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OIL COMPANIES INTERNATIONAL MARINE FORUM

Briefing Paper for OCIMF Member Chartering and Vetting Groups The use of Large Tankers in Seasonal FirstYear Ice or Severe Sub-Zero Conditions

NOVEMBER 2008

OCIMF's mission is to be the foremost authority on the safe and environmentally responsible operation of oil tankers and terminals, promoting continuous improvements in standards of design and operation.

Issued by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum

OIL COMPANIES INTERNATIONAL MARINE FORUM 29 QUEEN ANNES GATE LONDON SW1H 9BU ENGLAND TELEPHONE: +44 (0)20 7654 1200 FAX: +44 (0)20 7654 1205 E-mail enquiries@ocimf.com www.ocimf.com

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Oil Companies International Marine Forum

The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) is a voluntary association of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products. OCIMF is organised to represent its membership before, and consult with, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other government bodies on matters relating to the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products, including marine pollution and safety.

Terms of use: The advice and information given in this briefing paper (Paper) is intended purely as guidance to be used at the users own risk. No warranties or representations are given nor is any duty of care or responsibility accepted by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), the membership or employees of OCIMF or by any person, firm, corporation or organisation (who or which has been in any way concerned with the furnishing of information or data, the compilation or any translation, publishing, supply or sale of the Paper) for the accuracy of any information or advice given in the Paper or any omission from the Paper or for any consequence whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from compliance with, adoption of or reliance on guidance contained in the Paper even if caused by a failure to exercise reasonable care on the part of any of the aforementioned parties.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE AND SCOPE ICE NAVIGATION RISK ASSESSMENT VETTING FOR ICE NAVIGATION COMMENTARY ON ICE CLASS NOTATIONS ENGINE POWER THE WINTERISATION OF SHIPS NAVIGATION OF LARGE TANKERS IN ICE 8.1 Icebreaker Escort of Large Tankers OILS SPILLS IN ICE

10 PROFICIENCY OF SHIPS CREW ANNEX 1 ANNEX 2 ANNEX 3 ANNEX 4 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ICE CLASS NOTATIONS OF CLASSIFICATION SOCIETIES WINTERISATION OF SHIPS CONSIDERATIONS ICEBREAKER ESCORT OF LARGE TANKERS TUG SUPPORT WHEN BERTHING AND UNBERTHING IN ICE A4.1 Arrival at Jetty A4.2 Departure from Jetty A4.3 Operations at Offshore Terminals OIL SPILLS IN ICE ICE OPERATIONS TRAINING COURSE EXAMPLE TASK RISK ASSESSMENT OPERATING IN ICE ICE NAVIGATION CONTROL SERVICES A8.1 Finnish/Swedish A8.2 Russian (Baltic Ports of St. Petersburg, Primorsk, Vysotsk) A8.3 Other Baltic Ports/Countries A8.4 Russian Far East Navigation of Large Tankers in Ice Conditions A8.5 Canada HELCOM RECOMMENDATIONS ON SAFETY OF WINTER NAVIGATION IN THE BALTIC AREA TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES AND MANDATORY SHIP REPORTING (GULF OF FINLAND)

ANNEX 5 ANNEX 6 ANNEX 7 ANNEX 8

ANNEX 9 ANNEX 10

1. INTRODUCTION
Ice navigation and icebreaker-escorted navigation of large tankers is a concept that may be relatively new to many OCIMF member companies. With changes that have occurred in the Russian Federation, the tanker market has experienced an increase in the export of crude oil by large tankers from Baltic terminals impacted by the potential for winter ice navigation. This trend will continue elsewhere in the world as crude export terminals are established in other ice navigation areas such as the Barents Sea, White Sea and in proximity to Sakhalin Island (Eastern Russian Federation). Some sectors of the industry have been used to dealing with the more-traditional high ice class smaller tankers designed specifically for escorted or unescorted ice transit. What is relatively new to the industry is the increase in demand for largersize crude tankers of low, or no, ice class to trade out of an increasing number of ports subjected to first-year ice formation. In the light of the experience of OCIMF members with the ice navigation of large, lowpowered ice class tankers in the Baltic, and with a view to providing broad guidance to industry with regard to export projects involving the ice navigation of large tankers, OCIMF initiated the formation of a small group of specialists, the ICE SubCommittee. The ICE Sub-Committee produced the first edition of this Briefing Paper in 2003 and has remained responsible for ensuring that the guidance continued to be current and reflected members experiences. This latest edition is produced in support of this aim and the opportunity has also been taken to re-structure the document to provide improved focus to the guidance.

2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to the chartering and vetting groups of OCIMF members on the safe operation of tankers in areas affected by seasonal first-year ice. Areas commonly affected by first-year ice include the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, White Sea, Barents Sea, Eastern coast of Canada, Cook Inlet and in the proximity of Sakhalin Island in the Eastern Russian Federation. The guidance in this paper is primarily aimed at the use of low, or no, ice class tankers from 50,000 tonnes deadweight upwards likely to encounter first-year ice. The paper does not attempt to address established or specialised ice trades utilising high ice class tonnage. It is recommended that OCIMF members limit the use of low, or no, ice class ships in ice covered areas and non-winterised ships during severe sub zero temperature conditions. For the purpose of this paper, severe sub-zero conditions are defined as forecasted daily mean ambient temperatures below -25C. The chartering groups of OCIMF members will be aware of the different types of ice clauses in common use in charter parties. This paper does not deal with the validity or otherwise of specific clauses and members are advised to consult their own commercial or legal advisers for advice on such issues.

General guidance on the various national and regional ice navigation systems is contained within annexes to the paper. This may be of particular use in clarifying some of the developments impacting on the movements of hydrocarbons from ports within the Russian Federation.

3.

ICE NAVIGATION RISK ASSESSMENT

Many charterers and operators have a formal Hazard Risk Assessment process in place and conduct Hazard Risk Analysis when changes to activities lead to significantly higher risks or when circumstances create uncertainty over the safety of an operation. It is therefore recommended that the operation of tankers in ice is subjected to a formal risk assessment process in accordance with individual company guidelines. When considering chartering any vessel, particularly large crude tankers or ships with no, or low, ice class notation, for voyages that include the potential for ice navigation or icebreaker escort, it is recommended that charterers and operators conduct hazard risk assessments. The following are amongst issues that should be considered for risk prevention or mitigation: Ice class notation; winterisation class notation Ice certificate Appropriateness of insurance coverage in place due to breach of the Institute Warranty Limits (IWL). Ascertain limitations that may be described in individual charter parties, if applicable, or the ships insurance. Double hull Sufficient engine power available for use Operational duration in propulsion machinery critical range (with particular reference to the harmonic constant of LNG membrane tankers) Increased reserve bunkers and stores Compliance with items or procedures and precautions in place, as listed under Section 4 Vetting for Ice Navigation Use of Ice Advisors (particularly if the ice navigation experience of the bridge team is limited) Assessment of ice and weather forecast services Convoy strategy, including ships position in convoy Availability of icebreaker escort Navigational risks in ice, including besetment Crew experience and training Increased manning levels (particularly bridge team) Additional arrival UKC (allowance for ice accretion impact on draft and trim)

Annex 7 contains an example of a Task Risk Assessment for Operating in Ice which is provided for information.

4.

VETTING FOR ICE NAVIGATION

Depending upon the proposed trading areas, when intending to charter tankers for voyages where low temperatures, associated with ice navigation and/or icebreaker escort, are expected, the following basic issues relating to the ship's particulars or operating procedures should be considered as part of the risk assessment process, particularly if the vessel is not ice classed or of low ice class notation.

When considering a ship for a fixture, the intended voyage should be checked to determine if a breach of the Institute Warranty Limits will occur. If this is the case, appropriate action should be taken and the individual charter parties or, if applicable, ships insurance, should be reviewed and arrangements made with the ships owner or insurer, as appropriate. It is critical that the significance of the ice class notation is understood. Ice class notation alone does not automatically imply that the ship itself is suitable for commercial operations in extreme (cold) environmental conditions. The fact that the hull has an ice classification means that it has been constructed to incorporate the minimum required speed/power output in ice and has hull structural integrity that allows the ship to navigate in seasonal first-year broken ice up to classification limits. Beyond these limits, additional measures, such as the use of icebreakers, will have to be taken. Ice classification refers only to structural strength, propulsion power and arrangements. The fact that the hull is classed in this way gives no indication of the ships suitability to operate in very low temperature environments. The recentlyintroduced, optional winterisation class notation provides an indication of the preparation of the ship to operate to an acceptable standard in extreme cold conditions where icing of the ship can be experienced. Reference should be made to Section 5 for further information on ice class notations, Section 7 for winterisation, and to Annex 1 for a comparison of the differing ice class notations used by Classification Societies. It should be noted that, when reviewing the data in Annex 1, it is not always possible to determine direct equivalence between the various notations. Chartering and vetting groups should ensure that ships intended for operations in extreme (cold) environments are capable and properly prepared. This includes the provision of adequate suitable equipment, preparations for equipment protection and procedures established to ensure safe operation and personnel welfare. The following list outlines areas that should be considered when chartering ships for operations involving low temperatures, associated with ice navigation and/or icebreaker escort. It is recommended that operators produce a suitable checklist to cover these requirements. Classification Ice Class Notation (refer to Annex 1) Certification for Russian Ports Ships entering Russian ports or bound for Russian ports may require an additional Ice Certificate in accordance with local regulations. This process assesses a ships suitability to operate in ice conditions and considers the following aspects: ice performance, including ice class speed and manoeuvrability characteristics in ice compressive hull strength predicted ice conditions. Charter party / Insurance Hull and machinery insurance Institute Warranty Limits (IWL) should be checked.

Crew Proficiency Do the Master and navigation officers have suitable experience of navigation in ice or operating in extremes of cold weather? Are navigating officers provided with basic ice navigation training? (Refer to further guidance in Section 10) Bridge Equipment Provision of high definition radars Provision of infra red cameras Heated wheelhouse windows Searchlights - number, position, method of control, power and suitability for operation in ice and snow Preferably enclosed bridgewings Hull Are systems in place to keep essential sea chests free of ice? Is steel suitable for exposure to low temperatures for voyage duration? Can propeller be kept sufficiently submerged below expected level ice conditions? Are accommodation heating systems adequate? Are systems in place to prevent freezing or snow blockage of essential air intakes and venting systems (including cargo and ballast venting systems)? Procedures and Precautions Does the operator have procedures and/or precautions in place that include the following: Assessment of ice navigation and cold weather operational risks? Conduct of ice navigation/icebreaker escort navigation? Receipt of ice navigation information (e.g. ice charts, satellite images)? Cold weather operation and protection of, and access to, fire fighting systems, life saving appliances, critical equipment and deck machinery, including mooring equipment? Prevention of freezing of services on exposed decks including fire lines, air systems, control systems and instrumentation? Prevention of freezing of cargo and ballast systems including ballast water and venting systems? Prevention of dangerous ice accretion? Provision of adequate cold weather clothing and PPE for crew? Provision of suitable tools and material for prevention and removal of ice and snow on board?

5. COMMENTARY ON ICE CLASS NOTATIONS


There is a wide range of ice class notations assigned by different Classification Societies and National Authorities. Ice classes cover different ship types and services, such as, cargo ships, icebreakers and tugs. For the purposes of this briefing paper, ice classes for tankers normally come under the banner of cargo ships intended for service in light ice to medium first year broken ice conditions. Ice class requirements are based on structural strength, propulsion power and arrangements with regard to ice thickness. The different levels of ice class notations are defined according to the nominal operational ice thickness. The rules pertaining to ice class notations deal with:

Hull reinforcement - "ice belt" area from bow to stern between ballast and load water lines divided into forepart, midships and aft parts. Minimum engine power (linked to bow form of the ship) the Baltic regulations from the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules as applicable to ships built after 1st September 2003. Additionally, the ship should have sufficient power for possible independent movement at a minimum steady speed of 1-2 knots, through an ice thickness determined through calculations based on the ice class of the ship. Rudder reinforcement and fittings. Propeller, shaft and gears. Stern design. Sea chests and cooling systems. Engine starting systems. It should be noted that individual States or ports may require specific levels of ice class notation. For further information on ice class notations, reference should be made to the appropriate Classification Society rules. Most Classification Societies have their own individual ice class notation. The Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) provides an easy to use reference document, FMA Bulletin 4/2.4.2007. It is available at their Website http://www.fma.fi/ Reference should also be made to Annex 1 for information on the differing ice class notations used by Classification Societies. It should be noted that when reviewing the data in Annex 1, that it is not always possible to determine direct equivalence between the various notations.

6. ENGINE POWER
The engine power of ships operating in the Baltic has traditionally been governed by the Finnish-Swedish Rules with tables and mathematical formulae. These are predicated upon maintaining a minimum speed of 5 knots in broken first year ice. The majority of ships classified using these rules are less than 50,000 metric tonnes. As the size of ships being classified for ice navigation has increased up to and including Suezmax, other methodologies, such as ice model tests, have been used to provide evidence that this minimum speed requirement can be met with less power than that calculated using the formulae. The power requirement depends on the basic design, including hull and bow forms to reduce resistance to encountered ice, modification of power plant, propulsion and propeller design to achieve the necessary thrust and, hence, the ability to reach the minimum speed requirement.

7. THE WINTERISATION OF SHIPS


The ice class notation covers a ships structural strength, propulsion power and arrangements. The notation does not cover suitability from the standpoint of commercial operability in low temperatures, ice navigation and/or icebreaker escort.

Some ice class ships may have voluntary additional notations, generally referred to as winterisation or de-ice notations. These notations will embrace technical and operational issues to minimise risk when operating in ice or severe cold conditions. It should be ensured that ship operators have written procedures addressing risk minimisation when preparing for and operating in cold weather and ice. Preparations should be such that no aspect of safety is compromised while the ship is operating in cold weather conditions. Annex 2 provides detailed advice on winterisation.

8. NAVIGATION OF LARGE TANKERS IN ICE


Large conventional tankers are normally designed for optimum performance in open water. This applies to designs for hull form, rudders and propellers. Large conventional tankers perform relatively poorly in ice, for a number of reasons, including the following: they are more difficult to manoeuvre in ice propellers designed for optimum open water performance may not be suited for delivering maximum thrust in ice propellers and rudders designed for open water operation may be more susceptible to ice impact damage. Given the above, it is strongly recommended that the propeller is kept as deep as possible and it should always be deeper than the thickness of level ice to be navigated. If conventional tankers have to go astern in ice, the rudder should always be placed amidships. The speed of the ship should be controlled to reduce the risk of ice damage. However, large tankers may find that, once stopped in ice, regaining momentum is difficult without icebreaker assistance. Besetment, or getting stuck in ice, is a risk that the Master of a large tanker should be aware of when navigating in ice. Ice under pressure can cause local forces on the ship's hull that may result in damage to plating, structure or hull coatings. The waterline coating systems of tankers may suffer heavy abrasion damage in ice. In addition, some impact deformation of hull plating is possible. Charterers may wish to consider arranging independent inspections of the hull before and after ice voyages. Where a ships officers and crew are not particularly experienced, the use of an Ice Advisor may be considered in order to supplement onboard knowledge. 8.1 Icebreaker Escort of Large Tankers Charterers should be aware that large tankers are likely to require icebreaker assistance. The icebreaker escort of large tankers is not a subject that can be easily condensed. However, for the purposes of this Briefing Paper, it is considered useful to provide some basic information and this is contained in Annex 3. In addition, the use of tugs to assist in berthing and unberthing operations is addressed in Annex 4.

9. OIL SPILLS IN ICE


The scope of the Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency plan (SOPEP) of tankers operating in ice should address specific issues associated with the response to oil spills in such conditions. Operators should demonstrate that attention has been paid to the unique hazards posed by spills in the extreme cold or in ice. Annex 5 contains an overview of the issues that need to be considered.

10. PROFICIENCY OF SHIPS CREW


It should be noted that the safe operation of a ship trading in ice requires skill and technical proficiency in excess of those required during normal operating conditions. It is, therefore, important that suitable training is offered to complement existing experience. A ships officers and crew should be adequately trained for circumstances likely to be encountered when operating in low temperatures, undertaking ice navigation and/or icebreaker escort. This may take the form of in-service training, simulator training and/or Computer-Based Training (CBT). It is recommended that the ships officers and crew have experience of trading in ice and a suggested experience guide for key personnel is as follows: Suggested Ice Sailing Experience 2 seasons 2 seasons 1 season 1 season part season

Superintendent Master Chief Officer Chief Engineer 2nd Engineer

When reviewing the experience and training of ships officers, it is preferred that experience is gained in the rank that they are serving onboard, although it is recognised that this is not always achievable. Annex 6 provides a specimen training syllabus.

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ANNEX 1: COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ICE CLASS NOTATIONS OF CLASSIFICATION SOCIETIES


For the ships the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after 1 September 2003. (In accordance with Bulletin No. 4/2.4.2007 of FMA) RS Russian Register LU 5 / Arc 5 GL DNV BV LR RINA ABS NK FinnishSwedish Ice Class 1A Super

E4

ICE - 1A*

1A SUPER

Ice Class 1AS FS(+) Ice Class 1AS FS Ice Class 1A FS(+) Ice Class 1A FS Ice Class 1B FS(+) Ice Class 1B FS Ice Class 1C FS(+) Ice Class 1C FS Ice Class 1D

1 A Super

1 AA

1A Super 1A

LU 4 / Arc 4

E3

ICE - 1A

1A

1A

1A

1A

3 4 5

LU 3 / Ice 3 LU 2 / Ice 2 LU 1 / Ice 1

E2 E1 E

ICE - 1B ICE - 1C ICE - C

1B 1C 1D

1B 1C 1D

1B 1C

1B 1C 1D

1B 1C

It should be noted that when reviewing the above data, it is not always possible to determine direct equivalence between the various notations.

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ANNEX 2: WINTERISATION OF SHIPS - CONSIDERATIONS


The considerations for the winterisation of oil or gas tankers are structured according to the following broad areas: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 General Deck Engine Rooms, Machinery and Systems Safety and Lifesaving Equipment, including Medical Fire-fighting Systems and Equipment Pollution Ice Accretion and Snow Accumulation

In the event that the nominated ship has a voluntary winterisation notation, reference should be made to the details of the specific notation to determine the preparations that have been undertaken.

A2.1 GENERAL
All void spaces, empty tanks, chain lockers and spaces should be sounded prior to entering cold weather. If any water is found, it should be educted dry, as far as is practical, to avoid ice damage when these residues freeze. The spaces should be regularly sounded to ensure that they remain water-free. Sounding pipes, vents and remote gauges should be protected and remain operational as far is possible. Valves Hydraulic cargo or COW valves on deck should be protected with canvas covers and the valves should be frequently activated while in sub-freezing temperatures to avoid freezing/blockage. Portable steam hoses and connections for the manifold areas are quite important. If any water is present in valve gear boxes, when frozen, it will inhibit the opening of the valve. If any valves are left cracked open to avoid fracturing of valve bodies, it is advisable to mark each open valve on a pipeline mimic diagram. Ballast Systems Hydraulic ballast valves in empty tanks should be frequently activated to avoid freezing/blockage, unless other means are employed to prevent freezing. Ballast tank vents may become frozen if not protected by canvas covers or steam heating on passage. However, this could lead to over or under pressurisation of ballast tanks. The use of covers on these vents should be strictly supervised to ensure that the covered vents can still operate as designed. It is recommended that covers are removed prior to the commencement of cargo operations. Frequent removal of any accumulated ice will be required.

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Cargo Systems Cargo Tank P/V Valves P/V valves should be thoroughly overhauled prior to entry into sub zero temperature area. Valves to be kept protected from ice accumulations on passage with canvas covers or steam heating. In extreme low temperatures, canvas covers have been shown to be more effective than steam heating. Before any cargo operation commences, it is recommended that covers are removed and that pressure/vacuum arrangements are free of ice blockage. In particular, check that drain holes are clear and free to operate. The painting of Hi-Jet seat faces with anti-freeze will protect them from freezing in the shut position and will prevent an ice film forming. IG Deck Seal (Heating) The deck water seal heating must be operational in freezing temperatures. It should be ensured that the inlet/outlet of sealing water is not frozen and/or blocked by ice. Frequent checks should be undertaken to confirm a positive water flow. P/V Breakers Liquid (anti-freeze) The deck breaker should be filled with anti-freeze (Glycol as opposed to Methanol based) as per makers instructions. Frequently checks should be undertaken to ensure the level is maintained. Once clear of the cold weather, the density of the P/V breaker will need to be tested and returned to the correct value necessary to ensure correct operation. Mast Vent Riser (where fitted) The mast vent riser valve needs to be protected with grease and a canvas cover. Flame arresters should be checked free of ice before the start of cargo operations. Prior to arrival, mast risers and inert gas (IG) lines should be drained of any liquid. If fitted, auto and manual valves on the IG main line and tank inlets should be kept greased and protected with canvas covers. The operation of piston breather valves on IG lines should be checked before operations commence. Covers should be removed and de-icer sprayed in way of the valves. It is recommended that the diameter of drainage lines on mast risers systems should be at least 50 mm

Cargo Pumps Deepwell pumps Motors and shafts of pumps, located on deck, should be protected with canvas covers to avoid delays due to de-icing pumps before discharging. Framo Style Hydraulic Systems The grade of hydraulic oil used in the Framo pumps is satisfactory for air temperatures down to -25C without causing any problems. If the oil temperature falls below +25C, the heating valve to the system should be opened. The Framo system should be started on low load with forward warming through valve open, at least 30 minutes before the system is required for operations.

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If the temperature of the hydraulic oil is less than +20C, it must be heated before the pressure can be increased. This is achieved by running a power pack with minimum system pressure (60 Bar), and opening the bypass valve on the cargo main deck forward to circulate the oil. Once the temperature is above 20C, the bypass valve is closed and the pressure can be increased to operational requirements. It should be ensured that the oil is warmed through in good time before mooring as it takes approximately one hour to increase the temperature by four degrees centigrade in freezing conditions. It has been stated that some thickening of the hydraulic oil due to the increased viscosity will be experienced when ambient temperatures fall to zero and below. Minimising dead legs will assist in the pumps operation and, when starting the pump initially, it should be started very slowly to enable the warm hydraulic oil from the main to slowly displace the cold oil in the pump and consequently warm the pump through slowly. An increase in the normal loading may be placed upon the supply pump on starting a hydraulic pump due to the change in viscosity of the hydraulic oil. Cargo Residue Tank Pump Some tankers have a small screw pump on the main deck for pumping oil residues ashore. This pump must be drained down and isolated to prevent fracturing of the pump casing. Cargo Stripping Systems Any systems using water seal vacuum pumps need both the pumps and the seal supply header tanks to be protected from freezing. The manufacturers recommendation should be followed and the required percentage of antifreeze added to ensure safe operation. Crude Oil Washing (COW) & Tank Cleaning Systems COW machine gearboxes should be protected with canvas covers. Gearbox oil should be renewed, particularly if the presence of any moisture is suspected to avoid damage. Tank cleaning lines should be drained of all water and isolated from the drive system. If tank cleaning is to be undertaken in cold regions, the sub-division of the cleaning system should be reviewed to limit the amount of pipe-work containing water. Cargo Tank Heating Coils If not in use, heating coils and lines should be drained and blown through with air. Steam delivery lines should be blanked off (deck steam supply line required for steaming hoses, but must not be allowed to compromise heating coil integrity through leakage and subsequent freezing in lines). Consideration should be given to opening the plugs under the COW isolator valves to drain down any water in the seat of the valve. Tank Cleaning Heater When located in an exposed location, this will need to be protected and, in any event, should be drained. Cargo Lines Differences in temperature experienced by the ship can cause contraction of the deck lines that may not be taken up in the usual manner. There is a possibility of flange leakage and it would be prudent to check the integrity of the lines that are to be used to ensure they are tight for the forthcoming operation.

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All cargo, ballast, tank cleaning and COW lines on deck should be well drained after pressure test or use. Particular attention should be paid to ballast systems, including ballast monitors and lines. After loading, discharging or bunkering in cold climates, ships lines should be drained and drain valves left open until the ambient temperature rises sufficiently. Where possible, it is recommended that at least one tank filling valve is left open to allow the line to drain and preclude the possibility of the line becoming pressurised due to temperature changes. The pour point of the cargo being carried or to be loaded should be checked to determine whether line blockages may occur if cargo operations are stopped for any reason. Similarly, bunker fuel specifications should be checked for pour point.

Ice Accretion on Deck Fittings and Cargo Valves Pump Rooms Without compromising safety, pump room fans should be used only as required for ventilating the space to minimise the effect of sub-zero temperatures inside the pump room. Pump room doors should be kept closed, if possible. Steam lines in the pump room, including those serving the tank-washing heater, should be drained down. The stripping pump, if fitted, may be kept warming if it is required to be ready for cargo operations or, alternatively, to provide some warmth in the pump room. If fitted, pump room heaters should be turned on and, if provided on different floors, at least one on each floor should be used to promote convection currents in the space. Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) The fresh water supply to the ODME should be drained down together with the water supply/flushing pump. Particular care should be taken when isolating and draining down the ODME as this is a well-documented weak spot on ships in cold climates.

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Prior to entering cold conditions, all cargo, bunker, ballast and subsidiary valves that will be required to be used for the forthcoming operation should be inspected to ensure that their gearboxes contain no water and are well greased. A small amount of water in the gearbox of a hydraulic valve, or in the valve bonnet, will, when frozen, have a detrimental effect upon that valve and, in extreme cases will render the valve inoperable. Care should be taken when forcibly removing ice from machinery and equipment to ensure that the equipment is not damaged by the use of hammers or tools. Ice Accumulation in Ballast Tanks Before entering cold climates, the Master should determine the density of the ballast water contained within the ballast tanks. The more saline the water is, the lower the freezing temperature will be. Consideration may be given to exchanging the ballast water to increase its salinity. The surface of ballast water may freeze in ballast tanks. A considerable danger exists whereby during de-ballasting operations a layer of ice remains suspended in the tank, falling at a later time, causing damage to internal structure and fittings. If possible, ballast levels should be kept at or below the level of the sea surface (but also be aware of dangers of having sea suctions too close to sea surface getting blocked with sea ice). Where fitted, ballast tank heating (or bubbling systems) must be in operation prior to entering areas with sub-zero temperatures, particularly when ballast levels are above the water line. If stability and the ice belt depth allows, where no ballast tank heating or bubbling systems are fitted, periodic lowering of the ballast level may avoid freezing of the water surface.

A2.2 DECK
As well as the natural consequences of sub zero temperatures, e.g. freezing of liquids, another area that should be managed is the accumulation of ice on deck from freezing spray and rain. Consequently, many of the actions below relate to covering equipment with canvas, heavy-duty plastic sheet or similar. Ice accumulations on unprotected equipment will render the equipment inoperable. Oil spill equipment should remain inside deck houses to prevent icing up if wet, but it should remain ready for use. Tank gauging/dipping point valves should be covered to prevent ice accumulation. Cargo manifold pressure gauge connections should be covered to prevent ice accumulation Cargo Manifold drip tray should be maintained dry. The drain valves on the drip tray should be drained of any water to prevent freezing in sub zero temperatures as well as be operational for draining cargo from loading arms into the drain tank. Cargo handling Cranes/Derricks- should be operated and tested prior entering subzero temperatures. Heating arrangement provided should be used appropriately.

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Accommodation Gangways Pneumatic/Electrical motors should be adequately covered to prevent ice accretion. Action should be taken to prevent scupper holes from getting iced over and scupper plugs not fitting correctly. Coating the scupper plug rubber faces with petroleum jelly will prevent seizure of the plugs in scupper holes. The main air valve to deck should be closed and the airline drained down, taking care to remove any moisture that may be contained within the, line especially at the ends. Deck Mooring Equipment For hydraulic equipment, for example, winches and hose handling cranes, particular attention needs to be paid to the operating temperature range of the hydraulic fluid. For hydraulic driven systems, oil should be circulated all the time when external temperature is below 0C so as to ensure that the fluid systems are maintained at working temperature. If this is to be achieved by leaving machinery (e.g. winches) running, careful attention must be paid to the regular lubrication of the equipment. The oil manufacturers stated operating temperature range/viscosity must be checked for suitability. Oils may have to be treated with an appropriate viscosity additive or, in extreme cases, the oil may have to be changed for a more suitable grade. If a ship trades extensively within cold climates, a reduction of hydraulic line life can be expected. This can be up to 25% of the manufacturers advertised life for these products. Control boxes and motion levers should be protected by canvas covers. Ice Accretion on Windlasses Mooring wires and synthetic ropes should be protected by canvas covers to stop ice accretion until they are required for use. If any mooring ropes have to be left out on deck, they should also be covered with canvas to stop ice accretion. The clutches and engaging gears of winches should be well protected by substantial coatings of grease.

Ice Accretion on Deck Machinery

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Other Particular care should be taken in sealing the chain locker spurling and hawse pipes. Prior to arrival in port, both anchors should be lowered so that they are free to run from the pipe (i.e. not frozen in) when safe navigation permits. However, they should be fully brought home when mooring and unmooring. Sprinkler Systems Sprinkler systems should be drained down free of water. This should include sprinkler systems to chemical, paint and other store rooms, mast riser systems and any fresh or salt water systems covering other spaces.

A2.3 ENGINE ROOMS, MACHINERY AND SYSTEMS


Prior to entering cold weather areas, the engine room should be prepared for the anticipated conditions. Particular consideration should be given to deciding when the engine room should be manned. The provision of heaters in the engine room/machinery spaces will assist in maintaining temperatures above freezing. The use of hot-air-blown space heaters may also be considered within these spaces. The following points should be considered to maintain the safe and effective operation of the ships propulsion and subsidiary systems. Cooling System Intakes (Sea Chests) Cooling water generally is going to be a problem in sub-zero sea temperatures. Prior to entering cool water, it is important that all seawater strainers are cleaned since a slightly clogged filter will lead to reduced flow, resulting in rapid ice formation within the strainer. Ships that are not fitted with a system as specified by authorities, such as the Canadian Coast Guard, should exercise vigilance to ensure that heating arrangements of the cooling water sea chests are working at optimum efficiency. The machinery space should be constantly manned to ensure adequate and prompt action. If cooling water becomes too cold, reduce flow and/or bypass cooler water inlet with outlet. Should the flow become inadequate due to the build-up of ice on the sea chest, RPM should be reduced, plugging the intake until the heating system restores conditions to normal. The steam heating system to all sea chests should be checked for good working condition and then kept operating when the ship is in ice infested waters. Flexible steam hoses should be connected to the sea suctions prior to arrival in ice or cold waters. Consideration should also be given to the following: It may become possible to severely overcool the jackets, something that should be avoided Shut down to one central cooler Sea water system main sea water system in engine room set up for recirculation to sea chest with steam connections ready for use Raise central cooling temperature

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Adjust charge air coolers Monitor closely the scavenge temperatures and ensure that they are maintained within limits. Fuel System Ensure steam heating is operating on all bunker storage tanks, bilge tank, bilge overflow tank, main engine sump settling and service tanks. Bunker storage tank temperatures should be kept at least 5C above the minimum transfer temperature given in the fuels specification. Consideration should be given to changing over from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil prior to closing down the main engine so that the fuel lines are primed with diesel oil instead of fuel oil. This ensures that any cooling of fuel lines will not result in oil solidifying within the lines. Cargo Pumps If fitted, ensure cargo pump steam inlet lines are completely drained of condensate to avoid damage to pipe work. Run cargo pump lube oil priming pumps to ensure lubricating oil remains at a satisfactory temperature and does not become too viscous. Stern Tube Stern tube oil should not contain any free water or be contaminated with water/oil emulsion. Consideration should be given to draining any water from the system or replacing the stern tube oil charge. The temperature of the stern tube cooling water tank should be closely monitored. Consideration should be given to sourcing a suitable additive or temporarily draining the tank when the contents approach 0 C. Ventilation Consideration should be given to stopping all but one main engine room ventilation fan to maintain a reasonable ambient temperature in the machinery space. However, suitable air flow must be maintained to allow the correct operation of boilers, main and auxiliary engines if they are not provided with separate ducting. Ensure, so far as possible, that vents feeding off the main ventilation system do not blow directly on to fuel lines or pipes containing fuel oil. Likewise, ensure that these vents are not blowing onto the heavy fuel oil transfer pumps. Stop ventilation fans in the steering gear space and close fan flaps to maintain a reasonable ambient temperature. Activate accommodation steam heating and maintain a comfortable temperature and humidity in accommodation spaces. Regularly operate pneumatic and manual fan flaps to ensure their correct operation and avoid seizing. Machinery Regularly run hydraulic pumps to maintain the temperature of oil and machinery.

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Electrical Systems Portable space heating tape is an adhesive tape with wire contained in it that can be used to heat pipes and machinery. It comes with the necessary documentation to calculate current, load and wattage. It provides a temporary, quick and cost-effective solution to heating pipes and machinery. It is not IX EX approved and is therefore suitable for use only in non-hazardous areas. Electrical motors not fitted with electric space heaters should be checked. Generators The fuel temperature of any generator running on gas oil/diesel should be monitored and arrangements made for temporary local heating if the temperature approaches the fuels pour point. Emergency Generators Some ships have emergency generators that have electric heating on the alternator end. This should be tested to ensure satisfactory operation. The emergency generator room external vent flaps and supply fan damper should be kept closed. Notices advising of the status of the flaps and dampers should be posted in the emergency generator room and main engine control room. It should be ensured that the emergency generator has the correct amount of anti-freeze added to the cooling water. Reference should be made to Maritime and Coastguard Agency Marine Guidance Note MGN 34 (M+F) Lifeboat Engines and other Compression Ignition Engines used in an Emergency, copies of which can be downloaded from the MCA site at http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mgn0034.pdf Emergency Batteries Emergency batteries and power for communications equipment should be protected from extreme low temperatures. Spaces containing batteries may need to be provided with space heaters, dependent upon their location/exposure. Battery Lockers GS batteries (maintenance free type) and GMDSS batteries (water/acid mixture) are unlikely to freeze in expected conditions but, as a precaution, can be covered with plastic sheet. Water When not Generating Water Domestic/Distilled Tanks. Ensure that, where possible, gauge glasses are drained. If gauge glasses are not drained, there is the possibility that the lower section of the gauge glass will become frozen and shatter. Remote sensing gauging cannot be relied upon. If the evaporator is not in use, drain the line as this may freeze. When Generating Water Monitor the temperature in the water storage tanks and make water to tanks as necessary to maintain a reasonable temperature. As the distillate from the evaporator is at about 50C, this should prevent the water in the tanks becoming cold enough to freeze. The supply lines from domestic fresh water tanks to pressurising pumps are generally susceptible to freezing, depending upon their location.

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Boiler water sensing lines should be protected from freezing Compressed Air If ice contaminates the general service and or instrument air system, there is the possibility of problems with on board instrumentation air supply, and also there is the possibility of blowing the general service air main valves. Rudder & Steering Gear Steering gear motors should be kept running at all times to keep the oil warm. Space heaters should be used in the steering flat to ensure no cold soak of the equipment takes place and also to protect the gauging system of any fresh water storage tanks that may be contained within the steering flat. Lubrications and Oils It should be ensured that only suitable winter grade oils are used. These will typically be effective down to temperatures of -20C with only increased viscosity to be contended with. Reference should be made to Maritime and Coastguard Agency Marine Guidance Note MGN 34 (M+F) (see under Emergency Generators above). Winter Grade Diesel Oil Blend The following information is intended to enable blending of fuel to achieve a calculated pour point. It is important to realise that a pour point of -15C would not give an engine start requirement at an ambient of -15C. Hence, the ISO DMX spec is based upon a cloud point value. The reality is that an engine may fail to start at some temperature lower than the cloud point because wax crystals have formed, causing blockage and fuel starvation. Diesel to the ISO-8217-DMA spec or equivalent should be purchased and the pour point for the fuel obtained. For calculation purposes, it is assumed to be the summer specification, which has a pour point of 0C. On this basis, the following ratios will give target pour points as follows: Ratio Diesel/Kerosene 50/50 40/60 30/70 Pour Point C -14 -18 -23

As the proportion of kerosene is increased, there is a risk of exceeding the flash point minimum of 43C, (this assuming a start flash point for the kerosene of 40C). It should be assured that the flash point of the final blend is within the IMO regulations.

A2.4 SAFETY AND LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING MEDICAL


Periodic inspections of all safety related systems should be undertaken during the exposure to extreme temperatures to ensure that the precautions being taken are effective. All available space heaters and engine sump heaters/heat lamps should be fully utilised. Ships that do not regularly trade in such conditions may require the purchase of additional protective equipment.

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Life rafts All life rafts should be rated for safe operation down to temperatures of -30C. Ice accretion should be regularly removed from the life rafts, cradles, cradle release pins and launching equipment to ensure ease of launching and inflation. An icing removal mallet should be readily available in the vicinity of the life rafts. Care should be exercised when using mallets to avoid permanently damaging any equipment. Similar precautions should be taken for lifeboats, rescue boats and their launching appliances. Particular checks should be made to ensure that brake release securing pins are free to be extracted. Lifeboats The overall condition of the lifeboats gel coat should be inspected, in good time, for any damage, particularly penetration of the gel coat and fibre sub structure. Any damage should be made good in a warm dry climate to limit water ingress, which, if subjected to freezing, can cause severe damage to the boats structure. Lifeboat Engines The lifeboat engine should at all times remain available for immediate use within two minutes of starting at -15C. (SOLAS) The process of starting an extremely cold engine is quite different from normal starting procedures. The correct procedure should be drawn to the attention of all persons likely to be involved in starting the engine in very cold conditions to ensure they are familiar with the operation. Manufacturers instructions for the grade of oil to be added to the cold starting pots, if fitted, should be followed. This oil should be readily available in the lifeboats. The possibility for increasing the amount of throttle required on starting should not be overlooked. It should also be borne in mind that the performance of the starting batteries in cold conditions might be diminished. If fitted, heaters in life boat engines should be used. Lifeboat Fuel Systems Winter Grade diesel/gas oil is the grade that should be used to prevent waxing in fuel systems leading to lack of engine start and impaired reliability. The fuel tanks and line contents on lifeboats should be changed out and the engine run on new fuel to ensure the system is properly flushed and primed. Reference should be made to Maritime and Coastguard Agency Marine Guidance Note MGN 34 (M+F) (see under Emergency Generators above). Lifeboat Cooling Water Systems The lifeboat cooling system, if of a recirculating self-contained type, must be adequately protected with anti-freeze solution. If the system is not self contained, it should be checked to ensure that no obstructions or contamination has prevented the natural drainage of this system. Lifeboat Water Spray Systems The spray systems on the life boats should be drained and water-free. The pumps to the spray system should also be drained and water-free. In some classes of boat, if the spray pump is frozen, it will inhibit starting of the lifeboat engine by locking the propeller shaft.

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Lifeboat Bilges These should be cleaned and dried and should remain water free. Lifeboat Water Ration Containers Water in lifeboat containers will freeze. It should be ensured that sufficient space is allowed for expansion of the contents to prevent splitting of containers. A level of full is suggested. Additional containers will be required to ensure the water provision meets SOLAS requirements for each lifeboat. Stern Launched Lifeboats It is not safe to release a stern launched lifeboat into ice. When in ice, it will be necessary to break the ice, whether by judicial use of the ships engines or by other craft. The lifeboat may be winched out and down to rest upon the ice surface. Rescue Boats with Water Jet Engines The use of semi-rigid rescue boats, particularly boats with water jet drives, in ice conditions is a dangerous operation if not handled correctly. It will be individual Masters decision as to whether to use the fast rescue boat or the more-substantial ships lifeboat with conventional propeller drive, which may be more suited to the prevailing conditions. In any event, the engine of the rescue boat should be dry to prevent the seizure effect of any surface or ingested frozen water. The rescue boat should be maintained in a condition that will allow immediate use but will also protect the boat from the extremes of weather. Appropriate covers and protective measures should be taken to ensure this. Subsidiary LSA Equipment Immersion Suits Special immersion suits for Arctic waters are available and are recommended for ships operating in cold climates. Commonly supplied immersion suits have a design operational range in immersed (seawater) temperatures from -1.9C up to +35C. Below -1.9C, the suits thermal protective properties will be reduced but it will still afford limited protection to the user. TPAs (Thermal Protective Aids) TPAs are effective within a temperature range of -30C to +20C. Lifebuoys Ensure these are not iced into position and are free to be removed and used. External Pyrotechnics Bridge wing lifebuoy/smoke floats release pins should be well greased together with the complete apparatus to ensure it remains ice-free. EPIRBs EPIRBs should be maintained ice-free. Breathing Apparatus and Oxygen Therapy Units In sub zero conditions, the use of compressed air/oxygen breathing or resuscitation apparatus should be considered with care. The hazards involved

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include the freezing of the demand valve and exhale valve due to the freezing of exhaled vapours from the user leading to premature emptying of the gas bottle or failure of the system. The effect of low temperature (below -4C) on the lungs of the user, can lead in protracted cases to frostbite of the lung tissue. Eye Wash Stations Eye wash fluid is effective in a fluid temperature range of +5C to +25C. Below +5C the effectiveness of the fluid is reduced. At 0C fluid temperature, it is strongly recommended not to use the fluid except in extreme urgency as it may cause damage to the eye. Consideration should be given to withdrawing temporarily exposed eyewash stations into the accommodation whilst the vessel is operating in sub zero conditions. Hard Hats The safe operating temperature range for hard hats is marked within the hat by the manufacturer. Some hard hats are certified for safe operation to -40C and their use should be considered.

A2.5 FIRE-FIGHTING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT


Precautions should be taken to prevent nozzles, piping and valves of any fire extinguishing system from becoming clogged by impurities, corrosion or ice build up. The exhaust gas outlets and pressure vacuum arrangements on gas detection systems should be suitably protected from ice build up that could interfere with the systems effective operation.
Type of Extinguisher Minimum operational temperature Modified extinguisher Minimum operational temperature Maximum operational temperature Hazards

Water gas

-20C if Kerrol or

+1C

N/A

an equivalent additive is used.


CO2 Dry Powder AFFF

----------

-20C -30C +5C

N/A
+60C +60C

If no additive water will freeze at 0C Cold burn hazard Cold burn hazard Nil

Operational Temperature Ranges of Portable Extinguishers

Fire Extinguishers (in exposed locations) Water Gas and Low Expansion Foam Fire extinguishers located in exposed areas are susceptible to freezing. Foam extinguishers will be ineffective and, when they do thaw out, the foam compound will have been frost damaged, rendering them useless. Unprotected Foam and Water Extinguishers

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Unprotected water and foam extinguishers are rated for safe and effective operation to +1C. If protected with ethylene glycol, this figure is revised downward to -10C. If the additive Kerrol, or equivalent, is used, this will enable water and foam extinguishers to be available for use at temperatures to -20C. CO2 Extinguishers CO2 extinguishers are rated for safe and effective operation to -20C. However, if operated at these temperatures extreme caution should be taken to avoid contact with any part of the extinguisher or expelled gas to avoid low temperature burning. Dry Powder Extinguishers These types of extinguishers are rated for safe operation from -30C to +60C. The extinguishing medium presents no additional special precautions. However, the propellant, CO2 needs to be treated with extreme caution to avoid personnel injury through exposure to the cold gas. AFFF AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) extinguishers have a nominal safe operational range of temperatures between +5C and +60C. At temperatures below +5C, the operation of AFFF cannot be guaranteed. Fire Mains and Foam Systems Hoses and Nozzles There is no restriction on the use of fire spray nozzles down to -25C. Most hoses are rated for safe operation to temperatures of -20C. Cold weather hoses are available that are rated to -40C and are marked accordingly. Fire and Foam Lines The fire and foam lines on deck must be well drained, by opening drain valves and the lowest hydrant valve. Fire and foam lines must be ready for use at all times (not blanked). Monitors, hydrant valves and any other moving parts must be well greased and protected to avoid ice/snow accumulation that may prevent their immediate operation. Their movement should be regularly checked to ensure that they remain free for operation. In addition, the water curtain and spray system pipe work must be checked drained and empty. Also any items drawing from the fire main, such as hawse pipe cable washer lines, should be drained down, particularly if a re-circulatory fire main line is in use (to avoid any dead-ends). Fixed foam system bulk storage tanks will need heating to ensure that the temperature in these spaces remains above zero. It may be necessary to source temporary space heaters to heat these spaces adequately. Portable Foam Equipment Drums and canisters of foam for portable branch pipe appliances are subject to the same sensitivities as portable fire extinguishers. Fire Boxes

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These should be kept ice-free on catches/locks/dogs/hinges to allow ease of access. Spray nozzles and couplings should be well greased and water free. All hoses should be completely drained of water to avoid damage and to facilitate their rapid use.

A2.6 POLLUTION
Prevention of pollution to the environment in areas of extreme cold is of great importance. Care should be taken to follow all regulations in force and particular to those areas the ship is trading in. An example of local requirements is the proposed prevention of grey water discharge while in the Baltic. Changes to the pollution contingency plans should be made well in advance bearing in mind issues, such as, the reduction in the effectiveness due to ice accretion of gutter bars to mitigate loss of primary containment to the main deck. The readiness of pollution equipment must not be compromised by the effects of ice accretion. If pollution equipment is stored forward, consideration should be made to stowing it in the after part of the ship where the possibility of icing is less. The ships sewage system should be in good operating condition and suitable storage available in the event that discharge to sea is not permitted by local regulation.

A2.7 ICE ACCRETION AND SNOW ACCUMULATION ON SHIPS


Ice accretion and snow accumulation poses hazards for personnel having to work onboard the ship, as well as to the ship itself. De-icing a ship is a complex, timeconsuming and expensive operation and ships generally are not well equipped to do the job. Masters should try to minimise, as much as possible, sea spray on deck by either reducing speed and/or altering course. Masters should bear in mind that entering thin ice will reduce sea spray and hence ice accumulation. It should be borne in mind that ice accumulation also results in a potential for falling ice and the associated dangers. In certain conditions, ice formed of fresh water or sea water accumulating on the hulls and superstructures of ships can pose a serious threat. Fresh-water ice can form from fog, drizzle, rain or snow. Icing from seawater is generally experienced with air temperatures of below -2C and in conditions of strong winds. Radio and radar failure due to ice on aerials or insulators may be experienced soon after ice starts to accumulate. Where deck icing is evident, additional care needs to be exercised when moving and working around the ship, remembering that ice can be found both on the external surfaces and, in some conditions, in internal spaces. The following section describes the effects of ship icing and how best to avoid or mitigate its formation and impact. Description of Sea Spray Icing Sea spray icing is a serious hazard for marine operations in high latitude regions. Many ships and lives have been lost when ships sank, or became disabled, following

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the accretion of ice on decks and superstructures. Large amounts of ice on smaller ships can raise the centre of mass so as to result in a catastrophic loss of stability. Capsizing, extreme rolling and/or pitching, and topside flooding can occur as a result of the loss of stability and extra weight from the ice burden. The effects of icing on a larger ship may have a significant financial penalty attached if it impedes upon the ability to discharge or load cargoes satisfactorily.

Effects of Icing and Ice Accretion Causes Sea spray icing occurs when cold, wave-generated spray comes into contact with exposed surfaces and the air temperature is below freezing. There are two general factors to be consideredEnvironmental and Ship Characteristics. Environmental Factors The following environmental factors affect sea spray icing: 1. Wind speed 2. Air temperature 3. Water temperature 4. Freezing temperature of water 5. Wind direction, relative to the ship 6. Swell and wave characteristics wave size wave length wave propagation direction Factors 1-3 are the most important to consider when determining the potential for sea spray icing. Factor 4 is nearly constant, Factor 5 can be changed by altering the ship heading and Factor 6 is closely related to the wind. Ship icing can occur when the following environmental conditions are present: High wind speed - usually above 18 knots or 9 m/s but sometimes lower Low air temperature - below freezing (-1.7C) Low water temperature - usually below 7C

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The first two factors, high wind speed and low air temperature, are associated with cold air advection. Cold air advection often occurs after the passage of a cold front. It is most intense when air formed over continents or ice regions (i.e. Polar Continental, Arctic and Antarctic air masses) moves over open water in the late autumn (fall), winter or early spring. Long, closely-spaced bands of low level cumuliform clouds called 'cloud streets' are a sure sign that cold air advection is taking place over water. The cold air advection, and associated serious icing, is most intense when an ice edge or shore is less than 200 kilometres (108 nautical miles) upwind. At further distances, the air becomes warmer and icing is less likely. Very close (less than about 5 kilometres or 3 nautical miles; the exact distance being dependent on the ships size) to a shore or ice edge, waves are not developed and, hence, there is protection from icing even when the above conditions are met. In the Northern Hemisphere, icing is most likely to occur in the northern portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It also can occur everywhere in the Arctic Ocean and in the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica. Ship Characteristics In addition to the environmental factors discussed above, the severity of seaspray icing depends on ship characteristics. Icing can only occur when there is a source of water for wetting the deck, superstructure and other exposed parts of a ship. Some ship factors to consider are as follows: Ship speed Ship heading (with respect to wind, waves and swell) Ship length Ship freeboard Ship handling Ship cold soaking

In general, for the same environmental conditions, there will be more sea spray reaching the exposed deck and superstructure areas when a ship is travelling faster, heading into wind and waves, and with lessened freeboard. Smaller ships will, in general, also experience more spray reaching these areas. The graphs below illustrate sea spray icing potential as a function of wind speed and air temperature for a given sea temperature. These are slightly different from the graphs used by the US Navy (1988) because they are based on the most recent work by Overland (1990). The main difference is that the effect of cold seawater is emphasised more in the graphs shown. Generally, icing is not a problem at sea temperatures greater than 7C, and no cases with higher temperatures were considered when the algorithm was derived.

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Note: The above provides only an approximate guide for ships steaming into the wind and waves. The actual potential for icing depends on the type, load, and handling characteristics of a particular ship. Any Captain or bridge officer who is familiar with a ship should be well aware of the wind speeds which cause sea spray to reach the deck and superstructure and should base their assessment on the potential for icing on this knowledge. Another ship factor to consider is cold soaking. When a ship has been in cold temperatures for a long time (two-three weeks) the body of the ship will remain cold even if the air temperature is warmer. In this situation, icing may be more severe than expected given the current environmental conditions. Prediction of Vessel Sea Spray Icing Algorithm The following algorithms have proven to be useful for predicting sea spray vessel icing. These algorithms were based primarily on reports from vessels.

Where: PPR Va Tf Ta Tw

= Icing Predictor = Wind speed (m s-1) = Freezing point of seawater (usually -1.7C or -1.8C) = Air temperature (C) = Sea temperature (C)

The following table shows the expected icing class and rates for ships that are steaming into the wind.
PPR Icing Observation Icing rate Cm/hr Inch/hr <0 None 0 22.4 Light 22.4-53.3 Moderate 53.3-83.0 Heavy 83.0-> Extreme

<0.7 <0.3

0.7 2.0 0.3 0.8

2.0 4.0 0.8 1.6

>4 >1.6

These icing rates are only a guide. Actual icing rates depend on ship characteristics, cold soaking and exposure to sea spray.

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ANNEX 3: ICEBREAKER ESCORT OF LARGE TANKERS There are various different types, designs and sizes of icebreakers. Icebreakers used for escorting large tankers may be multifunctional or may have been designed with other prime or secondary purposes in mind. The world's icebreaker fleet is ageing and it is recognised that there is a shortage. Most escort systems work on the principle of providing icebreaker assistance only when the ship is bound to the port/country which also provides the icebreaker service. In general terms, large conventional tankers may require icebreaking assistance in anything more than thin unbroken ice. The ice channel required by large tankers will usually be wider than the beam of the tanker. Two icebreakers may be required for efficient escort. However, depending on the circumstances, single icebreaker escort is also possible. There is a range of different large-ship icebreaker escort techniques in use depending, for example, on the ice conditions, preferred methods of the local icebreaker Captains and availability/design of icebreakers. Azimuth stern drive (ASD) icebreakers can break significantly wider ice channels than their beam by directing the azimuth thrust forwards and outwards. Conventional, high power icebreakers can achieve wider ice channels than their beam by breaking thin or medium thickness ice at high speeds of advance. A common mode of large ship escort consists of two icebreakers in tandem (one ahead of the other) and separated by about 20 metres (depending on the beam of the tanker). This provides an ice channel approximately the width of the combined beams of both icebreakers plus the separation distance. The tanker travels at a "safe distance" behind the nearest icebreaker at a "safe speed" nominated by the icebreaker Captain who controls and manages the convoy. The tanker will encounter ice floes in the channel, as illustrated in the Figure below.

The convoy Masters must be alert to the danger of collision between tanker and icebreaker, particularly if the icebreaker comes to a sudden stop due to ice ridges, deformed ice or pressure. Missing the ice channel at high speeds when navigating from open leads or nilas (thin new ice) into thicker ice is also dangerous for the following tanker. The tankers bridge team cannot be allowed to become fatigued and, if they are not familiar with this mode of operation, experienced assistance in the form of an ice advisor is recommended. Good communications, defined responsibilities and adherence to well thought out procedures are extremely important to the safe execution of large tanker escort operations.

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ANNEX 4: TUG SUPPORT WHEN BERTHING AND UNBERTHING IN ICE


The subject of tug assistance on arrivals and departures to terminals and offshore objects, as well as any assistance and ice-management during loading/offloading operations is highly dependable on various local factors. The following information is provided for general guidance only. When a tug assists a ship during its arrival to, or departure from, an area with ice, there is a risk of collision, especially when towlines are used. For example, in areas with little or no ice, the tug may encounter an area with many ice pans and become stuck (see Figure 1). To avoid collision in such situations, the tug master must constantly make sure that the assisted ship is ready to go astern and manoeuvre in such a way that a collision can be avoided. It is also important to make sure that the towline does not slacken and pick up ice which could result in an increased risk of it parting.

Figure 1 Considering the above, it is important that great care is taken during towing with towlines. In addition, the speed must be lower than in the case of towing in areas with no ice. The safest approach is to use the tug to push, to break ice or to remove ice between the jetty and the assisted ship. A4.1 ARRIVAL AT JETTY Experience shows that the best way to bring a ship alongside a jetty in areas with ice is to manoeuvre the ship parallel to the jetty and as close to it as safely possible (see Figure 2), thus ensuring that there is a minimum of ice between the jetty and the ship and that the ice on the seaward side pushes the bow towards the jetty. However, this approach is rarely feasible and as a general rule it should always be expected that there will be ice between the jetty and the assisted ship. Figure 2 shows a ship assisted by a tug using a towline attached to the ships bow. In positions 1 and 2, the bow of the assisted ship is towed as close to the jetty as possible; the tug places the bow of the ship at an angle of about 45 degrees to the jetty and slides towards the jetty, thus ensuring that there is no ice in front of the assisted ship (position 3). If this manoeuvre fails and there is too much ice between the jetty and the ship, the procedure shown in Figure 3 must be applied.

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FF

Figure 2 In Figure.3 below, the assisted ship and tug A have fastened a spring line ashore. Tug A moves forward in relation to the spring line, thus blowing the ice between the ship and the jetty astern, which makes it possible for the assisted ship to proceed carefully on its spring line, bringing its bow to the jetty. It should be ensured that the ships crew are aware of the particular risks associated with this manoeuvre. The assisted ship can then move its stern alternately towards and away from the jetty, thus pumping away the ice between the jetty and the ship. Tug A can sail to the side of the ship to push on it, or it may sail to another position (e.g. B or C) to push or help removing the ice between the ship and the jetty.

Figure 3 Tugs B and C in Figure 3 depict how several tugs can be used. Tug B pushes at the bow in order to bring it alongside the jetty, while tug C assists in removing the ice between the ship and the jetty. In some cases it is possible to use a tug between the ship and the jetty to push away ice by means of the tugs propeller wash. A pre-condition for such a manoeuvre is that other tugs are ready to keep the assisted ship away from the jetty while the ice is being removed, since there is a risk that the assisted ship may make contact with the tug.

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A4.2 DEPARTURE FROM JETTY Before a ship leaves the jetty, it is important that the tugs break the ice in an adequate area around the ship, so that the assisted ship is able to move as freely as possible in the ice (Figure 4).

Figure 4 When the ice has been broken around the ship, the tug(s) must attach towlines to the ship and pull it away from the jetty (Figure 5) to make room for manoeuvring the two tugs in between the jetty and the ship. It is important to pay attention to ensuring that the assisted ship does not drift back towards the jetty before the tugs are in a position where they can used for pushing (see Figure 6).

Figure 5 If a ship is to be turned in a harbour basin, the ice around the ship must be in constant movement, since the ice will otherwise form blocks at the bow and the quarter. The ice can be kept in constant movement by a tug working in the ice around the ship, particularly at the bow and quarter (see Figure 6).

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Figure 6 A4.3 OPERATIONS AT OFFSHORE TERMINALS a) Approach The approach to an offshore terminal during the ice season is normally made with the assistance of icebreakers. As part of the overall operation, it is important to schedule the arrival of the tanker, and operations at the terminal, so that ships do not have to wait in ice. The transition between normal icebreaker escort, and icebreaker-assisted approach to a terminal installation, is characterised by the breaking of a more extensive area of ice to allow the tanker to manoeuvre to the terminal. This may be accomplished by one or two of the icebreaker escort vessels, or by a dedicated icebreaking tug provided by the terminal for that purpose. Ice should be broken in the approach area to the terminal and in areas which are up-ice from the terminal, that is, in a direction such that only broken, rather than sheet, ice will drift into the terminal and approach area. This icebreaking should be accomplished before the tanker approaches the terminal berthing area. In all cases, the direction of drift of the ice sheet is critical to the decision of where to break ice. Ice will drift, and may pack, under the influence of wind, current and tide experienced at the site and elsewhere. Ice may drift a different direction from a ship exposed to the same influences. Thus, the optimum direction for the ship to approach the mooring will be influenced by the expected ice drift, as well as the normal considerations of wind, tide, current and proximity to navigational hazards. Should tug assistance be required to moor to the terminal (jetty or single point mooring structure), such tugs should be capable of sustained operations in the maximum thickness of ice that is forecast to be encountered at the terminal. Special care should be taken to prevent loss of control of the tanker, and subsequent collision between tanker and tug or terminal, caused by the tug coming fast in ice while assisting the tanker to berth. Towlines should be under some tension at all times, to prevent the towline dragging in the ice, abrading and parting. Specific procedures to avoid the contact of hoses and moorings associated with berthing should be developed and employed. This is particularly true of single point mooring arrangements, where specialised bow moorings may be employed.

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b) Operations alongside Icebreaking operations up-ice should continue throughout the period that the tanker is moored to the terminal. This can be accomplished by icebreakers, or by a dedicated icebreaking tug. For single point mooring terminals, a tug may be stationed astern of the tanker to assist with position keeping. If so, the tug should assist in keeping ships head pointing up-ice, rather than into wind or tide, to minimise the ice forces on the tanker. The towline used should be kept clear of the ice. The direction of ice drift should be monitored at all times, particularly if a change in climatic conditions causes a change in drift which may trap the tanker at the terminal when ice drift direction changes. This is particularly important if the tanker is moored to an offshore jetty structure, where the tanker could be beset by the ice sheet, and damaged. The operational procedures at such a terminal should allow for early departure of the tanker if a danger of besetting arises. c) Departure The additional area of ice required for the tanker to manoeuvre from the terminal towards and into the departure channel should be broken prior to unmooring. Specific procedures are required to avoid contact between ice and terminal and tanker equipment (hoses, moorings) to prevent damage. Otherwise, the precautions for departure mirror those of arrival.

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ANNEX 5: OIL SPILLS IN ICE


The scope of the Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency plan (SOPEP) of tankers operating in ice should address specific issues associated with the response to oil spills in such conditions. Operators should demonstrate that attention has been paid to the unique hazards posed by spills in the extreme cold or in ice. Oil spilled in, on and under ice offers unique challenges versus open water spills. Ice acts as a natural barrier and prevents oil from spreading. Oil spilled on ice will usually be contained in a small area. The actual amount of spreading will be dependent on the air temperature, density and viscosity of the oil spilled, and snow cover. Snow is an excellent sorbent. Oil spilled under the ice is also contained in a very restricted area which is influenced by the under-water ice roughness and currents. The spread of oil in broken ice is a function of ice concentration and wind and currents. The primary cleanup technique for oil in ice environments is mechanical containment and recovery, either by heavy equipment or traditional spill response equipment. In broken ice conditions, traditional open water mechanical containment and recovery systems can be used with the noted caution that most oil spill booms cannot withstand the forces encountered when operating in heavy ice conditions. The secondary option that works well in both solid ice and broken ice conditions is insitu burning. This requires minimal logistics and provides high removal rates. Cautions associated with burning relate to the risk of unwanted fires and detrimental effects on the environment caused by the smoke plume and residues of burning. Dispersant application is not generally a realistic response option in ice conditions. Dispersants are typically less effective in cold temperatures and uniform application becomes more difficult.

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ANNEX 6: ICE OPERATIONS TRAINING COURSE


The following provides an example outline content to form the basis of an ice operations training course. 1. Types of ice, its formation and properties 2. Ice Regulations (Baltic, Canadian and Arctic regulations as applicable) 3. Technical aspects of ice classification, winterisation notations, design and construction 4. Ice Broadcasts and Ice Charts 5. Passage Planning considerations for ice 6. Navigation / Ship Handling in Ice 7. Icebreaker Operations 8. Berthing / Entering Locks in Ice 9. Risk Assessment 10. Management of the Vessel in Cold Weather 11. Contingency Planning 12. Cargo and Ballast Operations 13. Environmental Issues 14. Shore Support 15. Simulator Module

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ANNEX 7: EXAMPLE TASK RISK ASSESSMEMT OPERATING IN ICE


The following is provided as an example to demonstrate the methodology of risk assessment when applied to ship operations in ice. Operators should undertake their own assessments based on the particular hazards associated with their operations. Ship: Description of Task: Operating in Ice Assessment Team Members: Master: CAPT; C/E; C/O. Supt:

HAZARD 1. PERSONNEL Exposure of personnel

SAFEGUARDS NEEDED TO CONTROL RISK TO ACCEPTABLE LEVEL Cold weather clothing to be provided for onboard personnel & anticipated new joiners. Adequate quantities of cold weather clothing to be ordered and delivered prior to operating in ice. This includes Arctic suits (30 of), balaclavas & thermal underwear. This clothing to be worn when outside. Adequate quantities of high factor sun lotion, chap lipsticks & Nivea type cream to be ordered & delivered prior to operating in ice. Masters and, if practicable, C/Os to attend the Ice Navigation Course. C/O & C/E has previous ice experience. Ice Navigation course to extend to 2nd and 3rd officers where possible and practicable. Personnel to be very careful when moving / walking around the ship. Always keep one hand free for themselves, if possible. Use flying bridge wherever practical. Ensure that there are adequate supplies of industrial salt/sand onboard to spread on walkways / gangways. Provide a suitable shelter at the gangway for the Security watch to remain out of the direct cold and wind. Organise frequent breaks to permit deck watch to rest inside the accommodation. Ensure heating systems are working adequately. Additional bridge heating will be required. Rest periods before arrival at the ice edge should be managed to allow for forthcoming extended duty periods. When the Master has been present on the bridge because of Navigational requirements, the vessel should anchor before crossing the ice edge to allow suitable rest. It is recommended that where possible speed is adjusted so that the vessel meets the ice edge during daylight hours.

ACCEPT RISK?

Sun burn Inadequate training for operating in ice

Slips and falls on icy deck. Slips and falls on icy deck. Exposure of gangway watch to wind and direct cold Cold living/working conditions Fatigue of Master due to his presence on the bridge for extended periods.

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Hypothermia (deck watch keepers) Effect on watchkeepers eyes caused by icereflected sun light 2. PUBLICATIONS Poor passage planning

Frequent breaks for deck watch keepers in severely cold weather conditions. Keep hot food and drinks available at all times. Bridge windows fitted with sun screens. Sun glasses for personnel on deck.

Passage plan for the intended voyage to include all available ice information from known sources. Masters obligation to report a danger to navigation (M1641) on meeting ice or encountering sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion if not already promulgated. Checklist for Navigating in Ice to be fully completed prior to operating in ice. 1. Class Circulars - consult the Class circulars relating particularly to ice damage to propellers. 2. Consult all available ice information to include Navtex reports / ice charts / Bimco weekly ice report. 3. Consult the relevant sections of the following publications Mariners handbook, Meteorology for Mariners, code of signals.

Fines or penalties due failure to report dangers to navigation Poor planning lack of use of checklists Poor planning lack of use of available information

3. COMMERCIAL Loss of earnings failure to tender NOR correctly Loss of earnings failure to issue LOPs 4. NAVIGATION Damage to ship. Lack of manoeuvrability Inadequate bridge watch

Tender NOR on entering the ice edge. If possible take photograph to record date and time of entering ice edge. Issue a letter of protest for any delays that occur once vessel is in the ice.

Ice presence/ thickness to be closely monitored. Engine to be at SBE when navigating in or near ice. Keep vessel in hand steering throughout and post additional lookout. Excessive ice accretion Reduce speed immediately to reduce spraying if ice accretion is suspected or present. This can happen with air temps at -2C. If this is suspected, take and log the air wet and dry temps + sea temp. Canvas covers for ballast tank vents, Hi-Jets, focsle vents, deepwell pumps. Covers to have battens inside to keep canvas off the structure which will assist when clearing the ice. Tenting over windlasses and winches. Use of suitable grease to prevent icing up of hi-jets and machinery. Failure to call Master Ensure the master is called immediately if ice is sighted. Damage to propeller A minimum propeller immersion is to be established and adhered to. Ballast vessel as required. Hull damage on entering Ensure that speed is reduced appropriately when entering the ice ice edge. Enter at right angles to the ice. Hull damage due Maximum speed navigating in ice should not exceed the design excessive speed speed for this activity.

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Hull damage due lack of awareness of design capability Damage due failure to detect ice ridges Effect of ice/snow deposits Damage to bow thrusters Contact damage from icebergs Damage due heavy ice concentrations

Know the design capabilities of the vessel. Confirm capability to safely navigate in broken or brash ice, If fitted, ensure that the ice light(s) are working to aid navigation in ice at night. If the vessel is forced to stop due to ice conditions, the searchlight must be switched off for as long as the vessel remains stationary. Should ice form on deck, or snow falls and builds up, there could be a possible increase in the draft / trim or list of the vessel. Do not use the bow thruster in ice. Ice drawn through the thruster blades will damage them. Do not navigate in the vicinity of icebergs. Hull damage could result. If vessel is stopped by heavy ice concentrations, then the rudder is to be kept amidships and the engine turned ahead as required to ensure that propeller remains clear of ice. Regular visual inspections of the stern should be made to confirm that the propeller and rudder remain in clear water and free of ice. If vessel becomes fast in ice, the drift of the ice and vessel can be quite noticeable. When in ice, the manoeuvrability of the vessel is greatly affected in anything other than loose ice. The turning circle will increase considerably. When going astern, keep the rudder amidships and proceed with caution. Any astern movements should always be preceded by an ahead movement to clear ice away from the stern. Be aware that TSS may be suspended. Navigational buoys may have been removed from station or, if still present, may not be at their charted location. Non-ice buoys already removed. Ice Advisors are sometimes available in certain areas. Consider taking them onboard if available. Do not anchor in or near ice. This could easily result in the vessel losing the anchor as the movement of the ice may part the anchor cable. If navigating with the assistance of an ice breaker, co-operate fully and follow the instructions given. If in convoy, a watch is also required astern. Vessels navigate in close proximity to each other, 3 to 5 cables apart. Be alert at all times. If vessel is subjected to any significant movement of ice against the hull when berthed, due to tide, current or strong wind, be prepared to get underway immediately if the moorings no longer prove to be effective.

Ice drift Impaired manoeuvrability Damage during astern movements Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS) Reliance on navigational marks Lack of local information Loss of anchor Lack of co-operation with icebreakers Close proximity in ice convoy Damage to vessel while berthed

5. ENGINE ROOM Waxing of fuel in lifeboats and emergency generator fuel systems Freezing of lifeboat and emergency generator cooling water systems

Winter grade gas oil to be in use. Heaters in use plus antifreeze mix.

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Damage to rescue boat engine Blockage of salt water system strainers Ice/slush drawn into SW system Cooling of ER DB tanks Clogging of fuel systems Freezing conditions in steering flat including FW tanks Cooling of HFO tanks Overload of Main Engine Breakdown of Main Engine Engine Room Low Temperature Sluggish operation of steering gear motors 6. GENERAL Freezing damage to fire, foam, fresh water & deck shower lines Operability of Hi-Jets, purge pipes, PV breakers, ballast tank vents Operability of Hi-Jets Damage to mooring ropes Condition of steam hoses Condition of heating coils. Cooling of cargo below/near pour point and becoming unpumpable Damage to ballast tanks and or ballast pumps due frozen ballast Damage to Framo pumping systems

Engine must be ready for use in 5 mins. Suggest using thermostatically controlled heating elements if fitted. Engine to be removed and kept in emergency generator room. Clean the salt water strainers before vessel operates in ice. Steam injection hose rigged ready for use. SW recirc. Valve back to sea suction. Heating coils in use where fitted. Steam tracing system in use Steering flat heater in use Heating coils in use Monitor load limit and torque limit parameters in conjunction with shop test graphs for engine. Main Engine on stand-by at all times. 2-man engine room watches. Contact local authorities and request ice breaker assistance if the vessel is in imminent danger. Shut as many blower vents as possible when M/E not running reduce number of supply fans where possible Keep motors in use at all times

All lines are drained to prevent freezing and rupture. Ensure that they can be re-pressurised quickly in an emergency. Ensure canvas covers are made & fitted to prevent damage and blockage. Liquid PV breaker to contain 50/50 mix glycol/water. Ensure adequate supplies of glycol on board Hi-Jets are to be checked regularly before and during cargo operations in freezing conditions. Canvas covers to be made for rope drums for when vessel is at sea. Store loose ropes below decks to prevent freezing. Check the portable steam hoses are in good condition and rig them for use. Maintain steam on deck at all times, with at least 1 coil cracked open. Tank internal temperature can be monitored on the Saab Tank radar. If any coils are not to be used, then drain, blowdown and isolate them. Vessels with heating coils will keep cargo heating on at all times.

Vessels fitted with ballast tank heating or air bubbling systems should start using them as soon as there is deemed to be any risk of the ballast water freezing. Warm the Framo system through thoroughly before use. Keep circulating with heating valve open.

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Cargo pipelines blocked with cold product Ice formation Damage to tank cleaning heater. Operability of IG deck seal. Damage to ODME Damage to lifeboat water ration containers Operability of hydraulic valves Unable to use normal abandon ship procedures Freezing of void spaces, chain lockers Failure of pneumatically operated equipment due to freezing

Do not keep fuel oil type cargoes stationery in the cargo pipelines in freezing conditions. Alternate tanks more often during cargo operations. Drain and blow through immediately on completion. Have wooden mallets onboard to assist in removing ice if it forms on deck or on fittings. Drain heater. Ensure Deck Seal SW flow is adequate and steam coil in use. Drain ODME. Ensure space for expansion 75% full Hydraulic valves should be operated frequently during cargo operations to prevent freezing. Mustering to take place as normal. No launching of FFLB when in ice. Consider lowering of FFLB and davit launched life rafts. Avoid walking on ice wherever possible. All these spaces should be sounded prior to operating in freezing conditions. If any water is found, then it should be removed. Regular checks to be carried out. Pneumatic equipment (e.g. gangway and pilot ladder winches) should be operated frequently to prevent freezing.

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ANNEX 8: ICE NAVIGATION CONTROL SERVICES


Established Ice Navigation Control Services exist in Finland, Sweden, Russia and Canada and these are described in the following sections.

A8.1 FINNISH/SWEDISH
The Finnish and Swedish Maritime Administrations operate a co-operative icebreaker service covering the Northern Baltic. Finnish and Swedish icebreakers only assist vessels into and out of Finnish and Swedish ports. There is currently no co-operation agreement with Russia. The Finnish and Swedish Maritime Administrations operate a joint computer communication system known as the IBNet, which passes real time information between all Finnish and Swedish icebreakers, the icebreaking command, centres and VTS centres. The icebreaking command centres have input from ice forecasting services that provide the system with hydro meteorological input. IBNet obtains information on ships entering the Northern Baltic though another system called PortNet. Operators of ships trading to Finnish and Swedish ports in winter should ensure that their agents enter all the appropriate arrival and technical data in the PortNet system as early as possible. The icebreakers share their assistance duties and closely co-operate with each other, the pilot stations and VTS centres. In the Northern Baltic ships are directed to follow certain routes in order to make best use of available icebreakers. In contrast to the Canadian system, selected icebreaker Captains control regions in the Northern Baltic and select the recommended shipping routes and icebreaker positioning/duties. Typically routes are selected to allow shipping to transit independently as far as possible and icebreakers stationed to provide escort through the more difficult ice, often in the proximity of the ports themselves. Also, in contrast to the Canadian southern waters system, the Northern Baltic system imposes strict Ice Class and ship size restrictions. The severity of these restrictions depends on the actual severity of the ice conditions and may differ from port to port and week to week. The actual "RULES FOR WINTER NAVIGATION" can be found on the FMA Website (www.fma.fi). These rules provide guidance on average regional ice class and size restrictions as well as maximum restrictions. The Rules place much of the responsibility for compliance in selecting suitable ships on the receiver as opposed to the shipper. The logic is that foreign shippers will not be familiar with the complex winter navigation requirements. The Rules also provide guidance on reporting requirements and refusal of assistance. Dispensations from ice class requirements will not be considered for ships over 20 years old. The FMA recognise that ice class notation is not a guarantee of ice performance and they keep a record of ships whose ice operational qualities are insufficient and may cause delays to other ships by putting an undue burden on the icebreakers. The Rules also indicate they will not give dispensations for transit traffic, and state ice class restrictions for the Gulf of Finland. However, the Russian requirements are different. Current accepted practice is that the port of destination determines the applicability of ice class requirements to transit ships. A range of information on the Finish Maritime Authority, including data on icebreaker operations management, traffic restrictions, contacts and a training video can be found through their Website at: http://www.fma.fi and http://www.baltice.org

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Ice charts can be obtained from FIMR (Finnish Institute of Marine Research) Ice Service. Contact details and a general review of ice conditions can be found on the FIMR website at: http://www.fimr.fi/en/palvelut/jaapalvelu/jaatilanne.html The Swedish Icebreaker Management Service (Sjfartsverket) also has a website at: http://www.sjofartsverket.se

A8.2 RUSSIAN (BALTIC PORTS OF ST. PETERSBURG, PRIMORSK AND VYSOTSK)


Russian Baltic ports, in particular the Baltic ports of Primorsk St. Petersburg and Vysotsk, also administer winter ice navigation (Gulf of Finland).

Primorsk Vysotsk St. Petersburg

All ice navigation to and from Russian ports in the Finland Gulf is under the control and operation of Ice Operation Centre (IOC) which is situated in St. Petersburg under direction of the Harbour Master. IOCs responsibility includes all Russian icebreakers operating in the Finland Gulf (in accordance with Direction of Ministry of Transport BP-113-p 30.11.2001). The Harbour Master of St. Petersburg is responsible for all ice operations in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and has the authority, with regard to the ice conditions, to issue restrictions regarding ice operations and nomination of appropriate vessel ice class. The official document Icebreaker Assistance in the Russian Ports of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland including Captains Checklist before entering Ice-Covered Waters is updated for each ice season and can be found at: www.pasp.ru http://www.pasp.ru/rus/operinfo/ice%5Fbound/instructioneng.asp and http://www.pasp.ru/rus/operinfo/ice_bound/checklisteng.asp or www.baltice.org under Local Information and Russia.

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A8.2.1 Port of Primorsk The MERCHANT MARINE PORT OF PRIMORSK BY-LAWS define the requirements for the ice class of tankers bound for the port of Primorsk, their power and suitability for winter operations. These bylaws state that, during the ice navigation period, tankers calling at the port must have double hull and a Russian ice class not lower than LU4 (or equivalent). However double hull tankers with Russian ice class LU2 or LU3 (or equivalent) can be permitted to navigate depending on the ice conditions. In special conditions, double hull tankers of 50,000 dwt and above, having an ice class of LU1 (or equivalent), or not having an ice class but complying with Annex 7 (see below) and having been issued with an Ice Certificate/Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety, can be permitted to navigate during the ice period. It should be noted that this area has traditionally been a poor anchorage. Annex 7 of the above, entitled Requirements for Tankers Permitted to Navigate in the Gulf of Finland during the Period of Winter Navigation, requires the following: Steel plates for main deck and freeboard hull shall be not less than steel grade D(AH). Mooring equipment, deck cranes and other gear must be designed for operation at -30C. A propulsion system capable of sustaining a safe speed in an ice channel provided by icebreakers. Tankers over 50,000 dwt have to comply with a rated performance calculation not less than: kW Power =560x dwt2/3 (deadweight in thousands of tonnes) Main and Auxiliary cooling water intakes shall be placed on both sides of the ship, one has to be on or close to the bottom of the ship. Propellers to be made of steel or high quality bronze (or in accordance with categories 3 and 4 or the Russian Classification Rules applicable to propellers of ships navigating in ice. Accommodation spaces require heating systems suitable for low external temperatures.

A8.2.2 Port of Vysotsk (Oil Terminal) The ice class nomination and restrictions on ice navigation regime for tankers bound for the Oil Terminal of Vysotsk are the same as for the Port of Saint Petersburg. Up to date information can be found on the St. Petersburg Website, at www.pasp.ru and www.baltice.org Additional provisions for vessels to be used in the ice conditions: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Vessels having no Ice Class Notation must not be chartered for voyages during ice period or for the time when ice formation is possible. The vessel having Ice Class less than LU2 of Russian Register (or other Register equivalent) must have on board valid Ice Certificate or Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety. Master or Chief Officer must have ice navigation experience or, otherwise, an Ice Pilot must be on board during the whole period of ice navigation. Wheelhouse windows must have de-icing system or other means for defrosting.

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1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11

1.12 1.13 1.13 1.14

The vessel must have on board sufficient number of searchlights for use during icebreaker escorting. At least one searchlight must be located on each bridge wing and bow. The power of each searchlight shall not be less than 1000 watts. The deck systems and equipment must be suitable for operating in low temperatures conditions. The propeller must be kept sufficiently submerged in accordance with expected level ice conditions. An accommodation space heating system must be provided. Essential air intakes and venting systems (including cargo and venting systems) must be constructed to prevent freezing or snow blockage. The submerged water intakes for cooling systems must be constructed to prevent ice blockage. The ship owner/operator must fulfil the following: assessment of the risk of ice navigation in accordance with ships characteristics, crew members qualification and expected ice conditions; provide ships Master with all necessary instructions and guidance for ice navigation; provide on board the capability to receive ice information charts; provide on board procedures for use of fire-fighting systems, deck equipment and systems in the low temperature conditions; provide on board procedures for the use of life-saving appliances in the low temperature conditions; provide crew members with adequate cold weather clothing. The vessel must have on board ice fighting means. The cargo, ballast and fire-fighting systems must be designed for operability in low temperature conditions. It is strongly recommended that P/V valves are equipped with heating systems or there are procedures to prevent P/V valves from becoming frozen and inoperable. All cargo equipment must be ice and snow free before cargo operation.

A8.2.3 Port of St. Petersburg There are no special requirements of ice-class nominations for the vessels bound for the port in the Merchant Marine port of St. Petersburg BY-LAWS. All restrictions are announced in the Orders and Information Letters of the Harbour Master. A8.2.4 Icebreaker Assistance in the Russian Ports of the Eastern Part of Gulf of Finland (announced at the beginning of each ice season) Refer to www.pasp.ru or www.baltice.org A8.2.5 Ice Certificates/Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety Ice Certificates/Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety are issued by CNIIMF (Central Marine Research & Design Institute) Saint Petersburg. Refer to: http://www.cniimf.ru/iceeng.htm In accordance with actual ice conditions, the Harbour Master of St. Petersburg may restrict the navigation of vessels of no, or low, ice class nomination in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. In such cases, the St Petersburg Harbour Master may permit the call of such vessels into Russian ports if the vessel has on board an Ice

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Certificate or Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety and the vessel is less than 20 years old. In issuing the Ice Certificates or Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety, CNIIMF will assess: The engine power and suitability of the propeller characteristics for maintaining reliable movement under icebreaker escort, The suitability of the vessel to operate in low temperatures, (ship systems, deck machinery, and hull structure). An Ice Certificate/Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety is a document prepared by the Central Marine Research and Design Institute St. Petersburg (CNIIMF) which provides harbour masters, ship operators and escorting icebreakers with ship specific information on the following: Ice passage capability curves indicating the attainable speed and safe speeds for transit of the vessel through various ice conditions and thickness, Curves indicating safe distances between icebreaker and tanker for various speeds, ice conditions and ice thickness, An assessment of the ships structure to withstand besetment pressure. It is worth understanding some of the definitions of terms used in Ice Certificates/ Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety: Safe speed the maximum ship transit speed in ice at which no damage of hull structures occurs under the action of ice loads exceeding the allowable deformation criteria. Attainable speed the maximum speed a ship can develop when moving under given ice conditions at a given shaft power regardless of whether maintaining such speed by the ship leads to ice damage of the hull structures or not. Speed limit the maximum ship speed prescribed by the ice passport that it could develop moving in ice without hull damage; it is determined as the least of the safe and attainable speeds. Maximum safe ice thickness at ice pressures (ultimate ice thickness) the maximum ice thickness at which there would be no breach of the outer hull if the tanker were beset. Safe distance the distance to be maintained between the closest icebreaker and the escorted vessel in the prevailing ice channel conditions to prevent collision in the event that the icebreaker comes to a complete stop. This is normally based on use of the escorted vessel engines to reduce speed. Minimum permissible curvature radius of the channel the channel radius, which precludes the possibility of the escorted ship being stuck in the channel.

Information required when applying for Ice Certificates or Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety consists of: IMO Number Name Lines Drawing (preferred) Drawing of propeller arrangement Propeller material and characteristics Vessel ship yard acceptance test results (speed, power and revs) Results of propeller and ship model tests (preferred)

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General ship particulars Capacity Plans Stability Curves/Information Results of Hull Survey Shell Expansion Drawing General Arrangement Plans, forward, midships structural cross sections

A8.3 OTHER BALTIC PORTS/COUNTRIES


While the main counties impacted by ice navigation in the Baltic are Sweden, Finland and Russia, other countries can also be impacted. Websites of icebreaker management services are indicated as appropriate. A8.3.1 Ventspills - Latvia Considered ice free, Port Authorities do not have an ice class restriction policy. A8.3.2 Rostock - Germany Stralsund Traffic may impose restrictions on lower ice class vessels. www.wsd-nord.de/wsa-ka A8.3.3 Tallinn - Estonia The Estonian Maritime Board may impose icebreaker assistance and ice class restrictions (1C Lloyds). A8.3.4 Fredericia - Denmark No indication of ice class restriction. Icebreaker escort may be required. A8.3.5 Klaipeda - Lithuania

Klaipeda is stated as being ice free all year round. A8.3.6 Gdansk LNG Terminal, Poland This port is stated as being ice free all year round. www.sok.dk A8.3.7 Ice Surveillance Systems National ice services should be approached for information on ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. Contact information for these, and basic information on ice conditions in the Baltic Sea can be obtained from these websites: www.bsis-ice.de www.baltice.org The information should be in accordance with the Baltic Sea Ice Code, and will contain information such as location of the boundary edge of the ice and open field; the edge of the ice field with thickness exceeding 10cm; the thickness of level ice; ice concentration; and ice ridge fields along the routes to the ports.

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A8.4 RUSSIAN FAR EAST NAVIGATION OF LARGE TANKERS IN ICE CONDITIONS


Probable ice-covered areas of the large gas carrier/oil tankers navigation on the Russian Far East are: Tatar Strait (Northern part of the Japan Sea) La-Perouse Strait Okhotsk Sea along the Eastern Coast of the Sakhalin Island There are two oil/gas projects (Sakhalin-1 and Sakhalin-2) already in progress and Aframax size tankers are involved into the carriage of the crude oil from offshore terminals. Tankers chartered for the Sakhalin-1 project have Ice Class 1A and winterisation to 30C. It is reported that tankers of a similar size chartered for the Sakhalin-2 project should have the highest possible ice class. This should be confirmed with the terminal. Further development of the Sakhalin Oil/Gas Projects (Sakhalin-3 Sakhalin-6) during the next few years means enlargement of the fleet of large tankers involved in the carriage of crude oil and LNG, either from the offshore fields or from the shore terminals. Ports and Places of large tankers navigation:

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A8.4.1 Port of Vanino The Harbour Master announces the commencement and completion of the ice season in the port of Vanino. Vessels with Ice Class Ice 3 (LU3), according to the Russian Register Regulations, or equivalent Class of other Societies, (refer Annex 1) are permitted to call to the port. Generally icebreaker service in the port of Vanino is not available, but it may be obtained on request through the agents Tankers of up to 100,000 tonnes DWT may call to the Transbunker terminal, Berth No. 13 of the Port of Vanino for loading clean and/or dirty products. Approaches to the port are covered with locally formatted ice and with the ice drifting from the Northern Part of Tatar Straits. This is first year ice. The ice condition depends on the wind and surface currents and may vary from clean water to severe. Any vessel entering the port of Vanino needs to have on board information regarding ice conditions in the area: Ice charts, provided by Tokyo meteorological centre Ice chart provided by the Harbour masters office through the local agents Recommendations for passage from the ice edge to the port limits Ice information transmitted from the beginning of winter season on frequency 3730 kHz at 0100, 0600 and 0900 (text). To assist in choosing a safe route when entering and leaving the port, ice information together with weather forecasts must be monitored and analysed before arrival, during navigation in ice conditions and during the stay in the port. The official Website for Vanino port is http://www.vcsp.ru Note that during periods of north-easterly winds, Vanino Bay may be packed with ice in such a way that an ice river appears on the boundary of the packed ice area. There have been a few cases where tankers and vessels of other types could not leave this ice river and grounded near Krasnyy Partizan Point. A8.4.2 Port of De-Kastri (Chikhacheva Bay) The Harbour Master of the port of De-Kastri on an annual basis announces the commencement and completion of the Ice Navigation Period (Winter Navigation) and issues the directive where General Requirements for the vessels calling the port of De-Kastri are included. Detailed control and management of ice navigation of shuttle tankers is managed by the Operator of the Offshore Terminal Sokol. Two icebreakers, Admiral Makarov and Krasin, provide escort service for shuttle tankers to and from the Terminal. Ice management at the SPM is carried out by the Ice Breaking Tug Polar Pevek. The period of significant ice conditions occurs from the middle of March through to the middle of April, when the heavy land fast ice from the northern part of Tatar Strait flows through the area of the Terminal during NNEly to NEly winds. To provide information to all parties involved in the transportation process, the Operator of the Terminal issues Ice Management Guidelines and Procedures. Klykova Port, Sokol SPM and ENK Boat harbour. This manual contains procedures

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for ice management at the terminal depending of ice conditions. The Operator of icebreakers issues a manual Icebreaker Escort Procedures. Tatar Straits. It is very unlikely that the tankers without Ice Class or with low Ice Class will call to De-Kastri as the Operator of the Terminal has very strict requirements to the performance of shuttle tankers (DNV Ice 1A Class and DAT -25C Winterisation or equivalent). A8.4.3 Sakhalin-2 Project There are two offloading terminals for this project. Summer operations are undertaken from the offshore terminal Vityaz and year round operations are from the Prigorodnoye terminal. A8.4.3.1 Offshore Terminal Vityaz (PA-A (Moliqpaq) Platform) Loading only occurs during the summer months at this terminal. The terminal operator has some requirements for the tankers calling at the terminal for the loading of crude oil from FSO due to the extremes of temperature experienced at this location. These are as follows: 1. Ice Certificate/Interim Recommendations on Ice Safety to be issued by CNIIMF.

For the following questions the positive answers should be received: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Is equipment fitted for the receiving and using of ice data? Is the hull structure suitable for operation at an ambient temperature of -25C? Is the mooring equipment suitable for operation at -25C? Are the cranes capable of being operated at -25C? Are all other systems capable of being operated at -25C? Are all materials for all systems suitable of operation at -25C without embitterment? Has any consideration been made for ice strengthening of the propeller and shaft? Are two cooling water suctions fitted for main and auxiliary machineries located at the bottom of the vessel? Is it not necessary to heat the cargo lines to prevent freezing at 25C ambient conditions? Is there enough heating capacity to maintain the loading temperature? Will the ballast water not freeze if exposed to -25C for a few days? Does the IG deck seal have heating coils? How will the vessel be operated when following an icebreaker? What coating is used in way of the ice belt? How will ice navigation be achieved without a forward radar or search lights? Will freezing of control air dryer be prevented at an ambient temperature of 25C?

A8.4.3.2 Crude Oil/LNG Terminal at Prigorodnoye, Sakhalin Island As a part of Sakhalin-2 Project, the loading terminal for crude oil and LNG is under construction in Aniva Bay. The ice season is defined as any period when light nilas ice (over 5-10cm thick) is observed in Aniva Bay and/or La Perouse Strait in concentrations greater than 6/10 or when the average daily (24 hourly) temperature at Prigorodnoye drops below 0C.

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The daily average temperature can drop below zero from mid November to early April and ice can be present en route to Prigorodnoye from December to May. The terminal operator has yet to declare the requirements for the ice escorting of tankers by icebreakers or ice management at the terminal. It is a requirement that all LNGC vessels are suitable under SAFE (terminals program) and SIRE inspection systems with Aniva Bay supplements. This documentation will be used to establish the suitability of each individual vessel. Brief requirements by the terminal operator and Russian Federation for ice class and winterisation notation of tankers that may be chartered for this terminal are as follows:
ITEM N0. 1. DESCRIPTION Ice Classification for hull structure REQUIREMENT To be higher than the Russian Ice Classification level 'LU2' or class equivalent. To be higher than the Russian Ice Classification level 'LU2' or class equivalent. It is to be possible to operate the vessel at a sub-zero temperature of -25C. A wind speed of 20 m/s is to be used in all calculations. Mooring equipment, deck cranes, other equipment, systems, and operability by crew and material suitability to be considered. Terminal requirement: winterisation in accordance with the DNV DEIC notation preferable. Means to keep main and emergency access ways clear of ice and snow to be provided. Main deck and exposed side shell plating to have adequate toughness for operation at an ambient temperature of -25C. To be confirmed by classification society. Equipment for the receiving and using of ice data to be provided. Radars to be suitably positioned to enable ice cover to be assessed. Recommended that one 3 cm (X-band) scanner to be sited forward. Recommend software be used to enhance the image.

2.

Ice classification for propeller and propulsion shafting Winterisation

3.

4.

Access Hull structure

5.

6.

Equipment for receiving ice data Ice radars

7.

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8.

Ballast trim

Clearance between propeller tip and underside of ice to be at least 70cm. Vessel to have adequate forward visibility in the ballast condition to allow safe operation behind escorting icebreakers. Bulbous bow upper surface to be capable of being above water in the ballast condition to aid ice clearance. Ability to increase draft in this ballast condition to be possible. Two cooling water suctions to be provided for the main and auxiliary machinery. To be at opposite sides of the vessel and at least one to be at or near the bottom of the vessel. Kingston valve arrangements in accordance with IMO MSC Circ.504 preferred. Recommended that the following be installed: IMMARSAT C ship earth station with EGC receiver DGNSS receiver Facsimile apparatus Ice certificate issued by competent Russian authority to be provided.

9.

Cooling water systems

10.

Navigation equipment

11.

Confirmation of Capability to operate in ice

12.

Engine power

Vessel to have sufficient power to operate in first year level ice of 60cm thick at a speed of 4 knots while operating behind two icebreakers. Heating coils to be provided Searchlights with camera to be fitted forward for ice navigation. The water line of the vessel from the laden to the ballast levels is to be coated with an ice resistant low friction coating. Area covered at the forward end to be suitably extended. For ballast water and fresh water tanks temperature to be kept above freezing. Air bubbling system recommended. To be fitted with heating facilities having sufficient capacity to maintain a temperature of 10C at design air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively unless heat balance calculations show otherwise. If necessary wind speed of 20 m/sec to be considered. Vent Pipe Heads shall be protected by covers.

13. 14.

Cargo tanks Ice navigation Ice resistant coating on waterline

15.

16.

Tanks

17.

Diesel oil tanks

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18.

Other fuel oil and lubricating oil tanks

Heat balance calculations to be done to show that tanks will not freeze at air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively. If necessary wind speed of 20 m/sec to be considered. Tank vent pipe heads to be protected against freezing. Auxiliary machineries and their systems e.g. D/G and fans to be operable and suitable for outside air temperature of -25C and wind speed of 20 m/sec. To be operable at temperatures down to25C with 20ms-1 wind speed.

19.

Auxiliary machinery

20.

Fire fighting equipment

For LNG carriers of over 70,000m3 the following requirements apply (only details relating to ice and cold weather have been included in the list):

ITEM N0. 1.

DESCRIPTION Ice Classification for hull structure

REQUIREMENT To be higher than the Russian Ice Classification level 'LU2' or class equivalent. To meet the requirements of the Russian Ice Classification level 'LU2' or class equivalent. Recommend that a heated manifold shelter be fitted. Means to keep manifold clear of snow and ice to be provided. It is to be possible to operate the vessel in sub-zero temperature of -25C with wind speeds up to 20 m/s. Equipment, systems, operability by crew and material suitability to be considered. Means to keep main and emergency access ways free of snow and ice to be provided. Strong points required both forward and aft for emergency towing in ice. Two 70 tonne strong points are required at forward end and IMO emergency towing requirements to be met at aft end. Conning bridge wings should be sheltered and have necessary thermal insulation and heated windows. It is recommended that the bridge wings are totally enclosed. If this is not done, then an alternative solution is required. Navigation of the vessel when transiting ice and berthing will be from a bridge wing. Additional manoeuvring and navigational control station(s) without steering gear control to be provided on the bridge wing(s). Communication between bridge wing and wheelhouse to be provided. Adequate forward view from the conning station to be provided.

2.

Ice classification for propeller and propulsion shafting Manifold Winterisation

3.

4.

5.

Strong points for towing in ice

6.

Sheltered bridge wings and navigation

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7. 8.

Navigation light glass Search lights or enhanced night vision for ice navigation

9. 10.

Ice passport or ice Certificate Power certificate based on the engine and propeller characteristics and sea trial information Enhanced radar image

11.

Main wheelhouse windows to be heated, be as deep as possible and angle outwards. Exposed navigation equipment to be suitable for operation at -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. Navigation lights to be fitted with heat-traced glass if necessary. Searchlights to be fitted on the bridge wings and focsle to provide sufficient lighting ahead of the vessel for ice transit at night. Recommended that night vision cameras be fitted. These can also be used in periods of fog and for security purposes. Alternatively, Xenon-type focused lights, two on the bow and one on each bridge wing, controlled from the wheelhouse and conning station with cameras at the forward end can be fitted. It is considered that this arrangement is essential for the vessel to be able to see the lead in the ice behind the ice breaker. Vessel to be in possession of a valid Ice passport issued by CNIIMF. Certificate of main engine power vessel to be able to maintain a minimum speed of 4-5 knots in ice up to 60 cms thick following ice breakers. This is strongly recommended as the radar image is greatly enhanced, improving ice navigation. One 3 cm (X-band) scanner to be sited forward. All equipment to be operable at -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. Systems are to be fitted for the reception of ice and hydrographic and meteorological information. Vessels to have two cooling water suctions for the main and auxiliary machinery located on opposite sides of the hull. At least one of these suctions shall be located at or near the bottom of the vessel to minimize the probability of ice clogging. Kingston valve arrangements in accordance with IMO MSC Circ.504 preferred. The water line of the vessel from the laden to ballast levels is to be coated with an ice resistant low friction coating. Area covered at the forward end to be suitably extended. The steel used in the main deck and upper sides is to be confirmed as having adequate toughness for operation in ambient air temperature of -25C or heating is to be applied to keep the surface temperature of the steel above -10C with an ambient temperature of -25C. To be provided with Arctic clothing and to be trained in cold weather precautions.

12. 13. 14.

Radar scanner Navigation and communication equipment Electronic radio receiving equipment Cooling water systems

15.

16.

Ice resistant coating on waterline

17.

Steel

18.

Crew

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19.

General piping and cabling

20.

Exposed fresh water piping

Maximum use to be made of the under deck passageways, trunk-ways, focsle space, etc. for routing and installing piping, cabling and equipment, to minimize exposure to the elements. To be protected against freezing in outside air temperature of -25C and wind of 20 m/s by trace heating or running in protected areas. Operation of valves, vents, gauges to be able to operate in -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. Heat tracing recommended. The risk of ballast tank water freezing for the tanks of a 145,000 Moss-type vessel is not considered to be great due to the short transit time in cold weather. However, it is recommended that an air bubbling system be fitted to ballast tanks to reduce the risk of ballast water freezing. If no physical system is fitted, then ullage is to be kept in the ballast tanks to enable the tanks to be raised in level prior to discharge. The vent pipes and heads are to be prevented from freezing and all valves and all exposed gauges are to be capable of operation at -25C and wind of 20 m/s. Measures to be taken to prevent freezing in air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively. Heat balance calculations to be carried out. Vent pipe heads shall be protected by covers. Consideration to be given to circulating systems. To be fitted with heating facilities having sufficient capacity to maintain a temperature of 10C at design air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively unless heat balance calculations show otherwise. If necessary wind speed of 20 m/sec to be considered. Vent Pipe Heads shall be protected by covers. Heat balance calculations to be done to show that tanks will not freeze at air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively. If necessary wind speed of 20 m/sec to be considered. Tank vent pipe heads to be protected against freezing. Heat balance calculations to be done to show that tanks will not freeze at air and sea temperatures of -25C and -2C respectively. If necessary wind speed of 20 m/sec to be considered in design. Tank vent pipe heads to be protected against freezing. Auxiliary machineries and their systems e.g. D/G, fans to be operable and suitable for outside air temperature of -25C and wind speed of 20 m/sec. Heating shall be provided for rooms such as the emergency generator and steering gear rooms to maintain a temperature of 3C at

21.

Cargo system Ballast system

22.

23.

Fresh water and distilled water tanks

24

Diesel oil tanks

25.

Other fuel oil and lubricating oil tanks

26.

Other exposed tanks

27.

Auxiliary machinery

28.

Electric space heaters

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29.

Deck part heating Deck machinery

30.

31.

Mooring and anchoring equipment

32.

Fire fighting equipment

33.

Lifeboats

34.

Liferafts

35.

Accommodation

an outside air temperature of -25C and sea water temperature of -2C with wind speed of 20 m/sec. All electric heaters are to be provided with independent high temperature trips. Consideration shall be given to maintaining a temperature of at least 3C for spaces such as the laundries, dry stores and focsle spaces. Consideration to be given to heating of the deck stores, deck bunker lines and deck hydraulic lines. Deck cranes and stores cranes to be operable at -25C and 20 m/s wind speed. Recommend hydraulic lines to be heated and a sheltered cab fitted. Note hose handling cranes may be used in ship to ship cargo transfer therefore essential that the hose handling cranes are suitable for low temperature operation. Low temperature use of other equipment to be assured. Mooring equipment to be capable of operation at -25C and 20 m/s wind speed. Means to keep working areas and equipment clear of ice to be provided. To be operable at temperatures down to -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. This includes the water spray systems. Consideration to be given to running systems in the under deck pipe passage, heating systems or continuously draining systems or the ability to drain and dry systems. Exposed spray nozzles to be heated. Lifeboats to be enclosed and heated. Quick release gear and lifeboat release to be confirmed as able to operate in -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. Consideration to be given to heating the access doors. Means to keep access walkways clear of ice to be provided. To be ensured that they can be launched in cold conditions. Release mechanisms to be trace heated or assured of operation at 25C. Adequate heating system to be provided when the ambient outside air temperature is -25C and the wind speed is 20 m/s. Precautions to prevent ventilators blocking to be taken and consideration of where bunks situated to be taken. Additional heating in control stations to be considered. Arrangement to prevent freezing of access doors to be taken. Recommend that provision be made in the arrangement of changing rooms, cabins, lobbies to cabins and public spaces to adequately provide for the stowage and hanging of cold weather clothing.

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36.

Accommodation access

37.

Intake and exhaust louvers

38.

Pilot boarding

Consideration to be given to heating of access arrangements to the accommodation especially the emergency accesses. Alternatively, arrangements can be provided to break initial seal. Means to keep access ways clear to be provided. All intake and exhaust louvers for accommodation and machinery spaces shall be provided with means to prevent snow blockage or icing. Each vessel will require an ice pilot when transiting the ice. A combination of pilot ladder and accommodation ladder is required for safe transfer of pilots from icebreaker or launch. Operation of the pilot boarding arrangements to be suitable for -25C with 20 m/s wind speed. A helicopter winching area meeting the requirements of IAMSAR (International Aeronautical Maritime Search and rescue) manual and ICS (International Chamber of Shipping) Helicopter/Ship Operations is also to be provided for emergencies. Means to keep the winching area and pilot boarding area clear of snow and ice to be provided.

A8.4.3.3 Ice conditions in the La Perouse Strait Ice formation in the Aniva Bay begins during the first half of December, when young grey ice forms appear in the northern part. From the middle of December through to January young-drifting ice prevails in the area. The formation of land fast ice commences in the second half of January. This ice may be broken by winds during storms. The ice drifts mostly to the western part of Aniva Bay due to the prevailing NEly winds and most of the bay is free from ice during this time. At the end of December/beginning of January, drifting ice from the Okhotsk Sea starts to appear near Aniva Point and Aniva Bay. At the end of January, this ice covers a considerable part of the Bay up to the port of Korsakov. Ice conditions in Aniva Bay may vary depending upon wind direction. With westerly winds, the ice may become more open. With easterly winds, ice condition in the Aniva Bay becomes severe and navigation of large tankers, even escorted by icebreaker, will be difficult. Occasionally with strong and enduring NEly winds, this ice may fill the Aniva Bay completely. The ice season normally continues until the end of March, but drifting ice from Okhotsk Sea may appear through to the end of April. A full description of the ice conditions in the Aniva Bay is described in the British Admiralty publications.

A.8.5 CANADA
Management of the Canadian Icebreaker program and the operation and administration of the icebreakers is provided through the Offices for Fisheries and Oceans (Canadian Coast Guard) in Ottawa. The Canadian Ice Service works in partnership with the Canadian Coast Guard as provider of ice and related hydro

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meteorological data. The responsibility for day-to-day icebreaking, escort duties and protection of commercial shipping rests with the Canadian Coast Guard Regional Operations Centres (ROCs). The main commercial shipping route of the Gulf of St Lawrence and the St Lawrence Seaway (and adjoining rivers) is the responsibility of the ROC in Quebec. The stated objective of the Canadian Icebreaker program in the non-Arctic (southern waters) is to keep icebreaker escort operations to a minimum and encourage as much independent navigation as possible. The ROC will position icebreakers at strategic locations and will provide commercial shipping with recommended routes. Commercial shipping progress will be tracked along the recommended route and speed of advance is taken as an indicator of need for assistance and/or review of the route. Icebreaker assistance priority will be given to ships reporting in and following the recommended routes. There are no mandatory minimum ice class requirements for transit of these "southern" regional Canadian waters. However Transport Canada's Pollution Prevention Officers do have the authority under the Canada Shipping Act to reject ships considered to be a threat or substandard. This assessment may include the ability of the vessel to safely transit ice. In 1995 the Canadian Coast Guard issued Amendment No.8 to a voluntary joint industry document entitled: "JOINT INDUSTRY COAST-GUARD GUIDELINES FOR THE CONTROL OF OIL TANKERS & BULK CHEMICAL TANKERS IN ICE CONTROL ZONES OF EASTERN CANADA" Unfortunately this document is not available from a Website, but can be obtained by request from the Canadian Coast Guard as follows: E-Mail: info@dfo-mpo.gc.ca (Please include your postal and e-mail address) Or write to: Fisheries and Oceans Canada Communications Branch 200 Kent Street 13th Floor, Station 13228 Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0E6 Telephone: (613) 993-0999 Facsimile: (613) 990-1866

These guidelines effectively apply to all laden tankers transiting declared ice zones in Eastern Canada. While they are "Guidelines" they do in effect give the Canadian Coast Guard the right to deny ice zone clearance to laden tankers that do not comply with the guidelines and present an undue risk to safety or the environment. The document includes recommendations on: Required ice navigation experience VTS compliance ROC reporting compliance Single hull cargo loading precautions* Ice forecasting information and icebreaker assistance Ice class exemptions Sea chest requirements Ice pollution control and prevention Contingency planning and oil spill response and clean-up

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*Note: The Guidelines recommend that single skin laden tankers transiting declared ice zones should not carry cargo at a higher level than one metre below the waterline in forward wing tanks adjacent to the shell plating. North of 60 degrees north, control of shipping is in place under the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Regulations. Information on these regulations and navigation systems used can be found in the Canadian Coast Guard publication Ice Navigation in Canadian Waters, as revised. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/eng/CCG/Ice_Publications

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ANNEX 9: HELCOM RECOMMENDATIONS ON SAFETY OF WINTER NAVIGATION IN THE BALTIC AREA


HELCOM is the governing body of the "Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area" - more usually known as the Helsinki Convention. There was an expert workshop of the Helsinki Commission, International Maritime Organisation and EU, in Germany, on 11-12 March 2003, when it was agreed that there was a need to unify rules for winter traffic, ice classification and icebreaker service arrangements. A HELCOM, fourth and final meeting of the ad-hoc Ice Expert Working Group (ICE EWG) was held in St. Petersburg on 18th November 2003, to further discuss "Guidelines for the Safety of Winter Navigation in the Baltic Sea Area". This group included representatives from Estonia, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the Russian Federation. The groups recommendations were approved by HELCOM Maritime and then at the annual HELCOM meeting in 2004. Further information on HELCOM recommendations can be found through the following links:
http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec28E_11/ Further Measures to Improve

the Safety of Navigation in Ice Conditions in the Baltic Sea


http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/en_GB/rec25_7/ Safety of Winter Navigation in

the Baltic Sea Area


http://www.helcom.dk/map/ HELCOM Baltic routeing map

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ANNEX 10: TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES AND MANDATORY SHIP REPORTING (GULF OF FINLAND) The governments of Estonia, Finland and the Russian Federation have jointly formed a traffic separation scheme with mandatory reporting in the Gulf of Finland. During ice conditions it is possible that Gulf of Finland traffic separation schemes can be declared not valid by a joint decision. Refer to GOFREP (Gulf of Finland Reporting) under functions and vessel traffic management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) Website, www.fma.fi The mandatory ship-reporting scheme will remain in force during winter conditions and VTS centres will co-operate with the national icebreaker services. During severe ice conditions, all or specified traffic separation schemes in the Gulf of Finland may be declared invalid. Unless otherwise stated below, the requirements for vessels set out in the operational guide for the Gulf of Finland Reporting System (GOFREP) are in force even if the Gulf of Finland is totally or in part covered by ice. Vessels navigating in a convoy led by an icebreaker or being directly assisted by an icebreaker are not required to give short reports when crossing the GOFREP reporting lines. The icebreakers report the names of the vessels they are assisting, their positions in the convoy and the VHF working channel in use. Vessels entering the GOFREP area in ice convoy shall give a short report to the relevant Traffic Centre when leaving an ice convoy and when getting stuck in the ice. In winter, vessels make Full reports as set out in the general GOFREP reporting requirements. After departure from a port in the Gulf, the Full report must, however, be given before joining a convoy. Vessels are recommended to make Full Reports in advance by e-mail. Up-to-date information on existing ice waypoints, icebreaker contact information in the Gulf of Finland and information on icebreaker meeting points for vessels bound for ports in Russia is available on request from all GOFREP Traffic Centres. During heavy ice conditions Helsinki Traffic and Tallinn Traffic transmit scheduled broadcasts on existing ice waypoints and icebreaker contact information on their reserve channels. Broadcasts are preceded by an announcement on VHF Ch 16.

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