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Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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:: Introduction :: Vinification :: Classification ::


The chemistry of fermentation is basic to making of all alcoholic beverages. Yeast reacts with sugar and converts the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide and then, if the liquid is not protected from air, into vinegar. Alcoholic beverages are obtained from ingredients containing sugar, for example grape juice, apple juice and pear juice. They are also obtained from ingredients such as grains, cereals and potatoes which have no sugar but which have sugar potential because they are rich in starch. Once the starch is converted into fermentable sugars, mainly maltose, yeast is introduced and fermentation begins.

Wines

Yeast
There are two main categories of yeast: Natural yeast and Cultured Yeast. NATURAL YEASTS Innumerable yeasts, moulds and bacteria are all around oating in the air, eventually settling on or being carried onto ripe fruit, grapes and grain husks either by insects and more specically by the fruit y drosophila. CULTURED YEASTS These are pedigree strains of natural yeast that are cultivated in a laboratory. They are used because they are efcient in converting sugar into alcohol and are less susceptible to sulphur in the fermenting process. Sometimes they are added to do a specic job because they are more reliable than natural yeasts for that particular job. They can also be used in situations where natural yeasts have been washed away by heavy rain or when some of the yeasts have been brushed off in transit. There are upto a thousand varieties of yeast, but the name is normally associated with a type of unicellular fungi called Saccharomyces of which four varieties are important regarding production of alcohol. 1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Refer notes on Beer. 2. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis - Refer notes on Beer. 3. Saccharomyces apiculatus - Know as wild yeasts or starter yeasts in the making of wine, although these start the fermentation they are feeble fermenters and are only
BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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active up to 4% ABV. At that concentration they are killed and wine yeasts take over the fermentation. Wild yeasts are aerobic - only able to work in the presence of oxygen - and they impart an off avor and delay the action of the true wine yeasts. In modern wine making they are usually dispensed with and, as they have only limited tolerance to sulphur dioxide, a strictly controlled quantity of SO2 is added to the grape juice before fermentation. Not only does this kill the wild yeasts, it also destroys undesirable bacteria, principally the Acetobacter, which in the presence of oxygen would attack the alcohol in the wine and turn it into vinegar. 4. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus - This is the true wine yeast. It is much more tolerant to SO2 and it is anaerobic - able to work in the absence of oxygen. There are many varieties of the species, each suited to its native wine district or region. Most wine regions have yeasts that ling to each other and to the fermenting vessel and this clinging property assists the wine maker to clear the wine and make it star bright. Champagne yeasts, on the other hand do not cling to each other or the containing vessel, which facilitates the operation known as remuage prior to disgorging the exhausted yeast to clear the wine. Depending on the amount of sugar in the grape juice, wine yeasts are rapid workers fermenting quickly up to 13% ABV and then more slowly upto 16% ABV. At that concentration they are destroyed by the very alcohol they have worked so hard to produce.

Fermentation temperatures
Wine yeasts can only work between 5C and 35C. Once it starts, the fermentation must be continuous and complete and although it can be articially stopped for a specic style of wine. Ideally white wines are fermented slowly and cooly between the temperatures of 15C and 20C to impart delicacy and fragrance. Red wines are fermented more quickly and at a higher temperature between 25C and 30C which helps to extract color and body for the wine. Modern wine makers prefer a slow, cool fermentation as they consider it helps to preserve aroma and intensies the avor.

Malolactic fermentation
This is a secondary fermentation which most wines go through. It usually takes place in the spring following the vintage and the result in harsh malic acid being converted into softer lactic acid and carbon dioxide. There is no increase in alcohol only a lowering of the total acidity of the wine, making it softer and rounder on the palate.

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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Chaptalization
Sometimes due to poor summer weather, grapes do not ripen properly and result in lack of sufcient sugar. This can sometimes happen in the cooler climates of northern France, Germany and Britain. The remedy is to add sugar os concentrated must to grape juice before fermentation. This secures a higher nal alcohol content, although resulting wines will never be considered great. The term for this sugaring is called as Chaptalization after Dr. Jean Antoine Chaptal , Minister of Agriculture under Napoleon I, who authorized the practice in 1801.

Maceration carbonique
This is associated with the product of light, fragrant, fruity red wine such as a Beaujolais. Whole grapes are put into a closed vat or container; those at the bottom get crushed by those above and the free run juice begins to ferment. Then carbon dioxide gas is pumped in, causing fermentation to take place inside the uncrushed grapes. As fermentation nishes, the grapes burst and release their juices, which are now colored. These are run off and the remaining mass is pressed. The resulting juice is either kept separate or added to give body and tannin to the new wine.

THE VINE
There are ve families of wine producing vines: Vitis vinifera, Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis labrusca and Vitis berlandieri. Of those, Vitis vinifera (wine-bearing vine) produces all the noble grapes associated with the production of the classic wine. The vinifera vines were once only associated with European vineyards but are now used through out the world, with just a few exceptions.

Composition of the grape


The grape is made up of a stalk, skin, pips and pulp. Stalk - When stalk is used it imparts tannic acid to wine. It is mostly used in the making of big, avorsome red wine and is not used in making white and light wines. Tannin is a necessary ingredient as it acts as a preservative and antioxidant. Skin - The outer skin or cuticle has a whitish downy or cloudy coat known as bloom. The waxy substance contains wild yeasts and wine yeasts. It also contains other microorganisms such as bacteria, principally the acetobacter which is a potential

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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danger to wine. fermentation.

The inside of the skin imparts color which is extracted during

Pips - Crushed pips impart tannic acid, oils and water. If left uncrushed they do not contribute to the vinication. Pulp - The esh of the grape provides juice, also know as must, which is essential for fermentation. The must contains: 78-80% water; 10-25% sugar; 5-6% acids.

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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THE VINIFICATION PROCESS


The making of the wine encompasses : the pressing of the grapes; the treatment and fermentation of the must; maturing the wine and occasionally topping it up to keep the air out. racking, ning and ltration to make the wine star bright: Racking: running the clear wine off its lees or sediment from one cask to another. Fining: a further clarication of wine usually before bottling. A ning agent such as isinglass is added and this attracts the sediment suspended in the wine, causing it to coagulate and fall to the bottom of the container. Filtration: the nal clarication before bottling. It removes any remaining suspended matter and leaves the wine healthy and star bright in appearance. blending - compensatory or otherwise. bottling for further maturing or for sale.

Luck of the year


In some years, everything in the vineyards and cellars go well, combining to produce a wine of excellence - a vintage wine. In other years, there can be great disappointments brought on by an excess of sun, rain, snow, frost and the dreaded hail, which will produce either poor wine or worse.

Enemies of the vine


Phylloxera - These small yellow aphids puncture the roots of the vine and form galls on the underside of the leaves. The larvae stick to the roots and sucks the sap which kill the vine roots. Once it feeds on the sap, the aphid multiples at lightning speed to continue to lay waste the vineyards. This affects the Vitis vinifera vines although vines like Vitis rupestris are immune to the raving aphids. The solution is to graft a vinifera scion to a rupestris root stock. Oidium - Known as powdery mildew, this forms patches of dusty mould on the grapes and leaves, causing the grapes to split and shrivel. Treatment: sulphur powder.
BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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Mildew - Mildew develops in damp areas. It is a very common vine disease which is noticeable when yellow patches appear o the leaves. When the leaves whither the grapes grapes become deprived of nourishment. Treatment - Spraying with copper sulphate. Grey rot - This can be malevolent or benevolent. In most regions and at a certain time of year, it produces, in humid conditions, a grey mould which destroys color pigmentation in black grapes and gives an unpleasant taste to the wine. Treatment - Anti-rot spraying. However the same fungus, known as Botrytis cinerea, in certain areas produces wonderful sweet wines when conditions are favorable. Coulure - This happens when there is soil deciency or too much rain or uneven temperature. The owers on the vine are infertile, resulting in a disappointing yield of grapes. Treatment - use good fertilizers. Chlorosis - Too much limestone in the soil causes yellowing, even death of the plant. Treatment - iron sulphate. Pyralis, Endemis and Cochylis - These tiny buttery moths pierce the grapes and destroy the crop within hours. Treatment - spray with insecticides. Frost - Especially in spring, frost stunts the formation of the buds which greatly reduces yield. Treatment - re, heat and spraying with water. Hail - Hail is a particular danger, especially just before the vintage when the grape skins are very thin and the grapes are very vulnerable. Hail can easily puncture the skins and ruin the crop.

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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HOW WINE IS MADE (The Vinication Process)

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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RED WINE: Red wine is made from black grapes. Modern wine making calls for a wine without too much tannic acid so the grapes are de-stemmed or include only a small percentage of stems depending on the wine styles. The grapes are crushed in a wine press. The must - a combination of juice, skins and pips - is put into fermentation vats. A small amount of sulphur dioxide is added to kill off the wild yeast and undesirable bacteria and to protect against oxidation. The juice remains with the skin from 10 to 30 days to extract color and tannin; the lighter the color required the less time it needs with the skins. During fermentation, the yeast transforms the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This action also generates heat so the temperature has to be carefully controlled. When ferementation is completed most of the liquid will be run off. This is known as free-run wine or vin de goutte. The remaining pulp is pressed again, resulting in a very dark ,tannic wine known as press wine or vin de presse. These a r e m a t u r e d s e p a r a t e l y, classically in oak casks, where they undergo malolactic fermentation. They are racked several times, leaving the lees or sediment behind. With each racking the wine becomes clearer. Before bottling, the wine is ned to get rid of unwanted solid particles held in suspension which cause cloudiness. Isinglass, egg whites, gelatine, dried albumen and bentonite are used as ning agents as they drag the dregs down to the bottom of the casks leaving behind brilliantly clear wine. The free run wine and the pressed wine is now blended and may be again ned or ltered or both before being bottled. WHITE WINE: White wine can be made from white grapes or black grapes. After pressing, the must may or may not be left with the skins. The must will usually be treated with sulphur dioxide and then passes through a centrifuge to be cleansed of suspended matter such as pips and skin pieces. Cultured yeast may be added and a slow, cool fermentation takes place which lasts a month or more and gives the wine
BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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greater intensity of avor. After fermentation, the new wine is matured in casks for a short time. It may be racked and ned and stored in sterilized tanks for bottling. Sometimes a little amount of concentrated grape must is added if a sweeter wine is desired. White wine can also be obtained from black grapes. The grapes are pressed to separate the clear juice from the skins. Speed is of the essence because the liquid must not contain any dyes from skins. Some wines are matured sur lie - on the lees - which means they are not racked or ltered before being bottled. This practice gives a greater depth of avor to the wine and an enhanced freshness and liveliness. ROS WINE: Made from black grapes, the must is left to macerate with the skins for about one day or until the correct degree of coloring has been achieved. Then the must is removed to continue fermenting at a low temperature elsewhere. (Saigne method) BLUSH WINE: Made from black grapes and with the Saigne method. The skins are in contact with the must for only an hour or two. The whiter the wine the better.

AMBER WINE: It is also commonly known as orange wine. It is wine made from white wine grape varieties that have spent some maceration time in contact with the grape skins. Orange wines get their name from the darker, slightly orange tinge that the white wines receive due to their contact with the coloring pigments of the grape skins. This winemaking style is essentially the opposite of ros production which involves getting red wine grapes quickly off their skins, leaving the wine with a slightly pinkish hue.

SPARKLING WINE: Sparkling wine is a wine with signicant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it zzy. The carbon dioxide may result from natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the method champenoise/ method traditionnelle;
BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)

Semester iii - wines [1.1]!

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In a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved, as in Charmat process; as a result of carbon dioxide injection (method gazi) or using the Transfer method (methode tranvasement). (As the bubbles come up to the surface of the glass they form, what is called a champagne mousse.) NATURAL/ ORGANIC WINE: In an ideal natural wine, nothing is added and nothing is taken away from the grapes, must or wine. A natural wine may include some or all of the following features: Organically grown grapes, with or without certication. Dry-farmed, low-yielding vineyards. Hand-picked. No added sugars, no foreign yeasts, no foreign bacteria. No adjustments for acidity. No additives for color, mouth-feel, minerality, etc. No external avor additives, including those derived from barrels, staves, chips, or liquid extract. Minimal or no ning and ltration. Minimal or no added sultes.

FORTIFIED WINE: Wines that are strengthened by the addition of alcohol, usually brandy. This is done either during fermentation (for Port) or after fermentation (for Sherry) AROMATIZED WINE: Wines that are avored and fortied. Vermouth, Dubonnet and Punt-E-Mes are examples of aromatized wines. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

BVIHMCT - Chapter 1 (1.1 to 1.3)