COSH 2011


Definition Previous Study Theory of Safety Culture Objectives of the Study Conceptual Framework Research Hypothesis Data Analysis Summary of Research Findings Research Implication Recommendation for Future Research

Safety Culture
The term Safety Culture came into popular use after being mentioned in the summary report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) as one of the causes of the Chernobyl nuclear power accident in the Ukraine (IAEA, 1986). A safety culture is in turn the set of assumptions, and their associated practices, which permit beliefs about danger and safety to be constructed (Pidgeon, 2001) . Primarily, it could also mean to do the right thing at the right time in response to normal and non-normal situations (Zhang et al, 2002). Employee job safety is the essential element to increase safety in workplace, employee satisfaction and keep their business running.

Working Conditions
Robbins (2001) advocates that working conditions will influence the level of safety, as employees are concerned with a comfortable physical work environment. In turn this will render a more positive level of safety. Arnold and Feldman (1996) shows that factors such as temperature, lighting, ventilation, hygiene, noise, working hours, and resources are all part of working conditions. The absence of such working conditions, amongst other things, can impact poorly on the worker’s mental and physical well-being (Baron and Greenberg, 2003)

Management systems
Management systems play an important role for improvement of safety culture in the workplace. Firstly, top managers must be on board, must build trust, establish a steering committee and give appropriate training to the employee. When upperlevel management is committed to safety, it provides adequate resources and consistently supports the development and implementation of safety activities (Eiff, 1999). The Confederation of British Industries (CBI) report defines management safety culture as the ideas and beliefs that all members share about risk, accidents and ill health.

Employee Behavior
Behavior is a physical act or action, which may be deliberate or subconscious, infrequent, or habitual. “Behavior is the product of perception, selfregulation, and motivation” (Kaiser & Kaplan, 2006) Lee (1995) also proposes that behavior towards safety is one of the basic components of a safety culture. Employee behavior are one of the most important indices of safety culture and climate, as behavior are often framed as a result of all other contributory features of the working environment (Cox and Cox,1991).

A study by L. Ostrom et al (1993), to assessing safety culture. A written survey instrument was developed to examine the safety culture of EG&G Idaho, Inc., a Department of Energy (DOE). The results from the survey pointed out both the strengths and weaknesses in the safety cultures of the organizations. A study by Linda S. Rowley (2009), examine the importance of top leadership practices in relationship to organizational safety performance. A study by J.M. Thomas et al (2010), examines the relationships between employee behaviors to organizational safety issues; perceptions of the physical working environment and evaluations of worker involvement; and relates these to self-reported levels of safety behavior.

Reciprocal Safety Culture Model. Cooper (2000) Simplified Safety Culture Model. Gordon et al. (2007)

Reciprocal Safety Culture Model Cooper (2000).

PERSON Safety Climate: Perceptual Audit

Internal Psychological Factors

ENVIRONMENT/SITUATION Safety Management System: Objective Audit

External Observable Factors BEHAVIOR Safety Behavior: Behavior Sampling

Simplified Safety Culture Model Gordon et al. (2007)


What is SAID

What is DONE


This study has 3 major objectives: To examine relationship between employee behavior and safety culture. To examine relationship between management system and safety culture. To examine relationship between working condition and safety culture.





Independent Variable (IV)

Dependent Variable (DV)

Based on the framework, it can be hypothesized that: H1. H1. Working condition positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. H2. Management system positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. H3. Employee behavior positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants.


Research design: a cross-sectional method Data collection procedure: literature, pilot study & actual survey Measures: survey questionnaires (38 items)

Population of Employee in Fast Food Restaurants
Location of Fast Food Restaurant Jusco Maluri Leisure Mall Times Square Sunway Pyramid Subang Jaya Total Note: 92 usable questionnaires Population 20 18 23 33 26 120

Reliability Analysis
Variable Working condition Management system Employee behavior Safety culture Cronbach’s Alpha 0.883 0.901 0.842 0.889

Based on table, the value Cronbach’s Alpha for working condition is 0.883, for management system is 0.901, for employee behavior is 0.842 and for safety culture is 0.889. All research variables exceeded the acceptable standard of reliability analysis of 0.70. These statistical analyses confirmed that the measurement scales met the acceptable standards of reliability analyses.

Variable Working condition Management system Employee behavior Safety culture

Mean 4.0359 3.8652 3.9884 4.0902

Std. Deviation 0.56986 0.63755 0.54472 0.58967

Based on Table, the mean for working condition is 4.04, the mean for management system is 3.87, the mean for employee behavior is 3.99, and the mean for safety culture is 4.09. It shows the requirement of good working condition, management system and employee behavior that leads to good safety culture in the fast food restaurants.

Outcome of Testing Hypothesis
Correlation Working condition and safety culture Management system and safety culture Employee behavior and safety culture Pearson correlation 0.621 0.736 0.888

Table shows that the results are all more than 0.60, and some results are higher than 0.80, so they are“Moderately High Correlation” or “High Correlation”. The process reveal that the independent variables significantly correlated with safety culture, therefore H1, H2 and H3 were supported.

Hypothesis 1: Working condition positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Hypothesis 2: Management system positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Hypothesis 3: Employee behavior positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. All hypothesis are accepted.

Based on the framework, it was hypothesized that: Working condition positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Management system positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants. Employee behavior positively related to safety culture in fast food restaurants

The study proposed a conceptual framework based on safety culture research literatures. The measurement scales used in this study has satisfactorily met the standards of reliability analyses. The outcomes of hypothesis testing confirmed that independent variable have relationship with dependant variable. Hence, these positive outcomes may lead to sustained and supported organizational strategies and goals.

Theoretical Contribution

The existing theory much focuses on the working condition, management system, employee behavior and direct link to safety culture.

Robustness of Research Methodology
- Tests of the questionnaire data as well as factor

and reliability analyses were performed to ensure the constructs are consistent internally.

- Findings from this study will minimize errors in data collection and analysis, as well as increase reliable research findings.

Practical Contribution - To ensure the working condition is comfortable and safe.

Management system must be clearly understand and disseminate to all employees.

- Employee behavior must be change. Employee must understand and participate accordingly to the safety rules and procedures in the fast food restaurant.

Recommendations to fast food restaurant managers: Create favorable work conditions for the company. Guide the staff to communicate effectively, build a good interpersonal environment within the company, and create good work conditions. Concern about the employees education and training on safety.

For future research the following suggestions should be considered: Research instrument can be used to conduct research in other sector or organization and can make comparison. The research is needed to further investigate the potential relationships and effects these variables and other possible variables, such as role ambiguity, job level and co-work that contribute to safety culture. Conduct qualitative research to investigate further regarding the safety culture in the fast food restaurants.

Thank You

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