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Power steeringFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search This article's lead section may not adequately

summarize its contents. Please c onsider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's ke y points. (March 2009) The term power steering is usually used to describe a system that provides mecha nical steering assistance to the driver of a land vehicle, for example, a car or truck. The power steering system in a vehicle is a type of servomechanism. For many drivers, turning the steering wheel in a vehicle that doesn't have powe r steering requires more force (torque) than the driver finds comfortable, espec ially when the vehicle is moving at a very slow speed. Steering force is very se nsitive to the weight of the vehicle, and nearly so much to its length, so this is most important for large vehicles. In a vehicle equipped with power steering, when the driver turns the steering wheel, she or he feels only a slight retardi ng force, so a vehicle equipped with power steering can be driven by any healthy driver, even when the vehicle is being parked. This is because the power steeri ng system furnishes most of the energy required to turn the steered wheels of th e car. Most power steering systems in cars and light trucks today are hydraulic[citatio n needed] (that is, the force to turn the wheels is provided by a hydraulic pist on, which is powered by high pressure hydraulic fluid), but in some cars and tru cks, the steering force is provided by an electric motor. Contents 1 History 2 Hydraulic systems 2.1 DIRAVI 3 Electro-hydraulic systems 3.1 Servotronic 4 Electric systems 4.1 Electrically variable gear ratio systems 5 References 6 External links [edit] HistoryA steam-powered ship's steering engine, similar in many ways to th e power steering system used in modern cars and trucks, was first installed in t he SS Great Eastern in 1866. The earliest known patent for a power steering system for a land vehicle was gra nted to Frederick W. Lanchester in the UK in February 1902.[citation needed] His invention was to "cause the steering mechanism to be actuated by hydraulic powe r".[citation needed] R.E. Twyford included a mechanical power steering mechanism as part of his patent for the first four wheel drive system (U.S. Patent 646,47 7 April 3, 1900). The next design was filed as recorded by the US Patent Office on August 30, 1932, by Klara Gailis, from Belmont, Massachusetts.[citation neede d] There is another inventor credited with the invention of power steering by th e name of Charles F. Hammond an American, born in Detroit, who filed similar pat ents, the first of which was filed as recorded by the Canadian Intellectual Prop erty Office.[citation needed] Francis W. Davis, an engineer of the truck division of Pierce Arrow began explor ing how steering could be made easier, and in 1926 demonstrated the first power steering system.[1] Davis moved to General Motors and refined the hydraulic-assi sted power steering system, but the automaker calculated it would be too expensi ve to produce.[2] Davis then signed up with Bendix, a parts manufacturer for aut omakers. Military needs during World War II for easier steering on heavy vehicle

and so does the top end of the attached torsion bar. which all increase the required steering effort. t he more torque the driver applies to the steering wheel and the shaft it is atta ched to. As the steering wheel rotates. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder applies a force to the steering gear. there is a separate hydraulically operated system that t . Since the torsion bar is relatively thin and flexible and the bottom end is not completely free to rotate. Some modern implementations also include an electronic pressure relief valve whi ch can reduce the hydraulic pressure in the power steering lines as the vehicle' s speed increases (this is known as variable assist power steering).[4] Most new vehicles now have power steering.[ 3] The Chrysler system was based on some of Davis' expired patents. which in turn applies a torque to the steering axis of the roadwheels. The hydraulic pressure is usually provided by a gerotor or rotary vane pump driven by the vehi cle's engine. Some heavy machines use hydraulic-only systems where there is no backup if the p ump motor fails. A pressure relief valve is also used to prevent a dangerous build-up of pressure when the hydraulic cylinder's piston reaches t he end of the cylinder. the bot tom end will not rotate as far as the top end. and so the mor e force is applied to steer the wheels in the appropriate direction.[2] Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available passenger car p ower steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name "Hydraguide". As the steering wheel is turned. the bar will soak up some of the torque. One design for measuring the torque applied to the steering wheel is to fix a to rsion bar to the end of the steering shaft. Since the pumps employed are of the positive displacement type. The difference in rotation betwee n the top and bottom ends of the torsion bar can be used to control the valve th at allows fluid to flow to the cylinder which provides steering assistance. owing to the trends toward front whee l drive. the wheels are turned simulta neously to a corresponding angle by a hydraulic piston. Because this would be undesirable. This means that at high engine speeds the steering would naturally operate faster than at low en gine speeds.s boosted the need for power assistance on armored cars and tank-recovery vehicl es for the British and American armies. the more fluid the valves allow through to the cylinder. General Moto rs introduced the 1952 Cadillac with a power steering system using the work Davi s had done for the company almost twenty years earlier. greater vehicle mass. the more steering assistance will be pro vided. and wider tires. the greater the "twist" of the torsion bar. Heavier vehicles as common in some countries would be extremely difficult to maneuver at low speeds. so do es the attached steering shaft. [edit] Hydraulic systemsMain article: Hydraulic power steering A power steering fluid reservoir and pulley driven pumpMost power steering syste ms work by using a hydraulic system to turn the vehicle's wheels. a restricting orifice and flow c ontrol valve are used to direct some of the pump's output back to the hydraulic reservoir at high engine speeds. [edit] DIRAVIMain article: DIRAVI In the DIRAVI system invented by Citroën. while vehicles of lighter weight may not n eed power assisted steering at all. Th e flow to the cylinder is controlled by valves operated by the steering wheel. the flow rate th ey deliver is directly proportional to the speed of the engine. the force turning the wheels comes from the car's high pressure hydraulic system and is always the same no matter what t he road speed is. In order to give some ar tificial steering feel.

Skoda. someti mes abbreviated EHPS. SEAT and Pors che. Volkswagen. so that at low speeds the steering is ver y light. in whi ch the amount of servo assist depends on road speed. a fast 15:1 gear ratio. Servotronic is used by a number of a utomakers. While DIRAVI is not the mechanical template for all modern power steering arrang ements. Suzuki. and thus provides even more comfort for the driver.[7] Electro-hydraulic systems can be found in some cars by For d. BMW.ries to turn the steering wheel back to centre position. f or example when parking the car. including Audi. and an electric hydraulic pump in case the engine stalled. [edit] ServotronicServotronic offers true speed-dependent power steering. and also sometimes called "hybrid" systems. Opel. Ford experimented with a fleet of "wrist-twist instant steering" equipp ed Mercury Park Lanes that replaced the conventional large steering wheel with t wo 5-inch (127 mm) rings. Toyota. and was known as 'VariPower' in the UK an d 'SpeedFeel' in the U. and a c omputer module applies assistive torque via an electric motor coupled directly t o either the steering gear or steering column. and at high speeds it is very difficult to move more than a small amoun t from the centre position.S. handling.[5][6] In 1990. This system was fir st introduced in the Citroën SM in 1970. Honda. which allows for more assistance as t he speed of a vehicle decreases and less assistance from the system during highspeed situations. Toyota introduced its second-generation MR2 with electro-hydraulic powe r steering. The amount of pressure applied is proportional to road speed. a mechanical linkage such a . Citroen. the driver can control the car even more preci sely than with conventional power steering. Sensors detect the motion and torque of the steering column. The greater assist makes it easier to maneuver the car. In 1965. an electronic sensing system gradually reduces the le vel of power assist. The system allows engine ers to tailor steering-gear response to variable-rate and variable-damping suspe nsion systems achieving an ideal blend of ride. Peugeot. In this way. This allows varying amounts of as sistance to be applied depending on driving conditions. The force of the centering device increases as the car's road speed increases. This was to avoid running hydraulic lines from the engine (which wer e located behind the driver in the MR2) up to the steering rack. but the hydraulic pressure is pr ovided by a pump driven by an electric motor instead of being belt-driven by the engine. Servotronic is a trademark of AM General Corp. General Motors. use the same h ydraulic assist technology as standard systems. which utilized an electric pump so that t he power steering could operate while the engine had been turned off by the comp uter to save fuel. MINI. At higher speeds. SEAT. Audi.[8] [edit] Electric systemsElectric power steering (EPS or EPAS) is designed to use an electric motor to reduce effort by providing steering assist to the driver of a vehicle. The amount of power assist is greatest at low speeds. General Motors offered a variable ratio power steering system as an option on Pontiac and other vehicles. and Mazda. it did innovate the now common benefit of speed sensitive steering. [edit] Electro-hydraulic systemsElectro-hydraulic power steering systems. and steering for each vehicle. As long as there is pressure in the car's hydraulic system.[9] On Fiat group cars the amount of assistance can be regulated using a button named "CITY" that switches between two different assist curves. while mo st other EPS systems have variable assist. In the event of component failure. In the late 1960s. there is no mechanic al connection between the steering wheel and the roadwheels. Volvo. Volkswagen. In 1994 Volkswa gen produced the Mark 3 Golf Ecomatic.

Hartley stry's+first+power+steering&hl=en&ei=WNkbTIWxL8GAlAejrIWRDg&sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=introduced%20industry's%20first%2 0power%20steering&f=false. http://books.s a rack and pinion serves as a back-up in a manner similar to that of hydraulic systems. The amount of road feel is controlled by the computer module that operate s the electric power steering system. 3. "History of Power Steering". Retrieved 18 June 2010. it has been diff icult to reconcile various design constraints while producing a more pronounced road feel[citation needed].com/books?id=xiwDAAAAMBAJ&pg =RA1-PA162&dq=Francis+W. http://books. Another major advantage is th e elimination of a belt-driven engine accessory. 4.%20Davis%20power%20steering&f=false. p. Electric systems have an advantage in fuel efficiency because there is no belt-d riven hydraulic pump constantly running. (February 1956).google. Malcolm James (2006). the FIAT Punto Mk2 in 1999. In practice.^ a b Howe. nor with systems where the gear ratio is only varied as a function of steering angle. http://books.+Davis+power+steering&hl=en&ei=ZdwbTKf6 J4P6lweRmNXoCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=Francis%20W. but without any mec hanical linkage to the steering wheel. Elsevier Science.^ Watson. The same argument has been applied to hydraulic powe r steering as well. Toyota introduced their own "Variable Gear Ra tio Steering (VGRS)" system introduced on the Lexus LX 470 and Landcruiser Cygnu s. Power Steering's Ship Comes In". Imperial Automobi . whether assistance is required or not. The first electric power steering systems appeared on the Honda NSX in 1990. Retrieved 18 June 2010. Light and Heavy Vehicle Techn ology. Bill (22 March 2006). In 2003. By incorporating electronic stability control electric power steering system s can instantly vary torque assist levels to aid the driver in corrective manoeu vres.%20 Davis%20power%20steering&f=false. 521. the Honda S2000 in 1999. and also incorporated the electronic stability control system to alter steeri ng gear ratios and steering assist Honda launched the S2000 Type V equipped with the world's first electric power variable gear ratio steer ing (VGS) system. Road feel giv es the driver the subjective perception that they are engaged in steering the ve hicle. ISBN 9780750680370. [edit] Electrically variable gear ratio systemsIn 2000. This greatly simplifies manufacturing and maintenan[14] This system should not be confused with variable assist power steering which var ies steering assist torque not steering ratios. BMW introduced their "Active Steering" system on the 5-series. Popular Mechanics 176 ( 3): 75. mounted on the chassis.^ Nunney. mounted on the engine.+Davis+power+steering&hl=en&ei=ZdwbTKf6J4P6lweRmNXoCg&sa =X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Francis%20W. In theory. Retrieved 18 June 2010. and several high-pressure hydra ulic hoses between the hydraulic pump.^ Lamm. "75 years of Chryslers".com/boo ks?id=I90NpNQUzJ4C&pg=PA521&dq=Francis+W. "Mr. the software should be able to adjust the amount of road feel to satisfy drivers.[12][13] In 2002.[citation need ed] Road feel refers to the relationship between the force needed to steer the v ehicle and the force that the driver exerts on the steering wheel. Toyota Prius in 2000[10] and o n the BMW Z4[11] in 2002. Michael (March 1999). Today a number of manufacturers use electric power ste ering. Reviews in the automotive press often comment that certain steering systems with electric assist do not have a satisfactory amount of "road feel". [edit] References1. Popular Science 168 (2): 145–270. 2. and the steering g ear. Electric power steering should not be confused with drive-by-wire or s teer-by-wire systems which use electric motors for steering. and this is a major reason for their introduction.

http://books. Honda. "Look. Liechtenstein TRW Automotive ZF Friedrichshafen v · d · eAutomotive design Part of the Automobile series Body Framework Automobile platform • Body-on-frame • Bumper • Cabrio coach • Chassis • Con tinental tire • Crumple zone • Dagmar bumpers • Decklid • Fender • Fender skirts • Grille • od • Hood scoop • Monocoque • Overhang • Pillar • Pontoon fenders • Quarter panel • Shaker op • Spoiler • Subframe • Tonneau Compartments Trunk/Boot/Dickie • Hood/Bonnet Doors Butterfly doors • Canopy door • Gull-wing door • Scissor doors • Sliding doors • Sui cide door rist+steering&lr=&ei=P11bS4fnDKDiyQSFiaSMCA&client=safari&cd=14#v=onepage&q=Merc ury%20twist%20wrist%20steering& ISBN 9780975498408. 10. 58– http://books. No. Retrieved 2010-12-14. [dead lin k] 14. Popular Mechanics 123 (4 ): 91–93. BMW Z4. World.^ "What's New: Honda's Revolutionary New Steering System". http://www. Alex (April 1965).^ "The Golf Ecomatic Page".com/2003/06/02/first-drive-2004-bmw-5-series. development and production. 5. 12. Retrieved 2009-12-08. Retrieved 2010–01–23. Volume 2. Gearbo^ Keebler.the electronic revolution i n power steering". Jack (May 1986). Eschen. Deylan.c om. 2000" "So long. David (2005). http://books. Retrieved Retrieved 2010–01–23.^ Markovich. 6.le Club http://archivesearch. RM778U2 11. February 1984.^ Audi of America Usage Agreement 9. design.^ Lightfoot. Retrieved 200 9-12-08.canadiandriver. 13. Xu8C&pg=PA58&dq=first+%22electric+power+steering%22&lr=&ei=hlFbS4YmoeLJBOL-5YEN& client=safari&cd=11#v=onepage&q=first%20%22electric%20power%20steering%22&f=fals e. [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Power steerings EPS Working In Detail Manufacturers: Nexteer Automotive Danaher Motion JTEKT ThyssenKrupp Presta Steering.^ "Honda Worldwide World News News Release July 7. Retrieved 2010–01–23. Retrieved 18 June 2010. Popular Science 186 (4): 83. Ma-No Wheels". t+%22electric+power+steering%22&lr=&ei=q1ZbS7qmGJuQywTRzsSnBA&client=safari&cd=2 5#v=onepage&q=&f=false.html. http://books. c/index. Popular Science 228 (5): 50– d=07B8zK-PQq8C&pg=PA52&dq=%22electric+power+steering%22&lr=&ei=UlNbS4nkK4iUyATek 62vCQ&client=safari&cd=11#v=onepage&q=%22electric%20power%20steering%22&f=false.imperialclub. Retrieved 2010–01–23.^ "BMW » First Drive: 2004 BMW 5-Series".nz. hydraulics . LLC.^ "Will a twist of your wrist steer your next car?". 2003-06-02.html.^ 2001 Toyota Prius Repair http://ww w. 8.htm. http: //www.

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