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Utility Commands

NAME gawk - pattern scanning and processing language SYNOPSIS gawk [ POSIX or GNU style options ] -f program-file [ -- ] file ... gawk [ POSIX or GNU style options ] [ -- ] program-text file ... pgawk [ POSIX or GNU style options ] -f program-file [ -- ] file ... pgawk [ POSIX or GNU style options ] [ -- ] program-text file ... DESCRIPTION Gawk is the GNU Project's implementation of the AWK programming language . It conforms to the definition of the language in the POSIX 1003.1 Standard. This version in turn is based on the description in The AWK Programming Language, by Aho, Kernighan, and Weinberger, with the additional features found in the System V Release 4 version of UNIX awk. Gawk also provides more recent Bell Laboratories awk extensions, and a number of GNU-specific extensions . Pgawk is the profiling version of gawk. It is identical in every way to gawk, except that programs run more slowly, and it automatically produces an execution profile in the file awkprof.out when done. See the --profile option, below. The command line consists of options to gawk itself, the AWK program t ext (if not supplied via the -f or --file options), and values to be made available in the ARGC and ARGV pre-defined AWK variable s. OPTION FORMAT Gawk options tyle long options. “-”, while U-specific features tures. may be either traditional POSIX one letter options, or GNU-s POSIX options start with a single long options start with “--”. Long options are provided for both GN and for POSIX-mandated fea‐

Following the POSIX standard, gawk-specific options are supplied via argu ments to the -W option. Multiple -W options may be supplied Each -W option has a corresponding long option, as detailed b elow. Arguments to long options are either joined with the option by an = sign, with no intervening spaces, or they may be provi ded in the next command line argument. Long options may be abbreviated, as long as the abbreviation remains unique. OPTIONS Gawk accepts the following options, listed by frequency. -F fs --field-separator fs Use fs for the input field separator (the value of the FS predefin ed variable). -v var=val --assign var=val

Assign the value val to the variable var, before execution of the program begins. Such variable values are available to the BEGIN block of an AWK program. -f program-file --file program-file Read the AWK program source from the file program-file, instead of from the first command line argument. Multiple -f (or --file) options may be used. -mf NNN -mr NNN Set various memory limits to the value NNN. The f flag sets the maximum number of fields, and the r flag sets the maxi‐ mum record size. These two flags and the -m option are from an ea rlier version of the Bell Laboratories research version of UNIX awk. They are ignored by gawk, since gawk has no pre-defi ned limits. (Current versions of the Bell Laboratories awk no longer accept them.) -O --optimize Enable optimizations upon the internal representation of the progr am. Currently, this includes just simple constantfolding. The gawk maintainer hopes to add additional optimizations over time. -W compat -W traditional --compat --traditional Run in compatibility mode. In compatibility mode, gawk behaves i dentically to UNIX awk; none of the GNU-specific exten‐ sions are recognized. The use of --traditional is preferred over the other forms of this option. See GNU EXTENSIONS, below, for more information. -W copyleft -W copyright --copyleft --copyright Print the short version of the GNU copyright information message o n the standard output and exit successfully. -W dump-variables[=file] --dump-variables[=file] Print a sorted list of global variables, their types and final va lues to file. If no file is provided, gawk uses a file named awkvars.out in the current directory. Having a list of all the global variables is a good way to look fo r typographical errors in your programs. You would also use this option if you have a large program with a lot of functions, and you want to be sure that your functions don't inadvertently use global variables that you meant to be loca l. (This is a particularly easy mistake to make with simple variable names like i, j, and so on.) -W exec file --exec file Similar to -f, however, this is option is the last one processed.

This should be used with #! scripts, particularly for CGI applications, to avoid passing in options or source code (!) o n the command line from a URL. This option disables command-line variable assignments. -W gen-po --gen-po Scan and parse the AWK program, and generate a GNU .po format f ile on standard output with entries for all localizable strings in the program. The program itself is not executed. See the GNU gettext distribution for more information on .po files. -W help -W usage --help --usage Print a relatively short summary of the available options on the standard output. (Per the GNU Coding Standards, these options cause an immediate, successful exit.) -W lint[=value] --lint[=value] Provide warnings about constructs that are dubious or non-portable to other AWK implementations. With an optional argu‐ ment of fatal, lint warnings become fatal errors. This may be dra stic, but its use will certainly encourage the develop‐ ment of cleaner AWK programs. With an optional argument of invali d, only warnings about things that are actually invalid are issued. (This is not fully implemented yet.) -W lint-old --lint-old Provide warnings about constructs that are not portable to the ori ginal version of Unix awk. -W non-decimal-data --non-decimal-data Recognize octal and hexadecimal values in input data. Use this op tion with great caution! -W posix --posix This turns on compatibility mode, with the following additional re strictions: · \x escape sequences are not recognized. · Only space and tab act as field separators when FS is set to a sin gle space, newline does not. · You cannot continue lines after ? and :. · The synonym func for the keyword function is not recognized. · The operators ** and **= cannot be used in place of ^ and ^=. · The fflush() function is not available. -W profile[=prof_file]

This is par‐ ticularly useful for running AWK programs via the “#!” executable interpreter mechanism. so gawk only provides them if they are requested with this option. However. out. In normal operation. success‐ ful exit. This is also useful when reporting bugs. -W use-lc-numeric --use-lc-numeric This forces gawk to use the locale's decimal point character when parsing input data. or when --posix is specified. The default is awkprof. any other options are flagged as invalid. the default is to follow traditional behavior and use a period as the decimal point. This provides consistency with the argument parsing convention used by most other POSIX programs. When run with pgawk. Although the POSIX standard requires this behavior. as long as program text has been supplied. This is useful to allow further argumen ts to the AWK program itself to start with a “-”. This option allows t he easy intermixing of library functions (used via the -f and --file options) with source code entered on the command line. -W version --version Print version information for this particular copy of gawk on the standard output. without the full draconian strictness of the --posix option. The P OSIX standard added them. It is intended primarily for medium to large AWK programs used in shell scripts. This is useful mainly for knowing if the current copy of gawk on your system is up to date with respect to whatever the Free Software Foundation is distribut‐ ing. below). Interval expres‐ sions were not traditionally available in the AWK language. the profile is just a “pretty printed” version of the program. these options cause an immediate. their use is likely to break o ld AWK programs. -W re-interval --re-interval Enable the use of interval expressions in regular expression match ing (see Regular Expressions. even in locales where the period is not the decimal point character. and gawk does so when --posix is in effect . In compatibility mode.--profile[=prof_file] Send profiling data to prof_file. When run with gawk. AWK PROGRAM EXECUTION . This option over‐ rides the default behavior.) -Signal the end of options. -W source program-text --source program-text Use program-text as AWK program source code. unknown options are passed on to the AWK program in the ARGV array for processing. but are otherwise ignored. to make awk and egrep consis‐ tent with each other. the profile c ontains execution counts of each statement in the program in the left margin and function call counts for each userdefined function. (Per the GNU Codin g Standards.

after all the input is exhausted. pattern { action statements } function name(parameter list) { statements } Gawk first reads the program source from the program-file(s) if specif ied. arrays with multiple dimensions may be simulated. If the value of a particular element of ARGV is empty (""). or both. Gawk reads the program text as if all the program-files and command line source te xts had been concatenated together. Their values are either floating-point numbers or strings. Several pre-defined variables are set as a program runs. depending upon how they are used.) Command line variable assignment is most useful for dynamically assigning values to the variables AWK uses to control how input is broken into fields and records. The environment variable AWKPATH specifies a search path to use when finding source files named with the -f option. thes e are described as needed and summarized below. Next. RECORDS AND FIELDS AWK variables are dynamic. gawk reads the standard input. depending upon how gawk was built and installed.:/usr/local/share/awk". If a filename on the command line has the form var=val it is treated as a variable assignment. For each record in the input. This is useful for building libraries of AWK functions. gawk executes the code in the END block(s) (if any). VARIABLES. they come into existence when they are first u sed. from arguments to --source. gawk skips ov er it. For each pattern that the record matches. gawk tests to see if it matches any patter n in the AWK program. If this variable does not exist. (This happens after any BEGIN block(s) have been run. If there are no f iles named on the command line. Then. without having to include them in ea ch new AWK program that uses them. It is also useful for controlling state if multiple passes are needed over a single data file. no path search is performed. or from the first nonoption argument on the command line. the default path is ". the associated action is executed. Finally. It also provides the ability to mix library functions with command line programs.) If a file name given to the -f option contains a “/” character. gawk execut es the code in the BEGIN block(s) (if any). Gawk executes AWK programs in the following order. ( The actual directory may vary. and then proceeds to read each file named in the ARGV array. all variable assignments specified via the -v option are performed. The -f and --source options may be used multiple times on the command line. AWK also has one dim ensional arrays. First. The patterns are tested in t he order they occur in the program.An AWK program consists of a sequence of pattern-action statements and op tional function definitions. Records . gawk compiles the program into an internal form. The variable var will be assigned the value val.

gawk splits the record into fields. Built-in Variables Gawk's built-in variables are: . only the first character of its string value is used for separating records. Each field in the input record may be referenced by its position. and gawk splits up the record using the specified widths. fields are separated by runs of spaces and/or tabs and/or newlines (But see the section POSIX COMPATIBILITY. If RS is any single character. in addition to whatever value FS may have. When RS is set to the null string. NOTE: The value of IGNORECASE (see below) also affects how fields are spl when FS is a regular expression. and how records are separated when RS is a regular expression. FS is expected to be a full regul expression.Normally. and causes the value of $0 to be recomputed. with the fields being separated by th e value of OFS. However. The variable NF is set to the total number of fields in the input record. Similarly. $(NF+2) = 5) increases the value of NF. If FS the null string. Assigning a new value to FS overrides the use of FIELDWIDTHS. Otherwise. assigning a value to $0 causes the record to be resplit. You can control h ow records are separated by assigning values to the built-in variable RS. $0 is the whole record. Fields As each input record is read. fields after $NF) produce the n ull-string. If FS is a single character. References to negative numbered fields cause a fatal error. References to non-existent fields (i. then records are separated by blank lines.g. creates any intervening fi elds with the null string as their value. and so on. Fields need not be referenced by constants: n = 5 print $n prints the fifth field in the input record. Assigning a value to an existing field causes the whole record to be rebuilt when $0 is referenced. RS is a regular expression. he is ar . each field is expected to have fixed width. and restores the default behavior. $1. records are separated by newline characters. If RS i s set to the null string. creating new values for the fields. using t value of the FS variable as the field separator. with the fields being separated by the value of OFS. $2. However. then each individual character becomes a separate field. below). Text in the input that matches this regular expression separates the reco rd. fields are separated by that character. The value of FS is ign ored. the newline character al ways acts as a field separator. In the special case that FS is a single space..e. that character sep arates records. it If the FIELDWIDTHS variable is set to a space separated list of numbers. assigning to a non-existent field (e. in compatibility mode. Otherwise. Decrementing NF causes the values of fields past th e new value to be lost. and the value of $0 to be recomputed.

The v alue is subject to translation in non-English locales.. then ERRNO will contain a string describing the error. See Fields. FIELDWIDTHS A white-space separated list of fieldwidths. respectively. However.1. the full ISO 8859-1 LatinThe input record number in the current input file. FILENAME The name of the current input file. /aB/ matches all of the strings "ab". String values of "rw" or "wr" specify that all files should use binary I/O. The input field separator. Any other string value is t reated as "rw". and the gensub(). index(). Under Unix. a . a space by default. If no files are specifie d on the command line. Dynamically changing the contents of ARGV can control the files used for data. should use binary I/O. but generates a warning message.ARGC The number of command line arguments (does not include option s to gawk. "%. T he array is indexed by the environment variables. respectively. instead of using the value of the FS variable as the field separator. or all files. record separating with RS. NO TE: Array subscripting is not affected. ERRNO If a system error occurs either doing a redirection for getli ne. Changing this array does not affect the environment seen by programs which gawk spawns via redirection or the system() function. If IGNORECASE has a non-zero value. the value of FILENAME is “-”. then string comparisons and pattern matching in rules. field splitting with FS. Numeric values of 1. BINMODE On non-POSIX systems. should use binary I/O. ENVIRON An array containing the values of the current environment. As with all AWK variables. each element being the value of that variable (e. split(). match(). CONVFMT The conversion format for numbers.6g". during a read for getline. gsub(). gawk parses the input into fields of fixed width. "aB". FILENAME is undefined inside the BEGIN block (unless set by getline). or output files. so al l regular expression and string operations are normally case-sensitive. output files. IGNORECASE Controls the case-sensitivity of all regular expression and string operations. FNR FS bove. regular expression matching with ~ and !~. or "w" specify that input files. specifies use of “binary” mode for all fi le I/O. and "AB". However. 2. String values of "r". or 3. ARGV Array of command line arguments. When set. and sub() built-in functions all ignore case when doing regular expression operations. or during a close(). the initial value of IGNORECASE is zero. Thus. ENVIRON["H OME"] might be /home/arnold). by default. ARGIND The index in ARGV of the current file being processed. "Ab". The array is indexed from 0 to ARGC . specify that input files. or the program source).g. if IGNORECASE is not equal to zero. the asort() and asorti() functions are affected.

On some systems.1. As of gawk 3. a space by default. Use the in operator to test for these elemen ts. The following elements are guaranteed to be avail‐ able: PROCINFO["egid"] PROCINFO["euid"] the value of the getegid(2) system call. the parent process ID of the current proc the value of the getgid(2) system call. Gawk sets RT to the input text that m atched the character or regular expression specified by RS. When assigned the string value "fat al". When true. by default a newline. Any other true value just prints warnings. PROCINFO["FS"] "FS" if field splitting with FS is in eff ect. PROCINFO["pgrpid"] the process group ID of the current proce PROCINFO["version"] the version of gawk. the process ID of the current process. The output field separator. RT The record terminator. the value of the geteuid(2) system call. the case equivalencies are fully locale-aware.h> facilities such as isalpha().4.1.6g". gawk prints lint warnings. by default. (This implies that character indices start at . 0 if no match. and toupper(). PROCINFO["gid"] ss. which is the number of supplementary groups that the process has. LINT Provides dynamic control of the --lint option from within an AWK program. there may be elements in the array. lint warnings become fatal errors. based o n the C <ctype. PROCINFO["uid"] the value of the getuid(2) system call. "group1" through "groupn" for some n. "%. The output record separator. When false. RSTART The index of the first character matched by match(). it does not. exactly like --lint=fatal. This is available f rom version 3. or "FIELDWIDTHS" if field splitting with FIELD‐ WIDTHS is in effect. The total number of input records seen so far. by default a newline. The output format for numbers.4 and later.1 character set is used when ignoring case. RS The input record separator. NF NR OFMT OFS ORS The number of fields in the current input record. PROCINFO["pid"] PROCINFO["ppid"] ess. PROCINFO The elements of this array provide access to information abo ut the running AWK program.

concatenate it with the null string. This facility is used to simu late multiply dimensioned arrays. An element may be deleted from an array using the delete statement. world\n" to the element of the array x which is indexed by the string "A\034B\034C". expr . The in construct may also be used in a for loop to iterate over all the e lements of an array. by default "\034".2f" . or strings. The delete statement may also be used to delete the entire contents of an array.. How‐ -1 if no match. world\n" assigns the string "hello. If the expression is an expression list (expr.) then the array subscript is a string consisting of the concate nation of the (string) value of each expression. A number is converted to a string by using the value of CONVFMT as a format string for sprintf(3). If used in a numeric expression. use (i.e. How the value of a variable is interpreted depends upon its context. it will be treated as a number. or bo th. The special operator in may be used to test if an array has an index cons isting of a particular value. if used as a string it will be treated as a string. the conversion is accomplish ed using strtod(3). k = "C" x[i. to force it to be treated as a string. with t he numeric value of the variable as the argument.. Thus. k] = "hello. if (val in array) print array[val] If the array has multiple subscripts.) RLENGTH The length of the string matched by match(). j) in array. even though all numbers in AWK are floating-point. SUBSEP The character used to separate multiple subscripts in array e lements. add 0 to it. given CONVFMT = "%2. j. To force a variable to be treated as a number. i. indexed by string values. TEXTDOMAIN The text domain of the AWK program. j = "B". All arrays in AWK are associative. used to find the localize d translations for the program's strings. Variable Typing And Conversion Variables and fields may be (floating point) numbers. sepa‐ rated by the value of the SUBSEP variable. integral values are always converted as integers. When a string must be converted to a number. Arrays Arrays are subscripted with an expression between square brackets ([ and ]). just by specifying the array name without a subscri pt. For example: i = "A".

that looks numeric. The idea of “numeric string” only applies to fields. Note that string constants. such as "57". you may use C-style octal and hexadec imal constants in your AWK program source code. all following hexadecimal digits are considered part of the escape sequence. newline. ENVIRON elemen ts and the elements of an array created by split() that are numeric strings. certain escape sequences are recognized. are not numeric strings. (This feature sh ould tell us something about language design by commit‐ . The basic idea is that user input. ARGV elements. string). These are: \\ \a \b \f \n \r \t \v A literal backslash. Gawk performs comparisons as follows: If two variables are numeric. The “alert” character. of course. Within strings.00". backspace. be it a comma (. \xhex digits The character represented by the string of hexadecimal digits follow ing the \x. horizontal tab. should be treated that way. Uninitialized variables have the numeric value 0 and the string value "" (the null. and only user in put. usually the ASCII BEL character. String Constants String constants in AWK are sequences of characters enclosed bet ween double quotes ("). as strings. the octal value 011 is equal to decimal 9. as in C. If one value is numeric and the other has a string value that is a “numeric string.” then comparisons are also done numerically. vertical tab. Two strings are compared. Otherwise. For example.) or a period (. carriage return. FILENAME.). getline input. Octal and Hexadecimal Constants Starting with version 3. the numeric value is converted to a string and a string comparison is performed. form-feed. or empty. When operating in POSIX mode (such as with the --posix command line optio n).1 of gawk . beware that locale settings may interfere with the way decimal numbers are treated: the decimal separator of the numbers y ou are feeding to gawk must conform to what your locale would expect. they are compared numerically. and the hexadecimal v alue 0x11 is equal to decimal 17. As in ANSI C. they a re string constants.a = 12 b = a "" the variable b has a string value of "12" and not "12.

Lines ending in do or else also have their statements automatically continued o n the following line. pattern2 BEGIN and END are two special kinds of patterns which are not tested agai nst the input. Patterns AWK patterns may be one of the following: BEGIN END /regular expression/ relational expression pattern && pattern pattern pattern pattern ? pattern : pattern (pattern) ! pattern pattern1. They are executed before any of the input is read. Multiple statements may be put on one line by separating them with a “.”. however. a statement ends with a newline. "\033" is the ASCII ESC (escape) char‐ acter. this is not the cas e for lines ending in a “. and then the a ction.”. the action is executed for every single record of input. E. all the END blocks are merged. /a\52b/ is equivalent to /a\*b/. \c The literal character c. in which case the newline will be ignored. Similarly. Comments begin with the “#” character.g. Th is applies to both the statements within the action part of a pattern-action pair (the usual case). and to the pattern-action statements themselves. The action parts of all BEGIN patterns are merged as if all the statements had been written in a single BEG IN block. {.tee. or . Normally. the characters represented by octal and hexadeci mal escape sequences are treated literally when used in regular expression constants. Action statements are enclosed in { and }. Thus. If the pattern is missing. /[ \t\f\n\r\v]/ matches whitespace characters).. 2-. ?.. &&. of course.g. In other cases. not both. or 3-digit sequence of octa l digits. bu t. :.. Blank lines may be used to separate statements. In compatibility mode.) E. and continue until the end of the line . The pattern comes first. \ddd The character represented by the 1-. The escape sequences may also be used inside constant regular expressions (e. Either the pattern may be missing. and executed when all th e input is exhausted (or when an exit statement is exe‐ . A missing action is equivalent to { print } which prints the entire record. a line can be continued by ending it with a “\”. "\x1B" is the ASCII ESC (escape) character.g. or the action may be missing. PATTERNS AND ACTIONS AWK is a line-oriented language.

The &&. as in C.. matches the beginning of a string.. If the first pattern is true then the pattern used for testing is the second pattern.. matches zero or more r's. and are used for combining more primitive pattern expressions. character list. matches zero or one r's. Regular Expressions Regular expressions are the extended kind found in egrep.. parentheses may be used to change the order of evaluation. [^abc. The ?: operator is like the same operator in C.. and continuing until a record that matches pattern 2. ^ $ [abc. They do short-circuit evalua‐ tion. Regular expressions are the same as those in egrep(1). matches one or more r's. matches any of the characters abc.] matches the non-metacharacter c.. matches the literal character c. and are sum marized below. concatenation: matches r1. For /regular expression/ patterns. The pattern1. It matches all input records starting with a record that matches pattern1. BEGIN and END patterns cannot have missing action parts. . and logical NOT . BEGIN and END patterns cannot be combined with other patterns in pattern expressions. inclusive.] negated character list. They are compo sed of characters as follows: c \c . As in most languages. respectively. also as in C.. matches the end of a string. r1 r2 r1r2 r+ r* r? (r) alternation: matches either r1 or r2. grouping: matches r. Only one of the second and third pat terns is evaluated. matches any character including newline. matches any character except abc.cuted). and then r2. and ! operators are logical AND. pattern2 form of an expression is called a range patter n. . These generally test whether cer‐ tain fields match certain regular expressions. the associated statement is executed f or each input record that matches the regular expres‐ sion... It does not combine with any other sort of pattern expression.. logical OR. A relational expression may use any of the operators defined below in the section on actions. otherwise it is the third.

[:digit:] Numeric characters.m} One or two numbers inside braces denote an interval expressio n. A cha racter class is a special notation for describing lists of characters that have a specific attribute. matches the empty string at either the beginning or the end of matches the empty string within a word. matches the empty string at the end of a word. [:alpha:] Alphabetic characters. the notion of wh at is an alphabetic character differs in the USA and in France. matches the empty string at the beginning of a buffer (string) The escape sequences that are valid in string constants (see below) are a lso valid in regular expressions. or unde matches any character that is not word-constituent. Interval expressions are only available if either --posix or -re-interval is specified on the command line. If there is one number in the braces.} r{n. For example. \' matches the empty string at the end of a buffer.r{n} r{n. [:cntrl:] Control characters. [:blank:] Space or tab characters. \B \< \> \w rscore). (A space is p rintable. \W \` . A character class is only valid in a regular expression inside the bracke ts of a character list. r is repeated n to m times. but not visible. If there are two nu mbers separated by a comma. and :]. \y a word.) [:lower:] Lower-case alphabetic characters. The character classes defined by the POSIX standard are: [:alnum:] Alphanumeric characters. Character classes are a feature introduced in the POSIX standard. matches any word-constituent character (letter. the preceding regular expression r is repeated n times. matches the empty string at the beginning of a word. If there is one number followed by a comma. a keyword denoting the class. but where the actual charac ters themselves can vary from country to country and/or from character set to character set. [:graph:] Characters that are both printable and visible. . while an a is both. Character classes consist of [:. then r is repeated at least n times. digit.

ch.]. \`. Two additional special sequences can appear in character lists. and this matches the alphabetic and numeric characters in your character set. With the POSIX character classes. before the POSIX standard.) [:punct:] Punctuation characters (characters that are not letter. this would not match them. \w. t hey are extensions based on facilities in the GNU regu‐ lar expression libraries.]] is a regular expression that matches this col lating element. These ap ply to non-ASCII character sets.[:print:] Printable characters (characters that are not control characte rs.” “´. \<. For example. they do not re or equivalence classes. ´.) Collating Symbols A collating symbol is a multi-character collating element enclosed in [. and \' operators are specific to gawk. No options In the default case. a plai n “e” and a grave-accented “`” are equivalent. in French. you can write /[[:alnum:]]/. no matter what it is. The li uses for regular expression only recognize POSIX character classes.. interval expressions are not suppo . to match alphanumeric characte rs. or space characters). you would have had to write /[A-Za-z0-9]/. as well as several characters that are equivalent for collating. to name a few). \B. the name e might be used to represent all of “e. digits . gawk provide all the facilities of POSIX regu lar expressions and the GNU regular expression opera‐ tors described above. and formfeed. These features are brary functions that gawk matching currently cognize collating symbols very valuable in non-English speaking locales. or `. tab. then [[. [:space:] Space characters (such as space. this might not even match the ASCII alphanumeric chara cters. [[=e=]] is a regular expression that matches any of e. control characters. [:xdigit:] Characters that are hexadecimal digits.g. For example. (E. \>. The name is enclosed in [= and =].” In this case. which can have single symbols (called collating elements) that are represented with more tha n one character. If your character set had other alphabetic characters in it. However. Equivalence Classes An equivalence class is a locale-specific name for a list of chara cters that are equivalent. and if your character set collated differently from ASCII. or sorting. The various command line options control how gawk interprets characters i n regular expressions. [:upper:] Upper-case alphabetic characters. if ch is a collating ele‐ ment. The \y. For example. and .” and “`. \W. purposes. while [ch] is a regular expression that matches either c or h.

Only use one on the right-hand side.) $ ++ -^ nt operator). print. This is usually not what was intended. the GNU operators ar e not special. --re-interval Allow interval expressions in regular expressions. even if --tradi tional has been provided.. control statemen ts. Increment and decrement. and looping statements found in most languages.! * / % + space & Grouping Field reference. Logical AND.rted. ~ !~ Regular expression match. --traditional Traditional Unix awk regular expressions are matched. in order of decreasing precedence. String concatenation. { and }. Multiplication.. Th e expression /foo/ ~ exp has the same meaning as (($0 ~ /foo/) ~ exp). and modulus. NOTE: Do not use a constant regular expression (/foo/) on the left-hand side of a ~ or !~. in && Array membership. unary minus. The GNU ope rators are not special. Addition and subtraction.g. < > <= >= != == The regular relational operators. The operators. Inter‐ val expressions are allowed. Action statements con sist of the usual assignment. even if they repre sent regular expression metacharacters. Actions Action statements are enclosed in braces.. + . and **= for the assignme Unary plus. Exponentiation (** may also be used. conditional. and neither are the POSIX character classes ([[:alnum: ]] and so on). division. Characters described by octal and hexa‐ decimal escape sequences are treated literally. (E. and input/output statements available are patterned after those in C. \w matches a literal w). Operators The operators in AWK. are (. and printf. . and logical negation. both prefix and postfix. negated match. Piped I/O for getline. interval expressions are not available. --posix Only POSIX regular expressions are supported.

set NF. Set var from next input record. If expr1 is true. The next i Set $0 from next input record. the value of the expres‐ sion is expr2. FNR. getline getline <file getline var getline var <file command . expr2.) next Stop processing the current input record. The optional ho w should only be used when closing one end of a two-way pipe to a co-process. the END block(s).Logical OR. The ne xt input record is read and processing starts over with the first pattern in the AWK program. This has the form expr1 ? expr 2 : expr3. See the subsection Special File Names. Only one of expr2 and expr3 is evaluated. pipe or co-process. expr3) statement for (var in array) statement break continue delete array[index] delete array exit [ expression ] { statements } I/O Statements The input/output statements are as follows: close(file [. ?: The C conditional expression. FNR. otherwise it is expr3. how]) Close file. Set var from next record of file. = += -= *= /= %= ^= Assignment. If the end o f the input data is reached. Co-processes are a gawk extension. as above. set NF. Control Statements The control statements are as follows: if (condition) statement [ else statement ] while (condition) statement do statement while (condition) for (expr1. Set $0 from next record of file. e ither "to" or "from". getline [var] Run command piping the output either into $0 or var . nextfile Stop processing the current input file. are executed. (command can also be a socket. set NR. Both absolute assignment (var = value) and opera tor-assignment (the other forms) are supported. below. NR. command & getline [var] Run command as a co-process piping the output eithe r into $0 or var. if any. It must be a string value. as above.

NOTE: Failure in opening a two-way socket will result in a non-fatal e rror being returned to the calling function. sockets. print Prints the current record. are executed. then standard output is flushed. If the end of the input data is reache d. print expr-list Prints expressions. expr-list >file Format and print on file. if any. FILE‐ NAME and ARGIND are updated. then all open output files and pipes have their buffers flushed. printf fmt. 0 on end of file.) fflush([file]) Flush any buffers associated with the open output f ile or pipe file. ERRNO contains a string describ‐ ing the problem. The output record is terminated with the value of the ORS variable. (This may not be available on non-POSIX sys‐ tems. print . The printf Statement The AWK versions of the printf statement and sprintf() function (see be low) accept the following conversion specification for‐ mats: . or co-processes when they return EOF. The output record is te rminated with the value of the ORS variable.) The getline command returns 1 on success.. and -1 on an error. If using a pipe. the END block(s). or socket to getline. Each expression is sep arated by the value of the OFS variable. expr-list Format and print. command Writes on a pipe. below. and return the exi t status. FNR is reset to 1. AWK does not automatically close pipes. printf fmt. you must use close() to create new instances of the command or socket. system(cmd-line) Execute the command cmd-line... Additional output redirections are allowed for print and printf. Each expression is separated by the value of the OFS variable. print . and processing starts over with the first pattern in the AWK program. co-process. print . If file is the null string. or from print or printf within a loop. (See also the subsection Sp ecial File Names.. & command Sends data to a co-process or socket. print expr-list >file Prints expressions on file.. >> file Appends output to the file.. If file is missing. The output record is terminated with the value of the ORS vari able.nput record read comes from the next input file. Upon an error.

but uses capital letters for special “not a number” and “infin ity” values. If the syste m library supports it. The %G format uses %E instead of %e. %g. %F A floating point number of the form [-]ddd. %x. A single % character. an integer). The expression should be left-justified within its field. not in th e original text of an AWK program. %i A decimal number (the integer part). The + overrides the space m odifier. supply a leading zero. The %E f ormat uses E instead of e. it i s treated as a character and printed. This i s called a positional specifier and is intended primar‐ ily for use in translated versions of format strings. %E. 0 A leading 0 (zero) acts as a flag. no argument is converted. + The plus sign. %f and %F. Otherwise. the argument is assumed to be a string.dddddde[+-]dd. This applies only to the numeric output formats.%c An ASCII character. For %o. This flag only has an effect . and %G. says to always supply a sign for numeric conversions. %G Use %e or %f conversion. For %e. %% ter: count$ Use the count'th argument at this point in the formatting. and the only first character of that string is printed. If the argument used for %c is numeric. It is a gawk exten‐ sion. additional parameters may lie between the % and the control let space For numeric conversions. even if the data to be formatted is positive. %X An unsigned hexadecimal number (an integer). %F is available as well. A character string. and negative values with a minus sign. that indicates output should be padded with zeroes instead of spaces. supply a leading 0x or 0X for a nonzero result. %e. For %x. %E A floating point number of the form [-]d. If %F is not available. %o %u %s An unsigned octal number (also an integer). An unsigned decimal number (again. # Use an “alternate form” for certain control letters. prefix positive values with a space. trailing zeros are not removed from the result. the result alw ays contains a decimal point. %f. whichever is shorter. and %X. used before the width modifier (see below). For %g. This is like %f. with nonsignific ant zeros suppressed. The %X format uses ABCDEF instead of abcdef.dddddd. gawk uses %f. %d. Optional.

These filenames are now obsolete. %i. "%3$*2$. this specifies the num‐ ber of digits you want printed to the right of the decimal point . Use a port of 0 to have the system pick a port. These are particularly useful for error messages. formats. The filenames are: /dev/stdin The standard input. For the %d.prec A number that specifies the precision to use when printing. but use UDP/IP instead of TCP/IP. /inet/udp/lport/rhost/rport Similar. /dev/fd/n The file associated with the open file descriptor n. Special File Names When doing I/O redirection from either print or printf into a file. and %G formats. These file names may also be used on the command line to name da ta files. /inet/tcp/lport/rhost/rport File for TCP/IP connection on local port lport to remote host rhost on remote port rport.*1$s". /dev/stdout The standard output. it specifies the maximum number of characters from the string that should be printed. %E. width The field should be padded to this width. For t he %e. %u. To use a positional specifier with a dynamic width or precision. Use . %f and %F. A * in place of either the width or prec specifications causes their values to be taken from the argument list to printf or sprintf(). If the 0 flag has been used. These filenames allow access to open file descript ors inherited from gawk's parent process (usually the shell). it is padded with zeroes. The dynamic width and prec capabilities of the ANSI C printf() routines a re supported. /inet/raw/lport/rhost/rport Reserved for future use. For the %g. Other special filenames provide access to information about the running g awk process. %o. For example.when the field width is wider than the value to be printed. For %s. supply the count$ after the * in the f ormat string. %x. it specifies the maximum number of significant digits. or v ia getline from a file. and %X formats. /dev/stderr The standard error output. The field is normally padded with spaces. . For example: print "You blew it!" > "/dev/stderr" whereas you would otherwise have to use print "You blew it!" "cat 1>&2" The following special filenames may be used with the & co-process operat or for creating TCP/IP network connections. it specifies the minimum number of digits to print. gawk recognizes certain special filenames internally.

sin(expr) sqrt(expr) Returns the sine of expr. Multiple groups may not be supported on all systems. terminated with a newline. $3 is the value of the get‐ gid(2) system call. and the indices of th e sorted values of s are replaced with sequential inte‐ gers starting with 1. The filenames are: /dev/pid Reading this file returns the process ID of the current proce ss. which is in radians. The natural logarithm function. Returns a random number N. x) cos(expr) exp(expr) int(expr) log(expr) rand() 1. The behavior is the same as that of asort(). Returns the arctangent of y/x in radians. The square root function. between 0 and 1. terminated with a newline. asorti(s [. in decimal. If there are any additional fields. The return value is the previous seed for the random number gen erator. The fields are separated with spaces. /dev/user Reading this file returns a single record terminated with a newline. such that 0 ≤ N < srand([expr]) Uses expr as a new seed for the random number generator. Numeric Functions AWK has the following built-in arithmetic functions: atan2(y. $1 is the value of the getuid(2) system call. and $4 is the value of the getegid(2) sys tem call. the time of day is used. d]) Returns the number of elements in the source arra y s. The exponential function. The contents of s are sorted using gawk's normal rules for comparing values.the PROCINFO array to obtain the information they provide. $2 is the value of th e geteuid(2) system call. . Truncates to integer. /dev/pgrpid Reading this file returns the process group ID of the current process. String Functions Gawk has the following built-in string functions: asort(s [. leaving the indices of t he source array s unchanged. they are the group IDs returned by getgroups(2). I f no expr is provided. and then d is sorted. then s is first duplicated into d. Returns the cosine of expr. d]) Returns the number of elements in the source arr ay s. terminated with a newline. /dev/ppid Reading this file returns the parent process ID of the curren t process. If the optional destinatio n array d is specified. in decimal. in decimal. which is in radians.

not the array values.) index(s. substitute the string s. of each matching substring. a [. and returns the number of fields. "length"] pro‐ vide the starting index in the string and length respectively. If t is not supplied. the sequence \n. use $0. s. and gen sub(). The array a is cleared first. Subscripts a[n. may be used to in dicate just the text that matched the n'th parenthe‐ sized subexpression. . then replace all matches of r with s. When done. Splitting behaves identically to field splitting. "start"]. described above. If h is a string beginning with g or G. and return the number of substitutions. with an arr ay argument. h is a number indicating which match of r to replace. If r is omitted.1. as does the character &. Note that the argu ment order is the same as for the ~ operator: str ~ re. An & in the replacement text is replaced with the text that was actually match ed. Use \& to get a literal &. a is cleared and then ele ments 1 through n are filled with the portions of s that match the corresponding parenthesized subex pression in r. gsub(). gensub(r. t]) For each substring matching the regular exp ression r in the string t. (This implies that charac‐ ter indices start at one. match(s. gsub(r. Within the replacement text s. thus provide a second array if you wish to preser ve the original. or 0 if r is not present. $0 is used in stead. where n is a digit from 1 to 9. the array is indexed numerically.) length([s]) Returns the length of the string s. The 0'th element of a contains the por‐ tion of s matched by the entire regular expressio n r. t) Returns the index of the string t in the string s . see GAWK: Effective AWK Programming for a fuller discussion of the rules for &'s and backslashes in the replacement text of sub(). Othe rwise.5. If t is not supplied. length() returns the number of elements in the array. or the length of $0 if s is not supplied. and sets the values of RSTART and RLENGTH. If array a is provided. Unlike sub() and gsub(). split(s. as a non-standard extension. a]) Returns the position in s where the regular expre ssion r occurs. r]) Splits the string s into the array a on the regu lar expression r. the modified string is r eturned as the result of the function. FS is used instead. h [. r [. or 0 if t is not present. s [. The sequence \0 repres ents the entire matched text. (This must be typed as "\\&". and the values are those of the original indices. Starting with version 3. The original values are lost. and a[n. and the original target string is not changed. t]) Search the target string t for matches of the r egular expression r.except that the array indices are used for sorting.

Non-alphabetic characters are left unchanged. the time is assumed to be standard time. strftime([format [. As of version 3. and an option al daylight saving flag. otherwise the result is in local time. Time Functions Since one of the primary uses of AWK programs is processing log files tha t contain time stamp information. but only the first matching sub substr(s. tolower(str) Returns a copy of the string str. sub(r. substr() and match() all work in terms of characters. the rest of s is used. s [. length(). n]) Returns the at most n-character substring of s st arting at i. If the daylight saving flag is posit ive. gawk provides the following functions for obtaining time stamps and formatting them. if zero. Non-alphabetic characters are left unchanged. i [. with all the lo wer-case characters in str translated to their corre‐ sponding upper-case counterparts. This means that index (). and the second from 0 to 60. t]) string is replaced. The values of these numbers need not be within the ranges specified. and if negative (the default). strtonum(str) Examines str. the minute from 0 to 59.5. The contents of the string are six or se ven numbers representing respectively the full year including century. If datespec does not contain enough elements or if the resulting time is out of range. mktime() attempts to determine whether daylight saving time is in effect for the specified time. expr-list) Prints expr-list according to fmt.1. and returns its numeric value.sprintf(fmt. the result is in UTC. for example. utc-flag]]]) Formats timestamp according to the specification in format. mktime(datespec) Turns datespec into a time stamp of the same form as returned b y systime(). and returns th e resulting string. the month from 1 to 12. with year 0 preceding year 1 and year -1 preceding year 0. The datespec is a string of the form YYYY MM DD HH MM SS[ DST]. with all the upper-case characters in str translated to their corre‐ sponding lower-case counterparts. If n is omitted. If str begins with a leading 0. toupper(str) Returns a copy of the string str. strtonum() assumes that str is a hexa‐ decimal number. the time is assumed to be daylight saving time. mktime() returns -1. The origin-zero Gregorian calendar is assumed. timestamp[. The time is assumed to be in the local timezone. strtonum() assumes that str is an octal number. the day of the mo nth from 1 to 31. Just like gsub(). If str begins with a lea ding 0x or 0X. The t . the hour of the day from 0 to 23. If utc-flag is present and is non-zero or non-null. an ho ur of -1 means 1 hour before midnight. not bytes. gawk is multibyte aware.

during testing). See the specification for t he strftime() function in ANSI C for the format conver‐ sions that are guaranteed to be available. Internationalization Functions Starting with version 3. in cas e they will not or cannot be placed in the ``standard'' locations (e. a default format equivalent to the output of date(1) is used. The default value for domain is the current value Return the bitwise XOR of the values provided by v1 a Return the bitwise OR of the values provided by v1 an . doing the operation. If directory is th e null string (""). If timestamp is missing. v2) d v2.1 of gawk. They work by converting double-pre‐ cision floating point values to uintmax_t integers. dcngettext(string1 . category]]) Returns the plural form used for number of the translation of str ing1 and string2 in text domain domain for locale cate‐ gory category. systime() Returns the current time of day as the number of seconds since the Epoch (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC on POSIX systems). Return the bitwise AND of the values provided by v1 a lshift(val. Bit Manipulations Functions Starting with version 3. The functions are: and(v1. For full details. You must also supply a text domain.'' The default domain is the value of TEXTDOMAIN. bindtextdomain(directory [. then bindtextdomain() returns the current binding for the given domain. or(v1. dcgettext(string [. see GAWK: Effective AWK Programming. the current time of day is us ed. If format is missing. shifted left by count bits. the following functions may be used fr om within your AWK program for translating strings at run-time. category]]) Returns the translation of string in text domain domain for loc ale category category. v2) nd files. compl(val) Return the bitwise complement of val.g. U se TEXTDOMAIN if you want to use the current domain. domain [.. The default value for domain is the current value of TEXTDOMAIN. the following bit manipulation functio ns are available. domain [. If you supply a value for category. count) Return the value of val. domain]) Specifies the directory where gawk looks for the . shifted right by count bits. xor(v1. string2 . number [. It returns the directory where domain is ``bound.imestamp should be of the same form as returned by sys‐ time(). it must be a string equal to o ne of the known locale categories described in GAWK: Effective AWK Programming. rshift(val.1 of gawk. v2) nd v2. count) Return the value of val. The default value for category i s "LC_MESSAGES". and then converting the result back to floating point.

it must be a string equal t o one of the known locale categories described in GAWK: Effective AWK Programming. Actual parameters supplied in the function call are used to instantiate the formal parameters dec lared in the function. instead of at run time. Calling an undefined function at run time is a fatal error.1 of gawk. USER-DEFINED FUNCTIONS Functions in AWK are defined as follows: function name(parameter list) { statements } Functions are executed when they are called from within expressions in ei ther patterns or actions. .. The return value i s undefined if no value is provided. Since functions were not originally part of the AWK language. without any intervening white space. . The convention is to separate local variables from real parameters by extra spaces in the parameter list. gawk warns about calls to undefined function s at parse time. This avoids a syntactic ambiguity with the concatenation ope rator. . the provisi on for local variables is rather clumsy: They are declared as extra parameters in the parameter list. or if the function returns by “falling off” the end. to perform initialization. } The left parenthesis in a function call is required to immediately follow the function name. { . If you supply a value for category. The word func may be used in place of function. Functions may call each other and may be recursive... you can dynamically add new builtin functions to the running gawk interpreter. other variables are passed by value. 2) . see GAWK: Effective AWK Programming for the details.. For example: function f(p. Arrays are passed by reference. b) # a and b are local { ... Function parameters used as local variables are initialized to the null string and the number zero upon function invocation. The default value for category is "LC_MESSAGES". function) Dynamically link the shared object file named by object. If --lint has been provided. DYNAMICALLY LOADING NEW FUNCTIONS Beginning with version 3. You must also supply a text domain. q. and invo ke function in that object.of TEXTDOMAIN. f(1. extension(object. The full details are beyond the scope of this manual page. Use return expr to return a value from a function. This restriction does not apply to the built-in functions listed above. U se TEXTDOMAIN if you want to use the current domain. } /abc/ a.

In non-English speaking environments. monde in France. world. This function is provided and documented in GAWK: Effective AWK Prog ramming. . 1. gawk 'BEGIN { print _"hello. gawk 'BEGIN { print "hello. But. world" }' might print bonjour.out. or whatever file was named with the --profile option.html/ { system("nmap " $1 ">> logdir/myhome. Returns the value retu rned by function. There are several steps involved in producing and running a localizable A WK program. We STRONGLY recommend that you do not use this featur e for anything that you aren't willing to redo.These should both be provided as strings. SIGHUP causes pgawk to dump the profile and function call stack and then exit. It then continues to run. but everything about this feature is likely to change eventually.html") }' INTERNATIONALIZATION String constants are sequences of characters enclosed in double quotes. $0 } Run an external command for particular lines of data: tail -f access_log awk '/myhome. EXAMPLES Print and sort the login names of all users: BEGIN { FS = ":" } { print $1 "sort" } Count lines in a file: { nlines++ } END { print nlines } Precede each line by its number in the file: { print FNR. world" }' always prints hello. it is possible to mark strings in the AWK program as requiring translation to the native na tural language. For example. SIGNALS pgawk accepts two signals. which is either awkprof. Such strings are marked in the AWK pro‐ gram with a leading underscore (“_”). $0 } Concatenate and line number (a variation on a theme): { print NR. Add a BEGIN action to assign a value to the TEXTDOMAIN variable to se t the text domain to a name associated with your pro‐ gram. SIGUSR1 causes it to dump a profile and funct ion call stack to the profile file.

as appropriate. gawk uses the special option “--” to signal the end of arguments. the \a. such arguments are passed on to the AWK program for it to process. 5. Run gawk --gen-po -f myprog. When processing arguments. Therefore srand() in gawk also returns its current seed. when such an assignment appeared before any file names. 4. 3. but are part of the Bell Labora‐ tories version of awk. to allow keeping track of random number sequences. If necessary. the assignment would happen before the BEGIN block was run. which likely does not contain translations for your program. The AWK book does not define the return value of srand(). it warns about but otherwise ignores undefined options. t he tolower() and toupper() built-in functions (from the Bell Laboratories version). as well as with the latest version of UNIX awk. (This feature was agre ed upon by both the Bell Laboratories and the GNU developers.” When awk was changed to match its documentation. and build and install the correspon ding . The POSIX standard has it return the seed it was file associated with your program. Without this files.po file fo r your program. The book indicates that command line variable assignment happens when awk would otherwise open the argument as a file. which is after the BEGIN block is executed.awk > myprog. Mark all strings that should be translated with leading underscores. However. use the dcgettext() and/or bindtextdomain() functions i n your program. in earlier implementations.BEGIN { TEXTDOMAIN = "myprog" } This allows gawk to find the . th e ENVIRON array. 2. Applications came to depend on this “feature. In compatibility mode. Other new features are: The use of multiple -f options (from MKS awk). gawk uses the messages text domain. and are in the POSIX standard. The internationalization features are described in full detail in GAWK: E ffective AWK Programming.) The -W option for implementation specific features is from the POSIX stan dard. POSIX COMPATIBILITY A primary goal for gawk is compatibility with the POSIX standard. and the ANSI C conversion specifications in p rintf (done first in the Bell Laboratories version). . the -v option for assigning vari ables before program execution was added to accommodate applications that depended upon the old behavior. To this end. In normal operation. and \v escape sequences (done originally in gawk and fed back into the Bell Laboratories version). gawk incorporates the following user visible features which are not desc ribed in the AWK book. Provide appropriate translations.po to generate a .

it is possible to call the length() builtin function not only with no argument.) · Octal and hexadecimal constants in AWK programs. (Disabled with --posix. (Disabled with --posix. . and gawk issue s a warning about its use if --lint is specified on the command line. · The optional second argument to the close() function. but even without parentheses! Thu s. · The ability to split out individual characters using the null string as t he value of FS. LINT. Tra‐ ditional AWK implementations have treated such usage as equivalent to th e next statement. First. · The ARGIND.) · The ability to continue lines after ? and :. · The PROCINFO array is not available. and as the third argument to split(). All the extensions described here can be disabled by invoking gawk with the --traditional or --posix options. They are described in this section. The following features of gawk are not available in POSIX awk. (Disabled with --posix. BINMODE. RT and TEXTDOMAIN variables are not spe cial. for.HISTORICAL FEATURES There are two features of historical AWK implementations that gawk suppor ts. · The IGNORECASE variable and its side-effects are not available. Therefore the AWKPATH environment variable is not special.) · The fflush() function. GNU EXTENSIONS Gawk has a number of extensions to POSIX awk. Batman! is the same as either of a = length() a = length($0) This feature is marked as “deprecated” in the POSIX standard. The other feature is the use of either the continue or the break statemen ts outside the body of a while. a = length # Holy Algol 60. · The \x escape sequence. · The FIELDWIDTHS variable and fixed-width field splitting. Gawk supports this usage if --tradi‐ tional has been specified. · The & operator for creating co-processes. · The use of RS as a regular expression. · No path search is performed for files named via the -f option. or do loop. ERRNO. · The special file names available for I/O redirection are not recognized.

. It return s the process's exit status when closing an input pipe. pipe or co-process was not open ed with a redirection. Otherwise. it is not the default behavior.. lshift().· The optional third argument to the match() function. The AWK book does not define the return value of the close() function. then it accepts an additional control-flow statement: switch (expression) { case value regex : statement . strftime(). strtonum(). dcgettext( ). This behavior also does not occur if --posix has been specified. systime() and xor() functions.” and does not pass “\t” to the -F option. · The ability to pass an array to length(). The return value is -1 if the named file. and the interval between retries (GAWK_MSEC_SLEEP). simply causes the shell to quote the “t. rshift(). On systems that do not support usleep(3). if the fs argument to the -F option is “t”.. The interval is in milliseconds. gensub(). · The use of nextfile to abandon processing of the current input file. If gawk is configured with the --enable-switch option to the config ure command. dcngettext(). or().. For socket communication. when closing an output file or pipe. bindtextdomain(). two special environment variables can be used t o control the number of retries (GAWK_SOCK_RETRIES). ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES The AWKPATH environment variable can be used to provide a list of dire ctories that gawk searches when looking for files named via the -f and --file options. mktime(). · The and(). it is b est to use single quotes: gawk -F'\t' . compl(). then FS is set to the tab char‐ acter. . the value is rounded up to an integral number of seconds. G awk's close() returns the value from fclose(3). · Localizable strings. Since this is a rather ugly special case. it will do so only if invoked with the --traditional op tion.. When gawk is invoked with the --traditional option. [ default: statement ] } If gawk is configured with the --disable-directories-fatal option. respectively. asorti(). · Adding new built-in functions dynamically with the extension() function. then i t will silently skip directories named on the command line.. To really get a tab character as the field separator. asort(). · The use of delete array to delete the entire contents of an array. or pclose(3). Note that typing gawk -F\t .. · The ability to use positional specifiers with printf and sprintf().

EXIT STATUS If the exit statement is used with a value. If gawk exits because of a fatal error. getegid(2). GAWK: Effective AWK Programming. and Matthew Woehlke provided changes for Tandem's POSIX-compliant systems. Stephen Davies provided the ori ginal Tandem port. Peter Weinberger. made gawk compatible with the new version of UNIX awk. Edition 3. gawk exits with the value of the C constant EXIT_FAIL URE. generating a rather unhelpful message. David Trueman. and Brian Kernighan of Bell Labo‐ ratories. On non-POS IX systems. Alfred V. Aho. Peter J. getpid(2). If --lint has been specified. Brian Kernighan continues to maintain and enhance it. getgi d(2). The port to OS/2 was done by Kai Uwe Rommel. if there were no problems during execution. this value may be mapped to EXIT_FAILURE. getppid(2). and Martin Brown provided the BeOS port. Arnold R obbins is the current maintainer. This is usually one. geteuid(2). then gawk exits with the nume ric value given to it. Fred Fish supplied support for the Amiga. Such programs are surprisingly difficult to diagnose in the completely general case. ISBN 0-201-07981-X. Paul Rubin and Jay Fenlason. The current version of this doc‐ ument is available online at http://www.0. SEE ALSO egrep(1). getuid(2). 2001. gawk issues a warning message to this effec t. Kernighan. of the Free Software Foundation. John Woods contributed a number of bug fixes. getgroups(2) The AWK Programming Language. and the effort to do so really is not worth it. Scot t Deifik is the current DOS maintainer. getpgrp(2). Otherwise. with contri‐ butions and help from Darrel Hankerson. AUTHORS The original version of UNIX awk was designed and implemented by Alfred A ho. published by the Free Softw are Foundation. Syntactically invalid single character programs tend to overflow the pa rse stack. If an error occurs. Brian W. wrote gawk.If POSIXLY_CORRECT exists in the environment. 1988. the exit status is 2. to be compatible with the original version of awk dis‐ tributed in Seventh Edition UNIX. BUGS The -F option is not necessary given the command line variable assignment feature. This is usu‐ ally then gawk behaves exactly a s if --posix had been specified on the command line. it remains only for backwards compatibility. Andreas Buening now maintains th e OS/2 port. The initial DOS port was done by Conrad Kwok and Scott Garfinkle. Pat Rankin did the port to VMS. Addison-Wesley. Weinberger. with contributions from Arnold Robbins. and Michal Jaegermann did the port to the Atari ST. Ralf Wildenhues now maintains that . gawk exits with the value of the C constant EXIT_SUCCESS.

but please send a copy to the official email address as wel l.port. COPYING PERMISSIONS Copyright © 1989. 1994. 1991. the problem may already have been solved. 2004. 1993. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Brian Kernighan of Bell Laboratories provided valuable assistance during testing and debugging. Instead. 2009. Inc. First. Please include your operating system and its revi‐ sion. 200 1. If so. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this ma nual page under the conditions for verbatim copying. veri fy that you have the latest version of gawk. 2005. provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. please do the following things. Finally. except that this permission notice may be stated i n a translation approved by the Foundation.lang. 1995. BUG REPORTS If you find a bug in gawk. Whatever you do. VERSION INFORMATION This man page documents gawk. 1998. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this man ual page provided the copyright notice and this permis‐ sion notice are preserved on all copies. 2010 Free Software Foundation. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual page into another language. do NOT post a bug report in comp. We thank him. See the README file in the gawk distribution for current information abou t maintainers and which ports are currently supported. posting bug reports there is an unreliable way to report bugs. please read this man page and the reference manual carefully to be sure that what you think is a bug really is. and may or may not really be a bug. instead of just a quirk in the la nguage.awk. Many bugs (usually subtle ones) are fixed at each release. you may wish to s ubmit a bug report to the vendor of your distribution. 1996. what C compiler you used to compile it. please see if setting the environment variable LC_ALL to LC_ALL=C caus es things to behave as you expect. since there's no guarantee that the bug will be for‐ warded to the gawk maintainer. it's a locale issue.8. . 2002. please send electronic mail to bug-gawk@gnu. If you're using a GNU/Linux system or BSD-based system. version 3. While the ga wk developers occasionally read this newsgroup. under the above conditions for modified versions. Before sending a bug report. 1997.o rg. 1992. That's fine. 1999. and if yours is out of d ate. 2007.1. the version of gawk (from gawk --version). please u se the electronic mail addresses given above. Second. 2003. and a test program and data that are as small as possible for reproducing the problem.

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