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1. Cell membranes (the walled enclosure around a cell) are typically about 7.5 thick. They are partially permeable to allow charged material to pass in and out, as needed. Equal but opposite charge densities build up on the inside and outside faces of such a membrane, and these charges prevent additional charges from passing through the cell wall. We can model a cell membrane as a parallel plate capacitor, with the membrane itself containing proteins embedded in an organic materials to give the membrane a dielectric constant of about 10. a. (3 pts) What is the capacitance per square centimetre of such a cell wall? The capacitance in terms of the given values is given by = 0 What is being asked for is the capacitance per square centimetre (since it is difficult to find the cross sectional area of the whole membrane). Thus, we need to solve for the capacitance per unit area 12 1 (10) 8.854 10 1 2 = 12 2 = 0 = 9 7.5 10 100 b. (3 pts) In its normal resting state, a cell has a potential difference of 85 across its membrane. What is the electric field inside this membrane? We know that 85 103 = 1.1 107 = = 9 7.5 10

2. The current in a wire varies with time according to the relationship = 55 0.65 2 2 . a. (3 pts) How many coulombs of charge pass a cross section of the wire in the time interval between = 0 and = 8.0 ? = = 55 0.65 2 2 Solving for , we have 8.0 8.0 3 2 8.0 55 0.65 2 = 55 |0 0.65 2 = = 440 111 3 0 0 = 329 b. (3 pts) What constant current would transport the same charge in the same time interval? 329 = = = 41 8.0 3. (6 pts) In the given circuit, a 20.0 resistor is inside 100 of pure water that is surrounded by insulating Styrofoam. How much heat is dissipated into the water by the 20.0 resistor? We first look for the equivalent resistance of the 2 sets of series resistors 10.0 + 10.0 = 20.0 and the set of series resistors 5.0 + 5.0 = 10.0 . We then obtain 3 resistors in parallel, which we simplify by using

1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 = + + = + + = = 5.0 1 2 3 20.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 The simplification is shown in the figure.

CHARGED UP TO 50% 4. In one type of computer keyboard, each key holds a small metal plate that serves as one plate of a parallel-plate, air-filled capacitor. When the key is depressed, the plate separation decreases and the capacitance increases. Electronic circuitry detects the change in capacitance and thus detects that the key has been pressed. In one particular keyboard, the area of each metal plate is 42.0 2 , and the separation between the plates is 0.700 before the key is depressed. a. (3 pts) Calculate the capacitance before the key is depressed. (Note: According Webster and Oxford, the word depress means to press down or to push something down. Therefore, the question asks for the capacitance before it is pressed down. In addition, if you read the problem again it is clear what depress really means. Read the underlined sentence above.) The capacitance 0 before the key is depressed is given by 42.0 2 1 = .531 0 = 0 = 8.854 1012 0.700 1000 since it is an air-field capacitor, = 1. b. (5 pts) If the circuitry can detect a change in capacitance of 0.250 , how far must the key be depressed before the circuitry detects its impression? The final capacitance when the key is depressed is computed from 0 = 0.250 = 53.1 + 0.250 = 0.781 Thus, the new distance between the plates is given by 42.0 2 1 = 0.476 = 0 = 0 = 8.854 1012 0.781 1000 Thus, they key must be depressed by 0.700 0.476 = 0.224 5. A 12.6 car battery with negligible internal resistance is connected to a series combination of a 3.2 resistor that obeys Ohms law and a thermistor that does not obey Ohms law but instead has a current-voltage relationship = + 2 , with = 3.8 and = 1.3 /. What is the current through the 3.2 resistor? The circuit may be drawn as

We then end up with 3 resistors in series, the 20.0 , the 5.0 , and the 5.0 resistors. The equivalent resistance will be 30.0 . We can then solve for the current through the 20.0 resistor, and obtain 30.0 = 1.00 = = 30.0 We then solve for the energy dissipation in the 20.0 , and get 20.0 = 2 = (1.00 )2 (20.0 ) = 20.0

or

6. A 400 , 2.4 resistor is needed, but only several 400 , 1.2 resistors are available. a. (3 pts) What two different combinations of the available units give the required resistance and power rating? If we place two 400 resistor in series, we get 800 , which is not what we need. Clearly, a series configuration will only give us increased resistance. If we place two in parallel, we get 200 , which is also not what we need. However, if we place two 400 resistor in series (800 ) and place them in parallel with two more 400 in series (800 ), we get our desired result of 400 ,. Another possible combination can be obtained by placing two 400 resistors in parallel (200 ) in series with two more 400 resistors (200 ), we also get our desired result of 400 .

The current is then easily solved as 7 72 4(1.3)(12.6) 1.42 = = 6.81 2(1.3) We take only the positive value and thus take = 1.42 .

b. (5 pts) For each of the resistor networks from part (a), what power is dissipated in each resistor when 2.4 is dissipated by the combination? Consider the first configuration, where we place two series 400 resistors in parallel with two more series 400 resistors. If 2.4 is dissipated by the combination, and the equivalent resistance is 400 , then from 2 = = (2.4 )(400 ) = 31.0 = we obtain the total voltage. Since the resistances are the same then each of the resistors have 15.5 across them. Thus, each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of 2 (15.5 )2 = = 0.6 = 400 If we consider the second configuration, where two paralle 400 resistors in series with two more parallel 400 resistors, then we obtain the following. The resistances are the same, then each resistors have 15.5 across them. Thus, each resistor gives off the same energy at a rate of 2 (15.5 )2 = = = 0.6 400 Both combinations give the correct equivalent resistance, but a reduced power dissipation. This makes sense since each resistor less energy. CHARGED AND LOADED 7. (10 pts) A parallel-plate capacitor has the space between the plates filled with two slabs of dielectric, one with constant 1 and one with constant 2 . Each slab has thickness /2, where is the plate separation. Show that the capacitance is

9. The capacitor is initially uncharged. The switch is closed at = 0. a. (3 pts) Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the current through each resistor? Immediately after the switch is closed (at = 0), no voltage is dropped across the capacitor. Essentially, the capacitor has no effect. Its as if there is no capacitor. Thus, we essentially have the 6.00 and 3.00 in parallel to each other, and their combination is series with the 8.00 . Simplifying the parallel combination we obtain 1 1 3 1 = + = 4 = 2.00 4 6.00 3.00 6.00 4 is in series with 1 . The equivalent resistance of the circuit at = 0 is then = 10.0 . Thus, the total current is easily computed from 42.0 = = = 4.20 10.0 The voltage across the 8.00 resistor is then HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.0 OR EXPULSION

8. A person with body resistance between his hands of 10 accidentally grasps the terminals of a 14 power supply. a. (3 pts) If the internal resistance of the power supply is 2000 , what is the current through the persons body? Using Kirchhoffs voltage rule, we obtain 14 (10 + 2 ) = 0 or 14,000 = 1.17 = 12,000 b. ( 3pts) What is the power dissipated in his body? The power dissipated in his body is solved by using the equation = 2 = (1.17 )2 (10,000 ) = 13,700 = 13.7 c. (4 pts) If the power supply is to be made safe by increasing its internal resistance, what should the internal resistance be for the maximum current in the above situation to be 1.00 or less? 14,000 14,000 = 1.00 103 = = = 14 1.00 103 = + Thus, = 14 10 14

20 1 2 1 + 2 The total voltage is given by the sum of the voltage across the upper capacitor and the voltage across the lower capacitor, i.e. = 1 + 2 = + = 1 2 Thus 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 1 2 1 1 = + = + = 2 + 0 = 1 2 1 + 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 /2 /2 =

b. ( 3 pts) At the same instant, what are the voltages across each resistor? These voltages are already computed in part (a).

8.00 = (4.20 )(8.0 ) = 33.6 The remaining voltage 42.0 33.6 = 8.40 is dropped across the parallel combination of resistors. Each resistor has a voltage drop of 8.40 , i.e. 6.00 = 3.00 Thus, the current through the 6.00 resistor is computed as 6.00 8.40 = = 1.40 6.00 = 6.00 6.00 while the current through the 3.00 resistor is computed as 3.00 8.40 = = 2.80 3.00 = 3.00 3.00 We note that 6.00 + 3.00 = 4.20 , which is equal to the total current.

c. (1 pts) What is the time constant of the circuit? The time constant is the product of the resistance that is in series with the capacitance. Thus, = = (3.00 )(4.00 106 ) = 12.0 106 = 12.0 d. (3 pts) What is the value of the charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant? The charge on the capacitor when the time is equal to its time constant is computed from () = 1 / = (1 1 ) = 0.63 = 0.63 = 0.63(4.00 106 )(8.40 ) = 0.212 = = || = = = ; = = 0; = 0 = 0 / 1 1 =

= 0 1 1 = ; = 2 1 2 1 = = = 2 2 2 1 1 2 = 0 2 = 2 2 = 0 = 0 = = =

() = 0 [1 + ( 0 )] = = 2 = = ; = =

2

= 1 / ; = = 0 = 0 / ; 0 = = ; = = 0 / ; 0 =

Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Now is not the time for just imagining. Youre having your Physics 102 2nd exam. Now is the time for both logic and imagining. Ian Jasper Agulo HONOR AND EXCELLENCE CHEATING IS PUNISHABLE BY A GRADE OF 5.0 OR EXPULSION Albert Einstein

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