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Cell membranes (the walled enclosure around a cell) are typically about 7.5 𝑛𝑚 thick. They are partially permeable to allow charged material to pass in and out, as needed. Equal but opposite charge densities build up on the inside and outside faces of such a membrane, and these charges prevent additional charges from passing through the cell wall. We can model a cell membrane as a parallel plate capacitor, with the membrane itself containing proteins embedded in an organic materials to give the membrane a dielectric constant of about 10. a. (3 pts) What is the capacitance per square centimetre of such a cell wall? The capacitance in terms of the given values is given by 𝐴 𝐶 = 𝐾𝜖0 𝑑 What is being asked for is the capacitance per square centimetre (since it is difficult to find the cross sectional area of the whole membrane). Thus, we need to solve for the capacitance per unit area 12 𝐹 𝜇𝐹 1 (10) �8.854 × 10 𝑚� 1 𝑚 2 𝐶 � � = 12 2 = 𝐾𝜖0 = −9 𝑚 𝑐𝑚 𝑑 7.5 × 10 100 𝑐𝑚 𝐴 b. (3 pts) In its normal resting state, a cell has a potential difference of 85 𝑚𝑉 across its membrane. What is the electric field inside this membrane? We know that 85 × 10−3 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 = 1.1 × 107 𝐸 = = −9 𝑚 𝑑 7.5 × 10 𝑚 𝐴
2. The current in a wire varies with time according to the relationship 𝐼 = 55 𝐴 − �0.65 2 � 𝑡 2 . 𝑠 a. (3 pts) How many coulombs of charge pass a cross section of the wire in the time interval between 𝑡 = 0 and 𝑡 = 8.0 𝑠? 𝑑𝑄 𝐴 𝐼 = = 55 𝐴 − �0.65 2 � 𝑡 2 𝑑𝑡 𝑠 Solving for 𝑄, we have 8.0 𝑠 8.0 𝑠 𝐴 𝑡 3 𝐴 2 8.0 𝑠 �55 𝐴 − �0.65 2 � 𝑡 � 𝑑𝑡 = 55 𝐴|0 − �0.65 2 � � 𝑄 = � = 440 𝐶 − 111 𝐶 𝑠 3 0 𝑠 0 = 329 𝐶 b. (3 pts) What constant current would transport the same charge in the same time interval? 𝑄 329 𝐶 𝐼 = = = 41 𝐴 𝑡 8.0 𝑠 3. (6 pts) In the given circuit, a 20.0 𝛺 resistor is inside 100 𝑔 of pure water that is surrounded by insulating Styrofoam. How much heat is dissipated into the water by the 20.0 𝛺 resistor? We first look for the equivalent resistance of the 2 sets of series resistors 10.0 𝛺 + 10.0 𝛺 = 20.0 𝛺 and the set of series resistors 5.0 𝛺 + 5.0 𝛺 = 10.0 𝛺. We then obtain 3 resistors in parallel, which we simplify by using
HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.0 OR EXPULSION
the word ‘depress’ means ‘to press down’ or ‘to push something down.2 𝛺 resistor that obeys Ohm’s law and a thermistor that does not obey Ohm’s law but instead has a current-voltage relationship 𝑉 = 𝛼𝐼 + 𝛽𝐼2 . (Note: According Webster and Oxford. When the key is depressed. how far must the key be depressed before the circuitry detects its impression? The final capacitance 𝐶 when the key is depressed is computed from 𝐶 − 𝐶0 = 0.0 OR EXPULSION .250 𝑝𝐹 → 𝐶 = 53. the plate separation decreases and the capacitance increases. and obtain 𝑉 30. each key holds a small metal plate that serves as one plate of a parallel-plate. the area of each metal plate is 42. 𝐾 = 1.476 𝑚𝑚 𝐶 = 𝜖0 → 𝑑 = 𝜖0 = �8.3 𝛺/𝐴.0 𝛺) = 20.6 𝑉 car battery with negligible internal resistance is connected to a series combination of a 3. and the separation between the plates is 0. the 20. (3 pts) Calculate the capacitance before the key is depressed.0 𝛺. the new distance between the plates is given by 𝐴 𝐴 𝐹 42. We can then solve for the current through the 20. What is the current through the 3.0 𝛺. Electronic circuitry detects the change in capacitance and thus detects that the key has been pressed.854 × 1012 � 𝑑 𝑚 0. the 5. and get 𝑃20.) The capacitance 𝐶0 before the key is depressed is given by 𝐴 𝐹 42.0 𝛺 The simplification is shown in the figure.8 𝛺 and 𝛽 = 1.0 𝛺 10.’ Therefore.1 𝑝𝐹 + 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 = + + = + + = → 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 5.0 𝛺 resistors.0 𝛺 We then solve for the energy dissipation in the 20. In addition. they key must be depressed by 0. if you read the problem again it is clear what depress really means.700 𝑚𝑚 − 0. The equivalent resistance will be 30.0 𝑊 HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. Read the underlined sentence above.0 𝑉 = 1. In one type of computer keyboard.781 𝑝𝐹 1000 𝑚𝑚 Thus.0 𝑚𝑚2 .250 𝑝𝐹 = 0.250 𝑝𝐹.700 𝑚𝑚 before the key is depressed. A 12.0 𝛺 = 𝐼 2 𝑅 = (1.0 𝛺. CHARGED UP TO 50% 4. and the 5.531 𝑝𝐹 𝐶0 = 𝐾𝜖0 = �8. (5 pts) If the circuitry can detect a change in capacitance of 0. a. b. In one particular keyboard.0 𝑚𝑚2 1 � � = .0 𝛺 20.700 𝑚𝑚 1000 𝑚𝑚 since it is an air-field capacitor.0 𝛺 resistor.0 𝛺 20.0 𝑚𝑚2 1 � � = 0.854 × 1012 � 𝑑 𝐶 𝑚 0. the question asks for the capacitance before it is pressed down.0 𝛺 𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 20. air-filled capacitor.00 𝐴 𝐼 = = 𝑅 30. with 𝛼 = 3.2 𝛺 resistor? The circuit may be drawn as We then end up with 3 resistors in series.224 𝑚𝑚 5.00 𝐴)2 (20.0 𝛺.781 𝑝𝐹 Thus.476 𝑚𝑚 = 0.
Another possible combination can be obtained by placing two 400 𝛺 resistors in parallel (200 𝛺) in series with two more 400 𝛺 resistors (200 𝛺). we also get our desired result of 400 𝛺.6) 1. This makes sense since each resistor less energy.42 𝐴 𝐼 = =� −6. Each slab has thickness 𝑑/2. If 2.6 𝑊 𝑅 400 𝛺 Both combinations give the correct equivalent resistance. then each resistors have 15. each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of 𝑉 2 (15. Since the resistances are the same then each of the resistors have 15. Thus. A 400 𝛺.6 = 0 b.6 − 3. 2. However.or 6.4 𝑊 is dissipated by the combination? Consider the first configuration. then from 𝑉 2 → 𝑉 = √𝑃𝑅 = �(2. (3 pts) What two different combinations of the available units give the required resistance and power rating? If we place two 400 𝛺 resistor in series.3𝐼 2 + 7𝐼 − 12. and the equivalent resistance is 400 𝛺.4 𝑊 is dissipated by the combination. Show that the capacitance is HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of 𝑉 2 (15. which is also not what we need. Thus.2 𝑊 resistors are available. what power is dissipated in each resistor when 2. we get 800 𝛺. CHARGED AND LOADED 7.42 𝐴.2𝐼 − 3. (10 pts) A parallel-plate capacitor has the space between the plates filled with two slabs of dielectric.4 𝑊 resistor is needed.5 𝑉 across them. (5 pts) For each of the resistor networks from part (a).5 𝑉 across them. 12. but only several 400 𝛺. then we obtain the following. a series configuration will only give us increased resistance.8𝐼 − 1.4 𝑊)(400 𝛺) = 31. where two paralle 400 𝛺 resistors in series with two more parallel 400 𝛺 resistors. The current is then easily solved as −7 ± �72 − 4(1..3) We take only the positive value and thus take 𝐼 = 1. where we place two series 400 𝛺 resistors in parallel with two more series 400 𝛺 resistors.5 𝑉)2 = = 0. we get our desired result of 400 𝛺. where 𝑑 is the plate separation. If we place two in parallel. we get 200 𝛺.81 𝐴 2(1. one with constant 𝐾1 and one with constant 𝐾2 . but a reduced power dissipation.3𝐼2 = 0 1. 1.0 𝑉 𝑃 = 𝑅 we obtain the total voltage.5 𝑉)2 𝑃 = = = 0. if we place two 400 𝛺 resistor in series (800 𝛺) and place them in parallel with two more 400 𝛺 in series (800 𝛺). The resistances are the same. a. which is not what we need.0 OR EXPULSION .6 𝑊 𝑃 = 𝑅 400 𝛺 If we consider the second configuration.3)(−12. Clearly.
Essentially.000 𝛺 b. what is the current through each resistor? Immediately after the switch is closed (at 𝑡 = 0). and their combination is series with the 8.000 𝛺) = 13. i.00 𝛺 3. a.17 𝐴)2 (10.e. 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 𝑉 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉2 = + = 𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐶𝑒𝑞 Thus 1 1 1 1 1 −1 𝐴 2𝜖0 𝐴 𝐾1 𝐾2 1 1 � � = + = + → 𝐶𝑒𝑞 = 2 � + � 𝜖0 = 𝐴 𝐶𝑒𝑞 𝐶1 𝐶2 𝐾 𝜖 𝐴 𝑑 𝑑 𝐾1 + 𝐾2 𝐾1 𝐾2 𝐾2 𝜖0 1 0 𝑑/2 𝑑/2 𝐶 = .000 𝑉 𝐼 = 1. A person with body resistance between his hands of 10 𝑘𝛺 accidentally grasps the terminals of a 14 𝑘𝑉 power supply.0 𝛺.00 𝛺 𝑅4 is in series with 𝑅1 . Simplifying the parallel combination we obtain 1 1 3 1 = + = → 𝑅4 = 2.7 𝑘𝑊 c.00 𝑚𝐴 or less? 14. a.000 𝑉 14.000 𝑉 = 1. the total current is easily computed from 𝑉 42. Thus.9. (3 pts) Immediately after the switch is closed. no voltage is dropped across the capacitor. ( 3pts) What is the power dissipated in his body? The power dissipated in his body is solved by using the equation 𝑃 = 𝐼 2 𝑅 = (1.0 OR EXPULSION 8.00 𝛺 resistor is then HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5. (3 pts) If the internal resistance of the power supply is 2000 𝛺.00 𝛺 6. The switch is closed at 𝑡 = 0.0 𝑉 𝐼 = = = 4.17 𝐴 𝐼 = 12.20 𝐴 𝑅 10. The capacitor is initially uncharged.00 𝛺 in parallel to each other. The equivalent resistance of the circuit at 𝑡 = 0 is then 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 10. It’s as if there is no capacitor.00 𝛺. we obtain 14 𝑘𝑉 − 𝐼(10 𝑘𝛺 + 2 𝑘𝛺) = 0 or 14. what should the internal resistance be for the maximum current in the above situation to be 1.700 𝑊 = 13.00 × 10−3 𝐴 = → 𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡 = = 14 𝑀𝛺 𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡 1.0 𝛺 The voltage across the 8. Thus. (4 pts) If the power supply is to be made safe by increasing its internal resistance. 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 14 𝑀𝛺 − 10 𝑘𝛺 ≈ 14 𝑀𝛺 2𝜖0 𝐴 𝐾1 𝐾2 � � 𝑑 𝐾1 + 𝐾2 The total voltage is given by the sum of the voltage across the upper capacitor and the voltage across the lower capacitor. the capacitor has no effect.00 𝛺 and 3.00 𝛺 𝑅4 6.00 × 10−3 𝐴 𝑅𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 𝑅𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 + 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 Thus. what is the current through the person’s body? Using Kirchhoff’s voltage rule. we essentially have the 6.
40 𝑉 = = 2.” “Now is not the time for just imagining.” – Ian Jasper Agulo HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.00 𝛺 6.00 𝛺 8. 𝑣𝐶 = 𝐶 𝑑𝑞 ℰ = 𝐼0 𝑒 −𝑡/𝑅𝐶 .b.00 𝛺 resistor is computed as 𝑉6.63𝑄𝑓 = 0.80 𝐴 𝐼3. 𝑄𝑓 = 𝐶ℰ 𝑖 = 𝑑𝑞 𝑄0 = −𝐼0 𝑒 −𝑡/𝑅𝐶 . 𝑖 = � 𝐼 = 0. (1 pts) What is the time constant of the circuit? The time constant is the product of the resistance that is in series with the capacitance.40 𝐴 𝐼6.0 𝑉 − 33. You’re having your Physics 102 2nd exam.00 𝛺 3. (3 pts) What is the value of the charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant? The charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant is computed from 𝑞(𝑡) = 𝑄𝑓 �1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝑅𝐶 � = 𝑄𝑓 (1 − 𝑒 −1 ) = 0.00 𝛺 = 6.6 𝑉 The remaining voltage 42. the current through the 6. 𝐼0 = 𝑑𝑡 𝑅 “Logic will get you from A to B.00 𝛺 = 3. � 𝑉 = 0 𝑞 = 𝑄0 𝑒 −𝑡/𝑅𝐶 1 1 =� 𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝑅𝑖 𝑄 𝐴 = 𝜖0 𝑉𝑎𝑏 𝑑 1 1 𝐶𝑒𝑞 = � 𝐶𝑖 .6 𝑉 = 8.212 𝜇𝐶 𝐼 = 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑛|𝑞|𝑣𝑑 𝐴 𝑑𝑡 𝐽 = 𝑛𝑞𝑣𝑑 𝜌 = 𝐸 𝐽 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = � 𝑅𝑖 .63(4.00 𝛺 = 𝑉3. 𝜏 = 𝑅𝐶 = (3.00 𝛺 We note that 𝐼6.40 𝑉 is dropped across the parallel combination of resistors. c. ( 3 pts) At the same instant. Imagination will take you everywhere. 𝑅 = 𝜌 𝑉𝑎𝑏 = ℰ − 𝐼𝑟 𝐿 𝐴 2 𝑉𝑎𝑏 𝑅 𝑞 = 𝑄𝑓 �1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝑅𝐶 �.40 𝑉 = = 1. Thus.20 𝐴.00 𝛺)(4.00 𝛺 Thus.00 × 10−6 𝐹)(8.63𝐶ℰ = 0.00 𝛺 = (4. Now is the time for both logic and imagining. =� 𝐶𝑒𝑞 𝐶𝑖 𝑄2 1 2 1 𝑈 = = 𝐶𝑉 = 𝑄𝑉 2𝐶 2 2 1 1 2 𝑢 = 𝐾𝜖0 𝐸 2 = 𝜖𝐸 2 2 𝐴 𝐴 𝐶 = 𝐾𝐶0 = 𝐾𝜖0 = 𝜖 𝑑 𝑑 𝐶 = 𝑉 = 𝐸𝑑 𝜌(𝑇) = 𝜌0 [1 + 𝛼(𝑇 − 𝑇0 )] 𝑃 = 𝑉𝑎𝑏 𝐼 = 𝐼 2 𝑅 = 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅.00 𝛺 8.0 𝛺) = 33. which is equal to the total current.00 𝛺 = 4.0 OR EXPULSION – Albert Einstein .20 𝐴)(8.0 𝜇𝑠 d. 𝐼0 = 𝑑𝑡 𝑅𝐶 𝑞 𝑣𝑅 = 𝑖𝑅.0 × 10−6 𝑠 = 12.00 × 10−6 𝐹) = 12.40 𝑉. Each resistor has a voltage drop of 8.e. what are the voltages across each resistor? These voltages are already computed in part (a).00 𝛺 resistor is computed as 𝑉3. 𝑉6. 𝑉8.40 𝑉) = 0.00 𝛺 + 𝐼3. i.00 𝛺 while the current through the 3.
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