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Improving students’ listening ability using jigsaw technique

( A classroom Action Research in Third Year Students of Science Department one (XII IPA-1) SMA Negeri 1 Kandat in 2008/2009 Academic Year) BY Muhammad Yasin S8907076010 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the writer will describe the concepts dealing with the research: the general concept of listening comprehension and the general concept of Jigsaw technique as the basic description in understanding the concepts used in this research.

A. General Concept of Listening Comprehension 1. The Nature of Listening Hornby (2000: 750) states that listening is the act of single who listens (pays attention to somebody or something that you can hear). According to Wipf (in Wallace1998: 244) states that listening is more than just perception of sounds, although perception is the foundation. Listening also includes comprehension of meaning-bearing words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and connected discourse. Related to listening, Rost (in http://www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtrain ning/listenuppf_sam.htm), last visited on February 29th 2008, breaks down listening into two things. They are the component skills and what a listener does.

“What a listener does is taking some conscious action, involving cognitive process to understand a message. The listener must take decisions such as: What kind of situation is this? What is my plan for listening? What are the important words and units of meaning? Does the message make sense? The component skills (in terms of perception skills, analysis skills and synthesis skills) necessary for understanding: Discriminating, between sounds. (Perception) Recognizing words. (Perception) Identifying grammatical groupings of words. (Analysis) Identifying ‘pragmatic units’ expressions and sets of utterances which function as whole units to create meaning. (Analysis) Connecting linguistics cues to paralinguistic cues (intonation and stress) and to non-linguistics cues (gesture and relevant objects in the situation) in order to construct meaning. (Synthesis) Using background knowledge (what we have already known about the content and the form) and context (what has already been said) to predict and then to conform meaning. (Synthesis) Recalling important words or ideas”.

Based on those statements above, it can be concluded that listening is a receptive activity which is not only limited in hearing words, but also comprehending messages or spoken language that involves a process of thinking at the same time. It needs a complex understanding about the use of language. Thus, it is one of harder skills especially for foreign language learners.

2. Listening Process Up to now, nobody can say with certain what listening is since it is an internal process that cannot be directly observed like other language skills such as speaking and writing. Thus, none knows what happens when one listens to and understands the others. However, psycholinguists have put forward some theories

and storing and remembering the results . state that the process of listening with understanding goes through the following stages: 1. The next step is to impose some kind of structure on the stream of sound. (1997: 2) state that listening is an active process since there are some process involved. e. listening is not only receiving literal meaning from utterances that a speaker utters. et al. re-circulating the sound in his mind. Rivers and Temperley. or other equivalent units if it is music. he is constructing a parallel message based on the sound clues he receives from speakers and verifying whether his message corresponds with what he hears. In line with this. by breaking it up into words. Therefore. Then. Listening is an active process in which the listener actively takes information he has in his mind. In other words. 3. e. Nicolas (1988: 19) suggests that such as a person listens. making use of comprehension and interpretation results. as cited by Nicolas (1988: 19). but also bringing one’s entire life experience and thinking power to try to understand what a speaker has expressed. selecting from it what he judges to be important. Soedjiatno.g. sound identification. his first reaction is to decide whether it is organized or simply random sound. As a person hears a sound or stream of sounds. sentences if it is language.g. a person must first perceive whether the sound coming at him is systematic or not.as to what they think happens when one listens to language.. before he goes on to understand or fails to do so. comprehension and interpretation of the information. 2.. The selected information is recorded or put into different language and stored in the memory for future use.

listening is a creative skill in which in order to comprehend the speech sounds falling to his ears. that is. Priyatni. There are two modes of listening process. who has prior knowledge on the utterance he has heard. the speaker takes the raw material of words. then. context of the situation. In top-down processing. (2) knowledge of the world. et al. the vocabulary.in the form of concept in mind. top-down and bottom-up processing modes. This process comes from an internal source. It is in line with Nicolas (1988: 19). A listener. who states that three factors are coming into play when a person listens: (1) linguistic knowledge phonology/sound stream. arrangement of words. and (3) familiarity of the subject discussion. and the syntax. While bottom-up processing mode is evolved by an external source. Listening is also an interaction process. Besides. and the rise and fall of voice to create the meaning of the speech sound. Knowledge of the context. by the incoming language data. into grammatical . refers to the part of the process in which the ‘understanding’ of incoming language is worked by proceeding from sounds into words. it is evolved from a bank of prior knowledge and global expectations. That is. (1997: 6) state that interaction process between listeners with his prior knowledge on the “text” he is listening to is essential in listening. These include expectations about language and the expectations about ‘world’ (Morley in Mendelson 1995: 194). Bottom-up comprehension of speech. listeners use semantic knowledge to help them understand the phonetic input. can understand well the utterance. and general knowledge and the past experiences are used whenever possible to help arriving at an understanding the message (Buck in Mendelson 1995: 118).

The second type. it is hoped they will get easier in grasping the meaning of the listening material heard. is listening activity that demands the listener’s capability to understand deeply what the speaker has uttered. covers activities such . (4) explorative listening. Critical listening is a listening activity that requires the listener to judge what is uttered deciding whether or not it is valid and reliable. the teacher should take into consideration these two modes of listening process. intensive listening. 3. texts. Concentrative listening. which is usually called as a study-type listening. 1990: 35). This type of listening comprehension involves: (1) critical listening. etc. radio plays. An extensive listening activity emphasizes the activity on listening to general utterance in which a listener does not need to understand details deeply. and (6) selective listening. (3) creative listening. or other listening materials that come to their ears in two stages. This could consist of short stories that can be done through in one -10 to 15 minutes session or of longer works either recorded or read by the teacher in class. He is expected to hear for pleasure without being threatened of comprehension exercise after hearing the text.relationship and lexical meaning. (5) integrative listening. The composite meaning of the ‘message’ is arrived at based on the incoming language data. (2) concentrative listening. Types of Listening Listening activity can be divided into extensive and intensive listening (Tarigan. By doing so. In relation to the teaching of listening comprehension in an English class. The teacher should encourage the students to process the sounds. etc.

and (c) listening to get into understanding. a listener selects specific information he needs from an oral text for specific purposes such as finding names. (b) listening for finding specific information. numbers. etc. (d) solving problems and verifying the results of the problem-solving. (c) adapting imagination with imaginative thinking to create new works in writing. Integrative listening requires more concentration and attention to the listener because he is demanded to ask question after hearing to the text. the listener focuses his attention to find: (a) new things. Creative listening involves activities such as: (a) relating or associating meanings with listening experience. It is hoped that the students will get appropriate exercise of listening which. In selective listening. they will get maximum advantages from the skills they have mastered. dates. and (c) interesting issues. etc. will help them master the listening skills well. In explorative listening. in turn. 4. (b) building or constructing visual imagination while listening. (b) additional information about a topic. which are interesting. therefore. painting. etc. they can develop their optimal capacities appropriate to their level and.as: (a) listening directions or commands. In line with teaching listening in English instruction. If these skills are mastered. Listening Comprehension Buck (1995: 121-2) states that listening is a communicative act in which listeners try to construct reasonable interpretation of a spoken text for some . the teacher should choose the type of listening he considers appropriate to his students’ need and level. Selective listening is taught to make the learners use with acoustic form of the language.

1995: 117). Listening comprehension is a process which can be bottom-up or topdown in which listeners interact with the spoken text. but is something that is constructed by the listener based on a number of different knowledge sources (Buck. etc. rather to what the speaker actually means. The desire to understand is not only limited to language comprehension. These knowledge sources will facilitate him to understand the messages. but also trying to make sense of the world around (knowledge sources). Language comprehension is not basically different from any attempt to comprehend anything else. it does not mean that a listener tries to understand what words and sentences mean. syntactic knowledge. (2) knowledge of co-text..communicative purposes. In other words. in a social situation. (3) knowledge about the context of situation. Comprehension is a natural and continual process. However. In conclusion. lexical knowledge. that is knowledge of what has been said already. language does not appear in isolation. listening comprehension is a process in which a listener tries to come to real meaning of what the speaker has uttered by interpreting the . the meaning of the messages is not in the text itself. morphology. and 4) general world of knowledge. and so is language comprehension. The most important sources involved in listening comprehension (Buck. or background knowledge. Listening in this process is to make sense to what is heard. It means that the listener tries to make sense out of what is heard by utilizing his different knowledge sources. 1995:117-8) are: (1) linguistic knowledge which consists of phonology. but it takes place in a context. discourse feature.

it is also affected by negative factors such as bad attitude or bad impression toward the speaker. noises from outside and inside the room will result in ineffective listening. the weather which is too hot. the room or place which smells bed. The first is physical factor. Or. too humid. On the . hunger. and knowledge of the world (schemata). co-text and context of the present language.sound coming to him using many sources. Physical condition a person has plays an important role in listening. such as linguistic knowledge. etc that will cause the listener to pay more attention to what is listened to. Physical condition of the environment can also affect the success of listening. A listener may get more difficulties in listening when he finds too many unknown words or too many complex structures beyond his mind. Experience plays a very important role in listening. or too cold. Experience here may cover linguistic knowledge and the knowledge of the world. can affect listening effectiveness and quality since they can decrease the concentration of a person in listening activity. etc. good attitude toward the speaker. The defects in eras. 5. psychologically listening effectiveness is also determined by positive factors effectiveness such as feeling of sympathy toward the speaker or the topic being discussed. Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension Tarigan (1990: 25) identifies three factors that affect the effectiveness and the quality of listening comprehension. and experiential factors. The third. etc. They are physical. illness. The last is experiential factor. that will make listener not concentrate to what is being spoken. boring atmosphere. For instance. psychological.

these micro skills can become testing criteria. a student of SMA in language section will get a greater difficulty when he is given a listening comprehension test with the topic of Chemistry or Physics. etc. Such lists are very useful in helping us to break down just what it is that our learners need to do as they acquire effective interactive listening strategies. to make listening more interesting and to make the students actively involved in the lesson. And in our evaluation of listening. such a list helps to focus on earlyconceptualized objectives. or may be bored with the material and it seems useless to go on. when the teacher knows that most of his students are tired. As we plan a specific technique or listening module. For example. humorous stories. jokes. we can get a good idea of what our techniques need to cover in the domain of listening comprehension. Through a checklist of micro skills. The Skills of Listening Comprehension Richards (in Brown 2001: 255) in his seminal article on teaching listening skills provided a comprehensive taxonomy of aural skills involved in conversation all discourse. The following are the checklists: . Or. For instance. the teacher should consider the factors above in order that he can get the best condition of the students in learning listening. In teaching English listening in class. it will be better if the teacher uses materials that are suitable with the students’ experiences or hobbies that are in accordance with their knowledge of the world (schemata). 6.other hand. background knowledge will also determine the success or the failure in listening. to get the students’ attention and motivation back to the lesson. the teacher can use short stories.

rules. h. rhythmic structure. Discriminate among the distinctive sounds of English. and words in stress. recognize a core of words. pattern. participants and goals using real world knowledge.a. e. participants and goals. verbs. m. and other performance variables. b. errors. and elliptical forms. g. c. j. deduce cause and effect. Detect sentence constituents and distinguish between major and minor constituents. Recognize the communicative function of utterance. Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns. f. From events. predict outcomes. and detect such relations . k. system (tense. Recognize cohesive devices in spoken discourse. intonation contours. Distinguish word boundaries. ideas. and pluralization). Recognize English stress. Process speech at different rates of delivery. according to situation. Infer situation. Retain chunk of language of different lengths in short-term memory. and unstressed position. patterns. agreement. Recognize reduced form of words. i. etc). and interpret wordorder patterns and their significance. and their role in signaling information. n. l. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. Process speech containing pauses. etc described. infer links and connections between events. contraction. d.

The complexity of listening material is related to the type of the text. guessing the meaning of the words from context. and signaling comprehension. and the familiarity of the topic.as main idea. Use facial. situation. q. o. such as detecting key words. the number of speakers. they can make the listening process difficult. the situation of the text. vocabulary. 7. kinesthetic. appeal for help. Based on the statement above. and exemplification. generalization. body language and other non-verbal clues to decipher meanings. Distinguish between literal and implied meaning. The Factors Affecting Listening Difficult to Understand There are some complex factors that influence the students’ ability to understand the listening material. the amount of new information presented to the listener. and grammar. p. it is necessary for the teacher to select the appropriate technique to help the students’ difficulties especially listening in comprehension. Foreign language learners need to pay attention to such factors because they highly influenced the processing of speech and can often block comprehension if they are not attended to. the number of topic or messages being expressed. new information. Develop and use a battery of listening strategies. Brown (1994: 252) promoted eight characteristics of spoken language that make listening difficult such as: . In other words. supporting ideas. given information.

and pragmatic. Idioms. In spoken language. The reduction can be phonological. hesitation. These reductions pose significant difficulties especially to classroom learners. in spoken language. elaborations. and the little insertion of “I mean” and “You know”. we break down speech into smaller group of world. notice the rephrasing. reduced forms. Performance variables. Redundancy. and correction are common.a. here and there. due to the memory limitations and our predisposition for “chunking" or clustering. except for plan discourse. morphological. Such redundancies help the hearer to process meaning by offering more time and extra information. it also has many reduced forms. e. Actually. f. in written language we are conditioned to attend the sentences as the basic unit of organization. the number of length pauses used by a speaker is more crucial to comprehend than sheer speed. shared cultural knowledge. c. false stars. Learners have to train themselves to listen for meaning in the midst of all these distracting performance variables. repetitions. b. Reduced form. has a great deal of redundancy. learners who have been exposed to standard written English and/or” textbook” language sometimes finds it surprising and difficult to deal with colloquial language. The next time we are in conversation. Rate of delivery. Clustering. while spoken language does indeed contain a great deal of redundancy. . are all manifested at some point of conversation. virtually every language learner initially thinks that native speaker speak too fast. pauses. syntactic. d. Colloquial language. spoken language unlike written language. slang.

h. aspect of an interactive. c. The Types of Classroom Listening Performance Brown (1994: 255) stated that there are six types of classroom performance. it nevertheless may be a legitimate. and intonation. The students’ task in such listening is to process the teacher talk immediately and to fashion an appropriate reply. . Responsive. etc) of discourse may be considered to be intensive. discourse marker. This role of listener as merely a “tape recorder” is very limited because he is not generating meaning but he focused on pronunciation. technique whose purpose is to focus on components (phonemes. They are: a. a learner simply wants to listen to the surface structure of an utterance for the sole purpose of repeating it back. the prosodic features of the English are very important for comprehension. rhythm.g. communicative classroom. Stress. While this kind of listening performance requires little meaningful processing. words. b. Interaction. a significant proportion of classroom listening activity consists of short stretches of teacher language designed to elicit immediate responses. unless a language learner’s objective is exclusively to master some specialized skill like monitoring radio broadcaster or attending lectures. 8. even though a minor. interaction will play a large role in listening comprehension. Intensive. English speech can be a terror for some learners as mouthfuls of syllables come spilling out between stress points. intonation. As a stress time language. Reactive.

there is listening performance that can include all five of the above types as learners actively participate in discussions. Their listening performance must be intricately integrated with speaking (and perhaps other) skills in the authentic give and take of communicative interchange. The discourses include speeches. f. certain facts or events. location.. role plays. global understanding of spoken language. The Teaching of Listening Comprehension in EFL Classes . dates. aims to develop a top-down. Selective listening differs from intensive listening in that the discourses are in relatively long lengths. note-taking and/or discussion) for full comprehension. the task of the student is not to process everything that was said. Selective.d. to listening to a conversation and deriving a comprehensive message or purpose. in longer stretches of discourse such as monologues of a couple of minutes or considerably longer. necessarily. stories and anecdotes. e. context. Extensive performance could range from listening to lengthy lectures. and conversation in which learners are “eavesdroppers”. situation. The listening skills could ask the students to listen for people’s name. media broadcast. conversation. debate. 9. It may require the students to invoke other interactive skills (e. finally. but to be able to find important information in a field of potentially distracting information. Extensive.g. The purpose of such performance is not to look for global or general meanings. and other pair and group work. Interactive. and main ideas and/ or conclusion. but rather than to scan the material selectively for certain information.

Listening has come to be recognized as an important facilitator of language acquisition (Rubin. 1995: 7). It is a relatively big class that needs more of teachers’ skill in handling and managing the class. speaking itself does not guarantee that someone can understand or to be understood by other if his listener does not have listening skill that helps guess what the speaker actually means. in foreign language instruction. moreover foreign language (Harmer. they feel. River (in Morley. Many teachers of English as foreign languages are aware of this and it brings to the conclusion that listening cannot be left behind other skills such as reading. and five times more than they write. 1985: 24). moreover. children listen to other people around them before they begin to speak. Nord (in Nation. but rather than learning a language is building a map of meaning in the mind. These all show how important listening is in daily life. learning a language is not just learning to talk. In such condition. Most teaching in Indonesia takes place in a classroom with thirty to forty students. the best method is to practice meaningful listening. one cannot speak without learning listening first. and it goes without saying that in fact. It cannot either be denied that persons. . That is why listening needs to be taught in every language teaching. writing. As people learn their mother tongue. To do this. four times more than they read. can expect to listen twice as much as they speak. and speaking. but they do not believe that practice in talking is the best way to build up this ‘cognitive’ map in mind. These people believe that talking may indicate that the language was learned. . 1991: 82) states that in communication. and even more that that. in average. the range of . 1992: 17) says that: . Listening is the first skill that someone can master in his native language. especially in learning and teaching language.

and many different social-economic statuses present in class. and postlistening activities. especially of English listening.ability is wider. teachers can apply both bottoms-up and top-down strategies. In using these strategies in teaching listening comprehension. whilst-listening activities. It is extremely difficult for them to use the natural listening skills (which people use in their . more various interests and attitudes toward learning. pre-listening activities. teachers start by telling the students the story or playing the recorded material and asking them to memorize the whole story and later learn to deal with individual words. Furthermore. Dealing with this. the students are taught the sub-skills of the listening skills. The use of these strategies in teaching listening appears in the teaching which applies three procedures. Muslimin (1990: 1) states that pre-listening is a stage where the students do some activities before they listen to the text. but rather look for the most appropriate techniques and strategies to use to meet the needs of the students in a majority and create activities that can make the students actively involved in classroom activities. i. teacher should not try to teach the students one by one. and sentences as well as the pronunciation and the intonation.e. The students are introduced to the combination of syllables and continued to words. In the teaching of listening comprehension. phrases. Underwood (1990: 30) states that it is unfair to plague the students straight into the listening text. This kind of strategies is started from simple to the more complex oral text structures. the top-down strategies can also be applied. In teaching listening. which are usually applied by beginners.

e.native language) of matching what they hear with what they expect to hear and using their previous knowledge to make sense of it. This activity provides students with some background information that can help the students understand what they listen more easily. First is matching picture with what is heard. Muslimin (1990 : 1-2) indicates some activities that can be applied in the pre. Muslimin (1990: 3) states that Whilst-listening is the stage where the students are asked to do some activities during the time the students are listening to the text. Furthermore. such as informal teacher talks and class discussion about the topic and indicate what the students should expect to listen. The purpose of these activities is to help the students develop the skills of eliciting messages from the spoken language. 1999: 112-13) states that at the beginning level listening should be preceded by pre-listening activity. overhead projector. In line with this. Third is a multiple-choice question. large poster.g. Wherever possible. The students are requested to choose one of the correct answers. from the selection offered. in which the students listen to a description or a conversation and have to decide. in which students are provided with some statements to decide whether they are true or . arouses the learners’ background knowledge and encourage them to make predictions about the text.listening stage. which picture is the right one. by using picture. Fourth is true-false. The following are the activities that are applied in this stage. where the students are given several options of answers. The third is carrying out an action where a teacher demonstrates a series of actions and instructs the class to do it based on what they listen from the tape. They try to interpret what they listen and match it with the picture. Morley (in Murcia. the theme and situation of story should be presented visually.

Finally. which is meant to get students to concentrate on the listening text. The students try to follow a route on the road plan on a map by listening to the direction from the tape. . As stated in the 2006 Competence Based Curriculum.). the teaching of listening is aimed at helping the students to: (1) state main ideas in a short oral text (dialogue.). Muslimin (1990: 5) states that post-listening is the stage where activities related to a particular listening text are done after the main listening instruction is completed. Fifth is following route. Writing them down is one way of listening showing this comprehension. and some other relate only loosely to listening to the text itself. (3) state certain information in a short oral text (dialogue. where the emphases is on sorting out the meaning of the words spoken that indicate listening the student’ comprehension of utterance. etc. in which the teacher gives the students a map that covers a small area. and to write. Sixth is direction. narration. Good whilstreading activities help the students find their way through the listening text and build upon the expectations raised by pre-listening activities. use road names which are easily recognized and has a small number of features marked on it. description. 10. Some activities here are extensions of the work done at the pre-listening and whist-listening stages. to discuss.false according to the listening text. (2) state detailed information in short and simple dialogue. description. Some Techniques in Teaching Listening The techniques used in teaching cannot be separated from the goals of teaching. At this stage the students have time to think. narration. etc.

the teacher tells the students to do things. If they do what is asked correctly. In some cases they try to do them before they listen to and then they listen to see if their answers are correct then make necessary changes. Construct Based on the theories above. The learners just listen to the story and enjoy it. The teacher may read slower and repeat some sentences in the first reading and increase more and more speed when learners become more familiar with the story and the repetition decreases. If the learners do exercises while or after listen the passage again to see why they make mistakes.To achieve the objectives the teacher may use several techniques suggested by Nation (1992: 25) in teaching listening. the teacher chooses an interesting story possibly a graded reader and reads aloud a chapter each day to the learners. the students see the exercises on the blackboard or on papers/book in front of them. In Listening-to-Stories technique. Listen-and-Answer. In Listen-and-do Technique. They can do that before they listen to or while or after listening to passage. In Listen-and-Answer technique. Listen to Stories. While reading the story the teacher sits next to the board and writes any words that the learners might not recognize. In Listen-and-Do. the teacher knows that the students understand. The story should be chosen so that there are only a few of these words. The . such as: Listen-and-Do. 11. the researcher formulated that listening ability is an ability in which a listener tries to respond to a real meaning of what the speaker has uttered or spoken by interpreting the sound coming to him.

Procedures are the techniques and practices that are derived from one’s approach and design. and teaching. activities or tasks used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. method.spoken texts are interpersonal expressions. B. and monologue texts. The monologue texts are narrative and descriptive texts. In different occasion. design and procedure. Based on the various definitions above. The Nature of Jigsaw Technique Brown (2001: 185) states that Jigsaw technique is a special form of information gap in which each member of group is given specific information and . Meanwhile technique is the specific activities manifested in classroom that were consistent with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well. and technique. Approach is a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language. beliefs. Anthony in Brown (2001: 129) also states that technique is a super ordinate term refers to various activities that either teacher or learners perform in the classroom. transactional expressions. and theories about the nature of language and language learning. learning. The Nature of Technique Anthony in Brown (2001: 14) gives three hierarchical elements namely: approach. Richards and Theodore Rodgers proposed a reformulation of these concepts namely: approach. the researcher concludes that technique is a key to effective instructional decision because it is the real implementation of approach. Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon the selected approach. and design. An approach defines assumptions. the researcher can conclude that technique is all of the planned tasks and activities which are chosen by a teacher to be performed in the class in order to reach the certain objectives. In addition. method. 2. Designs specify the relationship of those theories to classroom materials and activities. Brown (2001: 16) states that technique is any of wide variety of exercises. General Concept of Jigsaw Technique 1. Related to these different hierarchical notions about technique. short functional texts.

and to develop a strategy for teaching what they have learned to the other students in their original collaborative learning group. Student 2B. Student 2C. Student 4B Student 3C. Student 1B. The students then teach one another the sections they have worked . Student 4C Student 3D. The students who are responsible for the same section join together and form a new. Student 1C. 1998: 1): Group Group Group Group A: B: C: Student 1A. Student 2A. temporary focus group whose purpose is for the students to: • • master the concepts in their section. All of the students with number 1 form focus group 1 and are given the same concept to master. Students with number 2 form focus group 2 and are given a different concept to master. After the focus groups have completed their work. First introduced by Aronson. and so on. each with four students (Mills and Cottell. (1978) the basic premise of Jigsaw is to divide a problem into sections. one for each group member. Student 4A Student 3B. we will describe four collaborative learning groups. et al. Student 3A. To illustrate the structure. Each student receives resources to complete only his/her part. The Jigsaw structure promotes positive interdependence and also provides a simple method to ensure individual accountability. the original collaborative learning groups (Groups A to D) re-assemble. These temporary focus groups become experts in the section given to them and develop a strategy to explain their understanding to their original group members. Student 4D D: Student 1D. Student 2D.the goal is to pool all information to achieve some objectives.

the students doing the research do not immediately take it back to their Jigsaw group. Pedro is assigned Britain’s role in the war. the students can be evaluated on all sections of the task (Mills and Cottell. is assigned to cover concentration camps. for example. he cannot possibly do well on the test that follows. 1998: 3). To ensure individual accountability. To increase the chances that each report will be accurate. they meet first with students who have the identical assignment (one from each . Tyrone will handle Japan’s entry into the war. and that is precisely what makes this strategy so effective. Just as in a Jigsaw puzzle. are divided into small groups of five or six students each. In one Jigsaw group. Steven. The situation is specifically structured so that the only access any member has to the other five assignments is by listening closely to the report of the person reciting. Thus. Instead. Clara will read about the development of the atom bomb. If each student's part is essential. The Jigsaw classroom is a cooperative learning technique with a threedecade track record of successfully reducing racial conflict and increasing positive educational outcomes. Another member of the group. or if he thinks Sara is a nerd and tunes her out or makes fun of her.on. Here is how it works: the students in a history class. Eventually each student will come back to her or his Jigsaw group and will try to present a well-organized report to the group. Sara is responsible Hitler’s rise to power in pre-war Germany. each piece--each student's part-is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. then each student is essential. if Tyrone doesn't like Pedro. Melody is to research the contribution of the Soviet Union. Suppose their task is to learn about World War II.

This "cooperation by design" facilitates interaction among all students in the class. the Jigsaw groups reconvene in their initial heterogeneous configuration. For example. leading them to value each other as contributors to their common task. The followings are the steps: 1. Each student in each group educates the whole group about her or his specialty. for it allows them to hear and rehearse with other "experts.Jigsaw group). No student can succeed completely unless everyone works well together as a team. becoming experts on their topic. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal. Jigsaw in 10 Steps The Jigsaw classroom is very simple to use. Jigsaw process encourages listening. each person depends on all the others. The atom bomb expert in each group teaches the other group members about the development of the atom bomb. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender. 3. and ability. gathering information. ethnicity. engagement. race." Once each presenter is up to speed. Students are then tested on what they have learned about World War II from their fellow group member. Divide students into 5 or 6 person’s Jigsaw groups. . It is particularly useful for students who might have initial difficulty learning or organizing their part of the assignment. students assigned to the atom bomb topic meet as a team of specialists. We call this the "expert" group. and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. and rehearsing their presentations.

observing the process. the researcher formulated that Jigsaw technique is a special form of information gap in which each member of group is . this person should be the most mature student in the group.g. Divide the day's lesson into 5-6 segments. 6. 5. make an appropriate intervention. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification. a member is dominating or disruptive). Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their Jigsaw group. 10. 7. At the end of the session. 4. making sure students have direct access only to their own segment. Bring the students back into their Jigsaw groups. Assign each student to learn one segment. 3. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Eventually. 8. Initially.. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. 9. it's best for the group leader to handle this task.2. Construct Based on the theories above. If any group is having trouble (e. There is no need for them to memorize it. give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count. Float from group to group. 4. Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each Jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment.

and knowledge of the world. Jigsaw technique is not only an efficient way to learn the material but also encourage listening. simple narrative and descriptive monologue text in daily life context while the competences expected in listening ability are: (1) how to respond the spoken interpersonal and transactional texts.given specific information and the goal is to pool all information to achieve some objectives. and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in comprehending listening material. transactional text. short functional text. and their schemata in daily life contexts. they are listening ability as dependent variable and Jigsaw technique as an independent variable. such as linguistic knowledge. By groupworking among them. Action Hypothesis . The Jigsaw technique is one of the techniques that allows the students to work together to solve their problems or difficulties. Each group and its member are essential. engagement. C. D. Besides. they will feel comfortable during the lesson. (2) how to find general and specific information of short spoken functional text. co-text and context of the present language. Listening ability is a competence in which a listener tries to respond to real meaning of what the speaker has uttered or oral text by interpreting the sound coming to him using many sources. grammar. Rationale In this research there are two variables. simple narrative and descriptive monologue text using their knowledge. The text involved in listening are interpersonal text.

. the hypothesis is formulated as follows: Jigsaw technique can improve students’ listening ability of the Third Year Students of Science department one (XII IPA-1) students of SMAN 1 Kandat in 2008/2009 academic year.Based on the rationale of the study.