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India has the unique distinction of producing the largest number of films anywhere in the world and in many

languages. India produces more than 1000 feature films and 900 short films every year. At a rough estimate, a total of about 15 million people see films in India everyday, either in its over 13,000 cinema houses, or on Video and Cable. It is estimated that an audience as large as India's entire population flocks to its cinema houses every two months. Films have played a major role in developing a post-Independence Indian identity. They have served as a very useful and emphatic medium to portray social, economic and political realities of the Indian society at different times. Films had a pervasive influence on the psyche of a common Indian, who often identified himself with the central character of the film, be it a hero or the heroine. For most Indians, cinema is integral to their lives; it is not a distant, 2-3 hour distraction, but a vicarious lifestyle for them. The large screen provides an alternative, an escape from the realities of day-to-day life. The cinema has largely been an urban phenomenon in India,

Introduction

Introduction
The Indian Film Industry has been one of the oldest segments of the Indian entertainment industry. The Indian Cinema consists of films produced across India, including the cinematic culture of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Mumbai, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Indian films came to be followed throughout South Asia and the Middle East. As cinema as a medium gained popularity in the country as many as 1,000 films in various languages of India were produced annually. Expatriates in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States continued to give rise to international audiences for Indian films of various languages especially Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali and Hindi. 1896 was a significant year for Indian entertainment as it witnessed the arrival of cinema in India. While discussing about the history of Indian cinema the first name that springs up is that of the Lumiere Brothers who demonstrated the art of cinema to the subcontinent. Bombay was the first Indian city that screened Cinematography, six short films by the Lumiere Brothers. The success of these films led to the screening of more foreign films, for instance, Vitagraph by James B. Stewart and Moto-Photoscope by Ted Hughes. In other words introduction of cinema in India took place with the aid of the colonisers. In the 20th century, Indian cinema, along with the American and Chinese film industries, became a global enterprise. Enhanced technology paved the way for upgradation from established cinematic norms of delivering product, radically altering the manner in which content reached the target audience. Indian cinema found markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. The country also participated in international film festivals, especially Satyajit Ray (Bengali), Adoor Gopalakrishnan (Malayalam). Indian filmmakers such as Shekhar Kapur, Mira Nair, Deepa Mehta etc. found success overseas. The Indian government extended film delegations to foreign countries such as the United States of America and Japan while the country's Film Producers Guild sent similar missions through Europe. The Indian diaspora consists of millions of Indians overseas for which films are made available both through mediums such as DVDs and by screening of films in their country of residence wherever commercially feasible. These earnings, accounting for some 12% of the revenue generated by a mainstream film, contribute substantially to the overall revenue of Indian cinema, the net worth of which was found to be 1.3 billion US Dollars in 2000. Music

a silent film in Marathi. The provision of 100% foreign direct investment has made the Indian film market attractive for foreign enterprises such as 20th Century Fox. By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India. like the graceful Sulochana (Ruby Myers). Adlabs and Sun Network's Sun Pictures also participated in producing and distributing films. This was also the time when global audiences and markets became aware of India's film industry.in Indian cinema is another substantial revenue generator. making the commercial presence of the medium felt. Sony Pictures. In a way it provided the foretaste of the shape Indian cinema would take in the future. In 2009. Tax incentives to multiplexes have aided the multiplex boom in India. Bhakta Vidur. Mumbai In the 1920s the pioneering stage of Indian cinema was over and many talented people entered this field. Young Indian producers began to incorporate elements of India's social life and culture into cinema. Gohar. UTV. action and social subjects. The content of Indian commercial cinema was increasingly tailored to appeal to these masses. The first short films in India were directed by Hiralal Sen. historical films. Zebunissa and Zubeida. In the same year he made a film. a scholar on India's languages and culture. such as. comedy. India is the world's largest producer of films. the female roles in the film were played by male actors. that include a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. Sati Ansuya. Prominent Indian enterprises such as Zee. who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout the Indian subcontinent. It was founded in 1918 by Dwarkadas N Sampat. The Kohinoor launched the majority of the actors of the silent screens. During the early twentieth century cinema as a medium gained popularity across India's population and its many economic sections. One of the legendary ones was the Kohinoor Film Company in Bombay. Emergence of films in India Following the screening of the Lumière moving pictures in London (1895) cinema became a sensation across Europe and by July 1896 the Lumière films had been in show in Bombay (now Mumbai). India produced a total of 2961 films on celluloid. starting with The Flower of Persia (1898). and Warner Bros. All sorts of genres were attempted. There was a greater focus to the cinematographic industry and it attained a more satisfactory technical level. Others brought with them ideas from across the world. The studio dominated the scene until the 1940s and 1950s. Tickets were made affordable to the common man at a low price and for the financially capable additional comforts meant additional admission ticket price. a professional showman of repute. who brought together elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra (1913).) The first Indian chain of cinema theaters was owned by the Calcutta entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan. (Interestingly. The first full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke. The First Film Studios in India. with the music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. From the beginning the influence of Hollywood on . Audiences thronged to cinema halls as this affordable medium of entertainment was available for as low as an anna (4 paisa) in Bombay. He also made a Gandhian film using the allegorical mythological subject.

South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout India with the release of S. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930). banned by the British Raj in India as it depicted actors as Indian leaders. dance.K. exemplified by the success of Devdas. Today. Filmmaker R. Telegu. Studios emerged across major cities such as Chennai. industry. The employees of these studios at Bombay and Kolhapur were more or less permanent ones. Patil further recommended setting up of a Film Finance Corporation under the Ministry of Finance. Bu 1921. an expression censored during the days of the Indian independence movement. .the Indian film industry was evident. Vasan's Chandralekha. Patil Commission. which had managed to enthrall audiences nationwide. on 14 March 1931. twenty-one such units existed in India. romance etc. are made in many developing countries with less sophisticated technologies. Bombay Talkies came up in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune had begun production of films meant for the Marathi language audience. a full team covering all the aspects of filmmaking from acting. mostly in the Hindi language. The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1949 which eventually became one of the largest documentary film producers in the world with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries. Patil. This advice was later taken up in 1960 and the institution came into being to provide financial support to talented filmmakers throughout India. such as. Following the inception of 'talkies' in India some film stars were highly sought after and earned comfortable incomes through acting. the first Indian talking film. and Mumbai as film making became an established craft by 1935. though initially most of them were quite small. technical expertise to distribution resembled that of Hollywood. They were remunerated on a monthly basis. Bengali and Malayalam are the languages in which most of the non-Hindi films are made).K. each released in 18 languages with 9000 prints for permanent film theatres across the country. Following independence the cinema of India was inquired by the S. S. The partition of India following its independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios went to the newly formed Pakistan. head of the commission. The strife of partition would become an enduring subject for film making during the decades that followed. D. Indian Cinema Starts Talking Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara.S. the technology of film-making in India is perhaps the best among all developing countries though the films themselves remain mostly repetitive in storyline and content. in thematic and creative terms. Tamil. The characteristics of the first studios. Current Affairs India has the world's biggest movie industry in terms of the number of movies produced 1000 movies annually. viewed cinema in India as a 'combination of art. Superior movies. Kolkata. and showmanship' while noting its commercial value. During the 1940s cinema in South India accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival. The Indian Masala film—a slang used for commercial films with song. S. As sound technology advanced the 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in India's films.— came up following the second world war.

In the changed system. they began to operate as freelancers commanding fees in proportion to the box office performance of their recent films. have been financed by the NFDC. distributors would pay 50 per cent of the film-making cost leaving it to the producer to get the rest from other sources. The 'bigness' of the budget is attributable mainly to the high fees paid to 'stars'. A low budget Hindi film can be made for even as low as Rs. are not of the type that has made the Indian film industry so vibrant. However. Ray's first film. This increased costs of film production since the more successful actors and actresses hogged major proportions of the producers' budget. Globalization of the Indian film industry Indian Films have gone beyond the geographical boundaries. centred on distributors. Pather Panchali (1955). won eleven . India has a National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) which finances some films. – non-conventional but corporate resources. This gave rise to the 'star system' in which actors and actresses ceased to have long-term contractual obligations towards any studio or film production. too.000) per film. The four Indian movies nominated for an Oscar in the foreign language category were Mother India (1957). Salaam Bombay (1988) and Lagaan (2001). At the time of writing. is suspected to have changed since the 1960s when the studio system collapsed and 'freelance' performers emerged. In contrast.75 million. Many Indian films are not only making more money outside the home market but also attracting foreign producers and directors to the industry. highend technologies and expensive travel costs to shoot in exotic locations worldwide. The 'other' sources are: – conventional moneylenders (who lend at an interest rate of 36-40 per cent annually). Oscar was brought to India by the legendary film maker Satyajit Ray in the category of Life time Achievement Award (1992). A big budget Hindi movie can cost in excess of US$30 million. but also to the regional film industries of the country. a reasonable budget film in Hindi could cost US$1. some of India's best film makers wouldn't have got a break in the industry. Rather.Slumdog Millionaire(2009). They have come out of the epoch of love and fantasy and learnt to work on experimental plots. and – underworld money: about 5 per cent of the movies are suspected to be financed by these sources. The effect of globalization of Indian cinema is applicable not only to the Bollywood. As at the start of 2001. It however goes to the NFDC's credit that. – promissory note system (locally called 'hundi' system): this is the most widely prevalent source. it is believed that 'stars' like Shah Rukh Khan and Salman Khan are paid Rs. 20 million (US$440. NFDC cannot be considered to play a central role in the film industry because it finances too few films which. without it.Star System: The financing pattern. celebrated music directors. who would find it hard to obtain finance from the regular sources. A few film makers. Another shortcoming with the NFDC is that it funds films only at the production stage while ignoring the just-as-important marketing stage. 15 million. script writers and film editors remain poorly paid. Film production thus became a risky business and the relationship with usurious moneylenders strengthened over the years.

the overall entertainment industry in India is taking on professional colours and this will change the culture of the film industry too. have made public share issues. Indian films are not just a part of a region but a part of world cinema today.traditions. It is likely that films would also be insured to offset possible losses for banks.international prizes. as well as the field in general. The contact between India and western cinema was established l when Dadasaheb Phalke inspired the making of "Raja Harishchandra" after he watched Life of Christ at Mehta's AmericanIndian cinema. the risk spreads out across a number of movies.motion pictures. usage of English in the script or incorporation of some element of western-style plots. Barbari Mori in Kite and Chris Pattern in Rang De Basanti. In 1982. Chadha and Nair both are of Indian origin and made their names in Western Independent Films. Foreign entertainment companies. Bollywood has produced hits like Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kal Ho Naa Ho. thus keeping out of the world of murky financing. Despite high risks on a permovie basis. Some film production companies. Bollywood movies include western actors like Rachel Shelley in Lagaan. Producers these days fund Indian Filmmakers like Gurinder Chadha (Bride and Prejudice) and Mira Nair (Monsoon Wedding). with steady revenue streams. a biographical film on Gandhi won eight Academy Awards. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Indan festivals. including Best Human Document at the Cannes film festival. . Movies of the Tamil Super Star Rajni Kant have a huge market in Japan. Both the production houses were not of an Indian Origin. Future This is not intended to be a scare story. photoplays. The granting of industry status to the film industry will eventually allow overboard financing of films. but today 80 percent of Indian (mainly hindi ) movies are released worldwide. The globalization effect on the industry has resulted in western production standards. Stages of Film Making Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects. the cinema. The globalization of Indian Film Industry began in the late 20th century.culture have been acknowledged by people worldwide through the Indian cinema. Giselli Monteiro in Love kaj Kal. As mentioned above. with director Richard Attenborough and Ben Kingsley as Gandhi. Earth and Water. A similar filmmaker is Deepa Mehta of Canada. In India least 80 percent films shown in the late 1920s were American.The cinema has contributed a great deal in globalisation which has proved very beneficial to the the Indian Film Industry. whose films include Fire. The Film Federation of India is actively seeking to make film financing a viable proposition for banks. however. . both dealing with the overseas Indian culture. This was an international co production between India and UK. though this will result in production of fewer films than at present. the silver screen. can do good business if they invest in Hindi and other Indian language films. Therefore film makers now aim at reaching out to a wider audience. Many other terms exist . such as Mukta Arts. Stricter enforcement of copyright law will help the film industry in its fight with cable operators.

flicks . The visual elements of cinema need no translation. consists of postproduction and distribution. Govind Nihalani. or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. and knows what he wants the final dishes to look and taste like. brings the ingredients.. The editor creates the mosaic of a film which is finally contoured by the creativity of the director. Film is considered by many to be an important art form.picture shows. Satyajit Ray. puts it down on a paper and . They comprise a series of individual frames. 4. and subsequently the sequences are connected to form a complete movie. He develops one particular theme after viewing the entire material. . the editor is the cook.and commonly movies. the editor partially does the work of the scriptwriter. the editor has these huge quantities of material to filter through. The first part consists of development. In these cases." Hrishikesh Mukherjee Film Editing is a distinct art form. The understanding between the both persons can create a perfect end product.. giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Editing is often referred to as the "invisible art". It is an art of story telling. Shyam Benegal. 2. but when these images are shown rapidly in succession. When the director shoots everything relevant to the theme of the film. especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. The editing laboratory is considered to be the operation theatre of experimental cinema in India. Proper editing of films can create sensually stimulating medleys. Hence.whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Gulzar are some people who have planned and thought out their films carefully to make their editor`s work much simplified. affect them. The third part. Film editing in India is an art that is often used in diverse ways. 5. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision . Editing process includes the act of connecting two or more shots together to form a sequence. the filmmaking production cycle consists of five main stages: 1. Bimal Roy. Editing of Hindi Films is a long practiced art of conveying the story of the film by connecting shots together to form a film. films entertain. Any film can become a worldwide attraction. Editing however is the combined act of art by both the editor and director. Development Preproduction Production Post-production Distribution An entire production cycle typically has three parts. in turn. which reflect those cultures. and. the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Editing of Films "The director prepares the menu. Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras. The second part comprises preproduction and production. enlighten and inspire audiences. which contours the film. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures. 3. educate..

Production of TV programs & soap operas Cine Care . Production Houses in India The following are the film production companies in India • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Adlabs . documentaries etc Sanjay Goradia Production .Plays and theatre drama production SpotFilms . documentary and promotional films producer Mindscreen Film Institute. the film is the complete co ordination of the work of the writer-director-editor.Bengali movie production house BR Films .Film production company of Subhash Ghai Neptune Enterprises .develops the chronology and drama eventually. screenwriting and film making Mukta Arts .Courses in cinematography.Telefilms producer Channel Eight . animation & graphics Ramoji Film City .Film production house Rajshri .Film production.Film production and distribution IIFA Awards .Producer of corporate films.Film production services Media Artists . commercials.Hindi film producer Vivek Agnihotri Creates .Offers film shooting floors RDB Organization .Television and documentary films producer Suresh Productions .Film & TV Serial production house owned by BR Chopra Balaji Telefilms .Television commercials and documentaries production Kerala State Chalachitra Academy . Finally.Manufacturer of mosfet amplifiers Cinedreams .Film production facilities & services Real Image Media Technologies .Developer of digital special-effects.Films and music videos production house .Telugu film production company Vinod Chopra .Music publisher Earthcare Films .Advertising.International Indian Film Academy Awards JS Films . editing.Distributor of films Parwani Studios . documentaries & TV serials Kailash Pictures .Motion picture processing laboratory in Mumbai Arjoe Entertainment .Corporate and advertising films production KAS Movie Makers . effects and composting Rosetta Stone Media . conservation and wildlife life films producer Film Republic . Chennai .Leading entertainment conglomerate with interests in films & music Rajtaru Videosonic .Environment.Home page of International Film Festival of Kerala Locations Asia .Producers of feature films.Film production company Films Division .Film and TV career promotion agency Deep Emotions . The process of editing ensures smoothness of narration and continuity in a film and is considered as an ongoing process which offers that extra zing to the art form.

Hindi films publicity and marketing Yashraj Films . Some of these films also won honorable awards in the nation and abroad too. Thus. The environment would be different. All films meant for public exhibition. these films also had their own group of "stars" who belonged to either the alumni of the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) or the National School of Drama (NSD). A writer. parallel. The NFDC has funded and produced over 300 films. yet the idea of fostering excellence in Indian cinema is also an important motto of the organization. promote and organize an integrated development of Indian film industry. This single theme was conveyed to the audience without the popular components of the mainstream films.Ad film production. or literate films and were only circulated and shown in the film festivals in India and foreign countries. the central agency which has been established for the greater intention to encourage good cinema movement in India. indispensable to the growth of Indian cinema. television programmes. These films were then known as serious. NFDC Films. irrespective of their length. Government of India. Central Board of Film Certification is popularly called as Censor Board. whether in cinema halls or video or CD or DVD version are subjected to censorship. would participate in the writing process. The Censor Board of India basically censors and reviews movies. Censorship of movies is considered as necessary as a movie might motivate thought process of the audiences.• • • World Wide Channel . a majority of the Indian audience did not get an opportunity to see the best and outstanding films among the lot of NFDC films. also was engaged for the final checkout. The director. location and casting services provider NDFC Films National Film Development Corporation of India is like an apex body . over the years NFDC has offered an array of services. which. A film reflects various ideas and the same has a strong impact on the minds of the viewers and can affect emotions. Alike the stars in the mainstream films. Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is a regulatory body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The process of scriptwriting of these films was done mostly by the director of the film and had some storybook work as their base. it is a true fact that a movie has enough potential for . television advertisements or any sort of promotional materials. who had little background of filmmaking but had literary skills. During a period of time. as the technical expert and of course the maker. Over the time. they were frequently seen playing the same roles under different names. However. this body produced serious and offbeat films. have been widely acclaimed and have won many national and international awards.Film production company of Yash Chopra Zabardast Films . as a rule focused on an accent on social injustice. Although the main goal of NFDC is to plan. The script was passed on and recommended for financing by a script committee. in various Indian languages. NFDC films followed a rule that submitting a detailed script was always compulsory. This healthy cinema culture mostly remained beneath the heaps of the NFDC. but the content and the conclusion of the story was the same. Quite ideally.

the Censor Board does not have any fresh censorship for the visuals in general cases. or any dubbed films. The Cinematograph Act. scenes which have the effect of justifying or glorifying drinking are not shown. obscenity or depravity. • • • • • • • • • • • . and if any such incidence is relevant to the theme. and showing cruelty to. censorship is not only desirable but also necessary. decency or morality or involves defamation or contempt of court or is likely to incite the commission of any offence". such dual meaning words as obviously cater to baser instincts are not allowed. and video films. scenes degrading or denigrating women in any manner are not presented. if.good as it has for evil. the modus operandi of criminals. However. other visuals or words likely to incite the commission of any offence are not depicted. cruelty and horror. the security of the States. According to this section. 1952. the certification of the Censor Board is not applicable. The guidelines were issued on December 6. scenes of violence primarily intended to provide entertainment and such scenes as may have the effect of de-sensitising or de-humanising people are not shown. is not presented needlessly. since Doordarshan has its own system of examining films. justify or glamorise drug addiction are not shown. presides over the censorship of films. visuals or words contemptuous of racial. The certification rules of this board are also applicable to foreign films that are imported into India. friendly relations with foreign States. scenes involving sexual violence against women like attempt to rape. human sensibilities are not offended by vulgarity. justify or glamorise consumption of tobacco or smoking are not shown. scenes showing sexual perversions shall be avoided and if such matters are germane to the theme they shall be reduced to the minimum and no details are shown. The Cinematograph (Certification) Rules were promulgated in the year 1983. in the opinion of the authority competent to grant the certificate. the films which are made specifically for Doordarshan. or abuse of animals. Thus. Moreover. scenes tending to encourage. scenes showing involvement of children in violence as victims or perpetrators or as forced witnesses to violence. public order. rape or any form of molestation or scenes of a similar nature are avoided. scenes tending to encourage. the film or any part of it is against the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India. religious or other groups are not presented. 1991 under Section 5B of the Cinematograph Act. "a film shall not be certified for public exhibition. Central Board of Film Certification has divided itself into `Examining and Revising Committees` to provide a two-tier system for certification of films in the event of the applicant or the Chairman himself not being satisfied with the decision of the Examining Committee. in cases of dubbed films. they shall be reduced to the minimum and no details are shown. Detailed Guidelines for Certification of Films are as follows • • • Anti social activities such as violence are not glorified or justified. or showing children as being subjected to any form of child abuse are not presented Showing abuse or ridicule of physically and mentally handicapped persons. It is also said to have an equal capability for encouraging good behaviour or violence. pointless or avoidable scenes of violence.

special effects.who did what on set and what records has this movie broken? . mobile phones. the security of the State is not jeopardized or endangered. food. story. Product A film needs to be clearly identifiable in its marketing — genre. t-shirts.Product Price Placing Promotion Price aside. cars. anti-scientific and antinational attitude are not presented. thus halving the box office takings Promotion for films takes many forms: • • Promotion • • Print advertising (posters + ads in newspapers & magazines) Trailers (screened at cinemas + on TV/radio) Internet sites Merchandising — the list is endless books. or contempt of court are not presented. the sovereignty and integrity of India is not called in question. toys. friendly relations with foreign States are not strained. Its release date will also depend on what else is being released at the same time Ð films have to fight it out for cinema screens. soundtrack CDs. It would be pointless releasing any big blockbuster movie the same weekend as MIB II simply because cinema goers would choose between it and the competition. anything that can be associated with the brand of the movie Placing The publicity department of a studio will expend a great deal of time and money trying to gain maximum benefit from the following forms of publicity: Publicity • • • • • Star Interviews — in print and broadcast media 'Making Of' documentaries add to the hype Gala Premieres — who's wearing what frock Reviews and profiles —Empire front cover anyone? News stories . style all need to be presented to the audience so they can select the film on the basis of content A film has to have the right release date — Christmas for a Christmas movie etc. although money may change hands..• • • • • • visuals or words which promote communal.. obscurantist. 4p’s. It is possible to add in publicity to a film marketing campaign although this is technically a part of promotion which is not the direct result of a financial deal made by the studio. Visuals or words involving defamation of an individual or a body of individuals. computer games. public order is not endangered and. stars. the other three are all vital elements of a film marketing campaign.

Problems Associated with Movie Marketing The trickiest part of movie marketing is that every movie is different. say skateboarding fans or religious groups [source: Schonfeld]. family-oriented audience. A final problem is that moviegoers are more media savvy than ever. many adults recognize the publicity blitz for what it is: publicity. As with all business it is an important part of any release because of the inherent high financial risk. There's always a chance that the marketing campaign will stink just as bad as the movie. If studios play their cards right. Moviemaking is an inherently risky business. film studios will invest in expensive marketing campaigns to maximize revenue early in the release cycle. For example. they make the films even more expensive by adding on a huge marketing budget. a smaller movie marketed heavily to a highly specific audience segment. The Net Generation moviegoer is much more likely to trust his chat buddy's opinion than some talking head on Entertainment Television. Film Promotions Film promotion is the practice of promotion specifically in the film industry. Chances are that with every blockbuster movie marketing campaign. no matter how good it is. This is another reason why the Internet is proving to be a powerful marketing tool. One solution is the idea of the nichebuster. There's no formula for success. Just because your last kid's movie was a huge hit doesn't mean that audiences will come in droves to the next one. Techniques In theaters • Trailers are a mainstay of film promotion. They screen in theatres before movie showings. because they are delivered directly to movie-goers. Generally they tell the . which recently launched a division called FoxFaith that will produce and market movies to a Christian. While children are highly susceptible to advertising. thriller. Oliver Stone's epic "Alexander" cost $155 million to make and $60 million to market domestically and only took in $167 million worldwide [sources: Box Office Mojo and Waxman]. et cetera [source: Movie Marketing Update]. Every film is its own standalone product with its own potential market segment. Some moviegoers are starting to complain about the sheer magnitude of hype that surrounds major studio releases. so marketers must be creative to grab the public's attention. The problem is that most big-budget movies are marketed to the widest audience possible. Publicity is generally handled by the distributor and exhibitors. There's no focus. they can capitalize on social networks. and suddenly the studio has thrown away twice the amount of money. millions of dollars are lost on people who would never see the movie. romantic comedy. in the process. Unfortunately. Marketing budgets tend to equal anywhere between half or three times the production budget. Ads are placed on every TV network and stuck in every newspaper and magazine. One of the proponents of this idea is 20th Century Fox. Movie marketers try to alleviate some of that risk by heavily promoting expensive films. This is called demographic marketing rather than selling movies according to traditional genres like action. viral video sites and other online communities to sell their movies for them.

) and over half that total is placed on broadcast and cable TV. Viral marketing: free distribution of trailers on movie-oriented websites and video user-generated-content websites. clips. and trivia games from the film. Product placement: paid active or passive insertion (as on-set posters. sometimes producing sound[1] Hollywood movie distributors spend about $4 billion a year to buy paid advertising (30-second TV commercials. etc. shown between movie showtimes.stills. Creation of standalone studio-sponsored per-film websites such as "example-themovie. 20th Century Fox commissioned an I. • Production and paid broadcast of behind-the-scenes documentary-style shows. Standups (freestanding paperboard life-size images of figures from the film) Cardboard 3D displays. and action figures) of film brand in drama or sitcom shows. For example. the type of which are mainly produced for HBO.com". trivia. devoted to compensated exposure of the film.[3] Extended placement: full episodes of television talkshows (Oprah). show Medium. 2:18) of American Chopper. entertainment news programs (ET). programs on cable networks. • • • • Film posters Slideshows . or as passing mentions in dialogue. Showtime and Starz. interviews with actors and directors which are filmed en masse at a hotel with local and national entertainment reporters which are featured on local news shows. TV is effective because it is an audio-visual medium – like film – and can deliver a vast audience quickly.story of the movie in a highly condensed fashion compressing maximum appeal into two and half minutes. ○ Television and radio • • • In addition. or behind-the-scenes footage on rental videos and DVDs. director. and rapid dissemination of links to this content by email and blogs.[citation needed] • Internet • • . Robot-themed motorcycle. and series such as Byron Allen's series of entertainment series like Entertainment Studios. which are the main vehicles for advertising movies to audiences. according to Marketing to Moviegoers: Second Edition. Includes alleged leakage of supposed "rushes" and "early trailers" of film scenes. newspaper ads. etc.V.[2] The film Memoirs of a Geisha was placed throughout an episode of the T. which is crucial because films typically don’t linger in theaters more than 4–6 weeks. stars. featured on two episodes (2:17. Advance trailers. longer previews. or network news programs (20/20).

When audience research is conducted for domestic theatrical release. After film release. so they spend little or nothing on pre-release audience research. radio. Test screenings of finished or nearly finished films. Tracking surveys of audience awareness of a film starting six weeks before premiere. and print media interviews. Concept testing that would occur in development phase of a film before it is produced. it involves these areas: • • • • • • • Positioning studies versus other films that will premiere at the same time. • • Merchandising • Promotional tour • Audience research There are seven distinct types of research conducted by film distributors in connection with domestic theatrical releases. magazines. Title testing in an early stage. One of the very common forms of marketing is the in-film branding. in- . including special printings. The film makers have adopted newer techniques from time to time to promote their film. or new cover jackets ("Now a major motion picture. Testing of audience response to advertising materials. and producers appear for television. Film actors. Interviews are conducted in person or remotely. key personnel make appearances in major market cities. these can take place on set. toys. Exit surveys questioning film goers about their demographic makeup and effectiveness of marketing. at fast food chains. and inserts in books. especially when scores of TV advertisements are tested and re-tested. Independent film distributors. Cross-promotion of original book or novelization.") Comic special editions or special episodes Paid co-branding (Eragon in American Chopper-two episodes). Promotional giveaways: branded drink cups. or food combinations. sometimes showing a clip from the film or an outtake. or co-advertising (BMW and James Bond films[4]) of a product with the film. The bulk of research is done by major studios for the roughly 170 major releases they mount each year that are supported by tens of millions of advertising buys for each film. During film production. Mutual in nature. which typically spend less than $10 million in media buys per film. this is the most well known. directors.Print • • Paid advertisement in newspapers. don’t have the budget or breadth of advertising materials to analyze. according to "Marketing to Moviegoers: Second Edition." Such audience research can cost $1 million per film. or participate remotely via "satellite" or telephone.

Making Money with Films .4% more were aware of the movie who had seen the ads over those that had not. Online is more for the consumers and not for the distributors. integration and online chat. There is so much the marketers do when the star gets involved like specials. radio contest. now even the film stars have become very conscious about marketing. That runs counter to the established mind-set at most movie studios. one could find its presence across all mediums. At 28 days prior to opening the number of people aware of the movie was 22. The study measured online ads for movies and how many people were aware of the film who had seen the ads versus those who had not seen the ads. or put that money to better use elsewhere. There are very few producers and studios which understand the medium well. By one week before opening only 5. be it TV. but they need to adjust the spending schedule for their movies. The big banner production houses are still focused on the distributors. the campaign for a new-release movie loses its effectiveness on the intended audience anywhere from three to four weeks prior to opening date. print. mall activation or cinema activation. And with this trend. the film-makers are trying out more scientific and innovative techniques like the interaction based strategies. Moreover. However one of the major mediums of marketing these days. If spending were charted on a graph of the last two months leading up to the release then I could see a bell-shaped curve being a useful roadmap. even though the focus is on the consumers now. who flood the media with ads for movies in the last week before it hits screens. If it’s not going to make that much of a difference to spend a ton on paid ads in the last week then don’t. the digital medium is not being utilized to the best for film promotions in India.5% higher than those that had not seen the ads. That likely means the media coverage of movies was making up a good amount of the difference. with spending ramping up to the one-month out point and then tapering off after that as returns begin to diminish. They are now actively involved. to become the primary choice of the audience on the weekend. Internet. The promotion of ‘3 Idiots’ by Aamir Khan’s unique tour across the seven cities of India was an outstanding idea to connect with the people and create curiosity about the film. online takes a backseat.film marketing not only helps the product get a mention and visibility in a film to an audience but it also benefits the film to a large extent. Apart from that. Moreover. Drawbacks Movie Campaigns lose influence closer to release date According to this story. The best example of this promotional technique is the film ‘Ghajini’. outdoor. B2B marketing will never take a backseat. Apart from monetary benefit to the production of the film from the brand owners. So. when it comes to them. the commercial ads of these products promote the film throughout. So does that mean marketers should stop advertising three weeks before the release date? No. Its tie-up with Van Huesen became a huge success and strengthened the promotion of the film.

This window can pay as much as twenty million dollars for exclusive rights. We can have someone make toys and other merchandise of the characters. they will at least give the others a fair chance. Growth of Indian Film Industry . Merchandise royalties last forever. This is another very common way that people make money. it is not uncommon for a popular movie to gross almost a Billion dollars in theatrical performance alone. make sure that we have all of the DVD's printed and ready. and we can’t do that until we get it in the theaters. Over the last few years it has been neck and neck when it comes to which market makes the most money. Theatrical performance. pay per view and VOD (Video on Demand. Merchandise can be the most profitable income stream. Do not get bummed out by this. When we are ready to pull it out of the theater. 4. we will need to get a big movie studio to pay 2. HBO has been known to pay that kind of money for the right show or movie. It will cost more to advertise the movie than it did to film it. Once we have made the movie there are many ways to make money and we can do this in many countries. We will need to be careful of which movie theaters that we put the movie in. Most privately owned theaters are in bankruptcy court and do not pay the production studio on time. As long as people like the first one. movie. After we go through this cycle. and video stores. DVD sales.Making money with movies is one of the most glamorous and profitable jobs that we can have. Movies are in the theaters for less time than ever in this day in age. That does not include the rest of the revenue streams The following are the ways in which one can make money with films. A movie will have multiple income streams such as. Remember: It is not called a movie until we can charge ten dollars per ticket. but Americans are spending more time and money on movies even in a troubled economy. make sure that we have aligned a deal with the major cable tv executives. for the "Print and Advertising" budget. When the DVD sales start to slow. This is the next step in making money. Assuming that we have the money to advertise it by ourself it should be put in the theaters first. As long as people like the theme or the characters we will make money from it.) It will take a couple years to collect the money from the different avenues. 5. 1. In some cases they refuse to pay the company until they have a new movie to release. Also we will need to find a foreign agent that will get the merchandise overseas. The theatres cut is around 50% of the total gross. Put all of the DVD's on the shelves of all music. Now that we have completed the film. The film will need to be in the theater until it is not selling movie tickets. This is where we will have the ability to cash in on another 6 month window. video rental. Especially with the G rated movies. 3. The exclusivity period is usually around 6 months. the next best way to make money in movies is to start a trilogy.

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 15 16 17 \17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Language Hindi Telugu Tamil Kannada Marathi Malayalam Bengali Bhojpuri Gujarati Oriya Punjabi English Assamese Rajasthani Konkani Santali Haryanvi Kodava Maithili Nagpuri Nepali Rajbanshi Sambalpuri Mishing No. of films 235 218 190 177 99 94 84 64 62 17 15 9 5 5 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .Regional Industries Break-up of 2009 Indian feature films produced in 24 Languages.

Total 1288 History • Motion pictures came to India in 1896. It was made by Dhundiraj Govind Phalke (nickname: Dadasaheb Phalke. on 14 March 1931 India's independence. when the Lumière Brothers' Chinematographe unveiled six soundless short films in Bombay (now Mumbai). 1817-1944). the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the 'Golden Age' of Indian). This was just one year after the Lumière brothers India's first feature film – named "King Harishchandra" – was released in 1913.8 billion which is expected to double by 2010  Contributes ~20% share of the entertainment industry  Largest film industry in the world in terms of number of movies produced . the first Indian talking film. • • • • INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY  Indian Film industry is valued at USD 1. By 1920. Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara. This was a silent movie. film making had taken the shape of an industry.

Digitization of movies and increase in the number of screens has enhanced the movie going  Media and entertainment industry is valued at USD 7.6 billion Current scenario • • Indian Film Industry is one of the worlds largest with more than 1000 movie releases and over 3 million movie goers annually. India produced a total of 2961 films on celluloid.  Government initiatives have given a boost to the Film industry  Industry status granted in 2001  100% FDI allowed via automatic route  Industry Financing  Prior to receiving industry status – – Difficult to acquire finance Finances generally came from unorganized sector. which includes a staggering figure of 1288 feature films. the entertainment industry is expected to reach USD 18. which involved high costs . In 2009.8 billion and is expected to grow at 19%  By 2010.

000 crore in the next five years. The industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 9 per cent and reach US$ 3 billion by 2014. at a huge discounts  Post receiving industry status – Companies can go to public to raise money – – Eros International admitted to AIM in November 2006 Banks have started financing Future • • • The Indian film and television industry is expected to reach a size of over Rs 60. such as Mukta Arts.– Directors pre-sold the movie rights at ‘mhoorat’ stage. The granting of industry status to the film industry will eventually allow overboard financing of films. thus keeping out of the world of murky financing • • . says a report. though this will result in production of fewer films than at present Stricter enforcement of copyright law will help the film industry in its fight with cable operators. have made public share issues. Some film production companies.