) Manner of plosive fricative fricative fricative plosive plosive nasal fricative

How are sentences divided according to Grammatical Form. Answer this question and give illustrative examples. *Below is the material in students required reading. An average answer may cover a reasonablyacceptable part of it. According to grammatical form sentences are divided into four major syntactic classes: (i) declarative sentences, (ii) interrogative sentences, (iii) imperative sentences, and (iv) exclamatory sentences. Declarative Sentences In declarative sentences the subject normally precedes the verb, e.g. a. The lion / is / a strong animal. Notes: (i) The subject in a declarative sentence can be preceded by adverbials: cf. ADV a. In three years time b. In London V I will have saved people prefer S Od $3,000. trains.

ADV c. Luckily

S V the arrived police

ADV in good time.

(ii) Sometimes an adverb may intervene between the subject and the verb in declarative sentences: cf. S ADV V a. angrily slammed the door Jim behind him. b. still haven't from them. We heard Interrogative Sentences Interrogative sentences begin with an auxiliary verb or with a question word (e.g. when, where, what, how, etc.). Like declarative sentences, interrogative sentences contain a subject, which in most cases follows the auxiliary verb: cf. Can Why Bill speak English? did they leave so early?

Imperative Sentences Imperative sentences do not normally contain a subject. The subject of an imperative sentence is often implicit, though it is understood to be the pronoun you. This explains why imperative

sentences contain one form of the verb (i.e. the base): cf. a. Open the door, please. b. Do your homework at once. c. Dont interrupt me, please. In some cases, the subject of an imperative sentence is overtly expressed: cf. (19) a. You go in first. b. You do what I say. Exclamatory Sentences In exclamatory sentences the subject always precedes the verb. Furthermore, exclamatory sentences characteristically begin with the words how or what. Consider the following examples: (20) WhAdj/N S V word How beautif she is! ul What a mess you are making! What a slow this is! bus END OF EXAMS