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Cell membranes (the walled enclosure around a cell) are typically about 7.5 ππ thick. They are partially permeable to allow charged material to pass in and out, as needed. Equal but opposite charge densities build up on the inside and outside faces of such a membrane, and these charges prevent additional charges from passing through the cell wall. We can model a cell membrane as a parallel plate capacitor, with the membrane itself containing proteins embedded in an organic materials to give the membrane a dielectric constant of about 10. a. (3 pts) What is the capacitance per square centimetre of such a cell wall? The capacitance in terms of the given values is given by π΄ πΆ = πΎπ0 π What is being asked for is the capacitance per square centimetre (since it is difficult to find the cross sectional area of the whole membrane). Thus, we need to solve for the capacitance per unit area 12 πΉ ππΉ 1 (10) οΏ½8.854 Γ 10 ποΏ½ 1 π 2 πΆ οΏ½ οΏ½ = 12 2 = πΎπ0 = β9 π ππ π 7.5 Γ 10 100 ππ π΄ b. (3 pts) In its normal resting state, a cell has a potential difference of 85 ππ across its membrane. What is the electric field inside this membrane? We know that 85 Γ 10β3 π π π = 1.1 Γ 107 πΈ = = β9 π π 7.5 Γ 10 π π΄

2. The current in a wire varies with time according to the relationship πΌ = 55 π΄ β οΏ½0.65 2 οΏ½ π‘ 2 . π a. (3 pts) How many coulombs of charge pass a cross section of the wire in the time interval between π‘ = 0 and π‘ = 8.0 π ? ππ π΄ πΌ = = 55 π΄ β οΏ½0.65 2 οΏ½ π‘ 2 ππ‘ π Solving for π, we have 8.0 π 8.0 π π΄ π‘ 3 π΄ 2 8.0 π οΏ½55 π΄ β οΏ½0.65 2 οΏ½ π‘ οΏ½ ππ‘ = 55 π΄|0 β οΏ½0.65 2 οΏ½ οΏ½ π = οΏ½ = 440 πΆ β 111 πΆ π 3 0 π 0 = 329 πΆ b. (3 pts) What constant current would transport the same charge in the same time interval? π 329 πΆ πΌ = = = 41 π΄ π‘ 8.0 π 3. (6 pts) In the given circuit, a 20.0 πΊ resistor is inside 100 π of pure water that is surrounded by insulating Styrofoam. How much heat is dissipated into the water by the 20.0 πΊ resistor? We first look for the equivalent resistance of the 2 sets of series resistors 10.0 πΊ + 10.0 πΊ = 20.0 πΊ and the set of series resistors 5.0 πΊ + 5.0 πΊ = 10.0 πΊ. We then obtain 3 resistors in parallel, which we simplify by using

HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.0 OR EXPULSION

the word βdepressβ means βto press downβ or βto push something down.2 πΊ resistor that obeys Ohmβs law and a thermistor that does not obey Ohmβs law but instead has a current-voltage relationship π = πΌπΌ + π½πΌ2 . (Note: According Webster and Oxford. When the key is depressed. how far must the key be depressed before the circuitry detects its impression? The final capacitance πΆ when the key is depressed is computed from πΆ β πΆ0 = 0.0 OR EXPULSION .250 ππΉ β πΆ = 53. the plate separation decreases and the capacitance increases. and obtain π 30. each key holds a small metal plate that serves as one plate of a parallel-plate. the area of each metal plate is 42. πΎ = 1.476 ππ πΆ = π0 β π = π0 = οΏ½8.3 πΊ/π΄.0 πΊ) = 20.6 π car battery with negligible internal resistance is connected to a series combination of a 3. and the separation between the plates is 0. the 20. (3 pts) Calculate the capacitance before the key is depressed.0 πΊ. the new distance between the plates is given by π΄ π΄ πΉ 42. We can then solve for the current through the 20. What is the current through the 3.0 πΊ. Electronic circuitry detects the change in capacitance and thus detects that the key has been pressed.854 Γ 1012 οΏ½ π π 0. the 5. and get π20.) The capacitance πΆ0 before the key is depressed is given by π΄ πΉ 42.0 πΊ The simplification is shown in the figure.8 πΊ and π½ = 1.0 πΊ 10.β Therefore.1 ππΉ + 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 = + + = + + = β π ππ = 5.0 πΊ resistors.0 πΊ We then solve for the energy dissipation in the 20. In addition. they key must be depressed by 0. if you read the problem again it is clear what depress really means.700 ππ β 0. The equivalent resistance will be 30.0 π HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. Read the underlined sentence above.0 π = 1. In one type of computer keyboard.781 ππΉ 1000 ππ Thus.0 ππ2 .250 ππΉ = 0.250 ππΉ.700 ππ before the key is depressed. A 12.0 πΊ = πΌ 2 π = (1.0 πΊ. CHARGED UP TO 50% 4. and the 5.531 ππΉ πΆ0 = πΎπ0 = οΏ½8. (5 pts) If the circuitry can detect a change in capacitance of 0. a. b. In one particular keyboard.0 ππ2 1 οΏ½ οΏ½ = .0 πΊ 20.700 ππ 1000 ππ since it is an air-field capacitor.0 πΊ resistor.0 πΊ 20.0 ππ2 1 οΏ½ οΏ½ = 0.854 Γ 1012 οΏ½ π πΆ π 0. the question asks for the capacitance before it is pressed down.0 πΊ π ππ π 1 π 2 π 3 20. air-filled capacitor.00 π΄ πΌ = = π 30. with πΌ = 3.2 πΊ resistor? The circuit may be drawn as We then end up with 3 resistors in series.224 ππ 5.00 π΄)2 (20.0 πΊ.781 ππΉ Thus.476 ππ = 0.

Another possible combination can be obtained by placing two 400 πΊ resistors in parallel (200 πΊ) in series with two more 400 πΊ resistors (200 πΊ). we also get our desired result of 400 πΊ.6) 1. This makes sense since each resistor less energy.42 π΄ πΌ = =οΏ½ β6. Each slab has thickness π/2. If 2.6 π π 400 πΊ Both combinations give the correct equivalent resistance. then each resistors have 15. each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of π 2 (15. Since the resistances are the same then each of the resistors have 15. Thus. A 400 πΊ.6 = 0 b.6 β 3. 2. However.or 6.4 π is dissipated by the combination? Consider the first configuration. then from π 2 β π = βππ = οΏ½(2. (3 pts) What two different combinations of the available units give the required resistance and power rating? If we place two 400 πΊ resistor in series.3πΌ 2 + 7πΌ β 12. and the equivalent resistance is 400 πΊ.4 π is dissipated by the combination. Show that the capacitance is HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of π 2 (15. which is also not what we need. Thus.2 π resistors are available. what power is dissipated in each resistor when 2. we get 800 πΊ. CHARGED AND LOADED 7.42 π΄.2πΌ β 3. (10 pts) A parallel-plate capacitor has the space between the plates filled with two slabs of dielectric.4 π resistor is needed.5 π across them. (5 pts) For each of the resistor networks from part (a).5 π across them. 12. but only several 400 πΊ. then we obtain the following. a series configuration will only give us increased resistance.8πΌ β 1.4 π)(400 πΊ) = 31. where two paralle 400 πΊ resistors in series with two more parallel 400 πΊ resistors. The current is then easily solved as β7 Β± οΏ½72 β 4(1..3) We take only the positive value and thus take πΌ = 1. where we place two series 400 πΊ resistors in parallel with two more series 400 πΊ resistors.5 π)2 = = 0. we get our desired result of 400 πΊ. where π is the plate separation. If we place two in parallel. we get 200 πΊ.81 π΄ 2(1. one with constant πΎ1 and one with constant πΎ2 . but a reduced power dissipation.3πΌ2 = 0 1. 1.0 π π = π we obtain the total voltage.5 π)2 π = = = 0. if we place two 400 πΊ resistor in series (800 πΊ) and place them in parallel with two more 400 πΊ in series (800 πΊ). The resistances are the same. a. which is not what we need.0 OR EXPULSION .6 π π = π 400 πΊ If we consider the second configuration.3)(β12. Clearly.

Essentially.000 πΊ b. what is the current through each resistor? Immediately after the switch is closed (at π‘ = 0). and their combination is series with the 8.000 πΊ) = 13. i.00 πΊ 3. a.17 π΄)2 (10.e. π π π π = π1 + π2 = + = πΆ1 πΆ2 πΆππ Thus 1 1 1 1 1 β1 π΄ 2π0 π΄ πΎ1 πΎ2 1 1 οΏ½ οΏ½ = + = + β πΆππ = 2 οΏ½ + οΏ½ π0 = π΄ πΆππ πΆ1 πΆ2 πΎ π π΄ π π πΎ1 + πΎ2 πΎ1 πΎ2 πΎ2 π0 1 0 π/2 π/2 πΆ = .000 π πΌ = 1. A person with body resistance between his hands of 10 ππΊ accidentally grasps the terminals of a 14 ππ power supply.0 πΊ.00 πΊ π 4 is in series with π 1 . Simplifying the parallel combination we obtain 1 1 3 1 = + = β π 4 = 2.7 ππ c.00 ππ΄ or less? 14. a.000 π 14.000 π = 1. the total current is easily computed from π 42. Thus.9. (3 pts) Immediately after the switch is closed. no voltage is dropped across the capacitor. ( 3pts) What is the power dissipated in his body? The power dissipated in his body is solved by using the equation π = πΌ 2 π = (1.0 OR EXPULSION 8.00 πΊ resistor is then HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. (3 pts) If the internal resistance of the power supply is 2000 πΊ.00 πΊ 6. The switch is closed at π‘ = 0.0 π πΌ = = = 4.17 π΄ πΌ = 12.20 π΄ π 10. The capacitor is initially uncharged.00 πΊ in parallel to each other. The equivalent resistance of the circuit at π‘ = 0 is then π ππ = 10. Itβs as if there is no capacitor.00 πΊ. we obtain 14 ππ β πΌ(10 ππΊ + 2 ππΊ) = 0 or 14. what should the internal resistance be for the maximum current in the above situation to be 1.700 π = 13.00 Γ 10β3 π΄ = β π π‘ππ‘ = = 14 ππΊ π π‘ππ‘ 1.0 πΊ The voltage across the 8. Thus. (4 pts) If the power supply is to be made safe by increasing its internal resistance. π πππ‘πππππ πππ ππ π‘ππππ = 14 ππΊ β 10 ππΊ β 14 ππΊ 2π0 π΄ πΎ1 πΎ2 οΏ½ οΏ½ π πΎ1 + πΎ2 The total voltage is given by the sum of the voltage across the upper capacitor and the voltage across the lower capacitor. the capacitor has no effect.00 πΊ and 3.00 πΊ π 4 6.00 Γ 10β3 π΄ π π‘ππ‘ = π ππππ¦ πππ ππ π‘ππππ + π πππ‘πππππ πππ ππ π‘ππππ Thus. what is the current through the personβs body? Using Kirchhoffβs voltage rule. we essentially have the 6.

40 π = = 2.β βNow is not the time for just imagining.β β Ian Jasper Agulo HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.00 πΊ 6.00 πΊ 8. π£πΆ = πΆ ππ β° = πΌ0 π βπ‘/π πΆ .b.00 πΊ resistor is computed as π6.63ππ = 0.80 π΄ πΌ3. ππ = πΆβ° π = ππ π0 = βπΌ0 π βπ‘/π πΆ . π = οΏ½ πΌ = 0. (1 pts) What is the time constant of the circuit? The time constant is the product of the resistance that is in series with the capacitance.40 π΄ πΌ6.0 π β 33. Youβre having your Physics 102 2nd exam.00 πΊ 3. (3 pts) What is the value of the charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant? The charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant is computed from π(π‘) = ππ οΏ½1 β π βπ‘/π πΆ οΏ½ = ππ (1 β π β1 ) = 0.00 πΊ = 6.6 π The remaining voltage 42. the current through the 6. πΌ0 = ππ‘ π βLogic will get you from A to B.00 πΊ = 3. οΏ½ π = 0 π = π0 π βπ‘/π πΆ 1 1 =οΏ½ π ππ π π π π΄ = π0 πππ π 1 1 πΆππ = οΏ½ πΆπ .6 π = 8.212 ππΆ πΌ = ππ = π|π|π£π π΄ ππ‘ π½ = πππ£π π = πΈ π½ π ππ = οΏ½ π π .63(4.00 πΊ = π3. π = π πΆ = (3.00 πΊ We note that πΌ6.40 π is dropped across the parallel combination of resistors. c. ( 3 pts) At the same instant. Imagination will take you everywhere. π = π πππ = β° β πΌπ πΏ π΄ 2 πππ π π = ππ οΏ½1 β π βπ‘/π πΆ οΏ½.40 π = = 1. Thus.20 π΄.00 πΊ)(4.00 πΊ Thus.00 Γ 10β6 πΉ)(8.63πΆβ° = 0.00 πΊ = (4. Now is the time for both logic and imagining. =οΏ½ πΆππ πΆπ π2 1 2 1 π = = πΆπ = ππ 2πΆ 2 2 1 1 2 π’ = πΎπ0 πΈ 2 = ππΈ 2 2 π΄ π΄ πΆ = πΎπΆ0 = πΎπ0 = π π π πΆ = π = πΈπ π(π) = π0 [1 + πΌ(π β π0 )] π = πππ πΌ = πΌ 2 π = π = πΌπ .00 πΊ 8.0 πΊ) = 33. which is equal to the total current.00 πΊ = 4.0 OR EXPULSION β Albert Einstein .20 π΄)(8.0 ππ d. πΌ0 = ππ‘ π πΆ π π£π = ππ .0 Γ 10β6 π = 12.00 Γ 10β6 πΉ) = 12.40 π. Each resistor has a voltage drop of 8.e. what are the voltages across each resistor? These voltages are already computed in part (a).00 πΊ resistor is computed as π3. π6. π8.40 π) = 0.00 πΊ + πΌ3. i.00 πΊ while the current through the 3.

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