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The terms curriculum and syllabus are often used synonymously as in The school's English curriculum/syllabus. However, in its normal use curriculum has a wider reach, e.g., the widely used term curriculum development refers to the research work in developing many courses of study. The term syllabus development is not so commonly used, if used is more likely to refer to the work within one subject only. (McArthur1996: 251) The term curriculum development, if used for a single subject, refers to the subject in question to the all classes of an institute. For example, The school's English curriculum refers to parts of the school's curriculum that deal with English language education in all classes of the school. The curriculum of a given institution can be looked at from a number of different perspectives (Nunan 1988). The first perspective is that of curriculum planning, that is, decision making, in relation to learners' needs and purposes; establishing goals and objectives; selecting and grading contents; organizing appropriate learning arrangements and learner groupings; selecting, adapting, and developing appropriate leaning materials, learning tasks, assessment and evaluation tools. Alternatively, curriculum can be studied 'in action' as it were. This perspective takes researchers into the classroom itself. Here they can observe the teaching/learning process and study the ways in which the intention of the curriculum planners, which were developed during the planning phase, is translated into action.

In some urban elite schools these inputs are mostly available and the school leavers can use English. in their further study or in jobs that they choose. communicative teaching materials and financial. Making English study effective from primary to tertiary levels needs a lot of inputs and resources like trained teachers. how the institution relates to and responds to the wider community. how constraints imposed by the limited resources and decisions of the administrators affect what happens in the classroom. infra-structural and management facilities. (Nunan 1984. As a result.Yet another perspective relates to the assessment and evaluation. which is a large and complex one. in courses based on principles of communicative language teaching. Finally. These resources are not equally available or favorable for learning English in all the educational institutions of the country. so that decisions made at one level are not in conflict with those made at another. In planning. and evaluation of a given curriculum all elements should be integrated. ELT POLISY It is the need of a national English language teaching policy that will address the practical needs for ELT and determine what and how much English should be taught and for how long. teaching- . and so on. but also in classroom activities. This includes looking at the resources available and how these recourses are utilized. it is the management of the teaching institution that is looked at. more or less. and tests of communicative performance. But most of the rural schools lack in some or almost all these resources. All of these perspectives taken together represent the field of curriculum study. That is to see what the students had learned and what they failed to learn in relation to what had been planned. implementation. patterns of classroom interaction. Johnson 1989) II. For instance. it is important that these are reflected not only in curriculum documents or syllabus plan.

but not general. Under National University. pass and honors students have to study a compulsory English course . learning English means rote learning of grammar rules and textbook contents even without understanding. scientific English. For example. the students studying medicine.General English. etc. B. will need English for specific purposes.. and some efforts have been taken to fulfill these needs.learning English in these schools cannot be done in the way it should be done. etc. Consequently. but some others do not need to study it all these years. A. The time. except that they have to appear the examinations in this subject. no doubt. But Many students in this level do not need this General English. They need the kind of English that will facilitate their studies. of 100 marks. S. students doing honors in history. English for nurses. viz. S. Therefore. science and technology. In order to prepare a curriculum for the Secondary and Higher Secondary education and for the proper implementation of such a curriculum . III. and B. Also students in these disadvantaged schools are not aware of the aims and objectives of studying English. some students have some benefits. In most cases. English for doctors. all the B. English often seems to be a heavy unnecessary burden to them. business. business English and so on. This is because the general English courses cannot cater the specific needs of these specialized areas of study. philosophy. the necessities to make the curriculum appropriate for the present situation have been felt. to which all the colleges (government and non-government) are affiliated. grammar-based English. Similarly.. sociology. Of all the students from class 1 to 14. Sc. THE ELT CURRICULUM The existing curriculum proved inadequate for the changed world situation in 1990s. need English . energy and money spent on teaching-learning English at these schools are often wasted.

developed by first identifying goals and objectives. With the collaboration of National Curriculum and Textbook Board.a Curriculum Preparation and Implementation Task force was formed. the work will view curriculum development from a broader perspective to refer to all aspects of planning. This work will look at the issues related to learners' needs -actual and desired. evaluating and managing a language education programmed. The proficiency levels of the teachers from different backgrounds and their attitudes to English will also be . however. It included syllabus checklist and guidelines for all concerned with the teaching and learning of English and other curricular subjects.. the Higher Secondary Education Project. THE SCOPE OF STUDY Curriculum development is viewed as a continuous process. and finally by determining whether the goals and objectives have been achieved or not (Nunan 1989a from Tyler 1949). Their attitudes towards English and proficiency levels will also be addressed. Technical Education Board. A rational curriculum is. organizing and grading the learning experiences. e. in terms of the social strata they belong to. teacher development as a component of curriculum development continues throughout the entire career of some teachers and for years in some other instances. then by listing. textbook writers and those related to teaching the reformed curriculum was published in December 1995. IV. implementation. This task force proposed a framework for the national curriculum.g. For the circulation for teachers. As curriculum is a large and complex concept and though the term curriculum can be used in a number of different ways (see Nunan 1989a: P14). students. the Curriculum Committee prepared the new reformed curriculum.

These issues are. The existing English language curriculum will be looked at in some details to see what happens in the planning level. the consumers of other people's syllabus. psycholinguistics and discourse analysis will also be taken into account. in many ways. they tend to see lessons and units as the basic building blocks of their programmed. the classroom teachers are required to develop their courses and programmed form these guidelines (Nunan 1989a. Prior to that. applied linguistics and language teaching. the textbook writers have to write each unit as guided by the curriculum designers. Teachers and textbook writers are. As their immediate focus is day-to-day schedule within the learners in the classrooms. Turning more specifically to the concrete levels of curriculum process. Another consumer of syllabus specifications is the . it will explore different approaches and methodologies of language teaching conceived so far as on a theoretical basis and employed throughout the history of language teaching. the determinants of what is intended in the planning level. Teachers' immediate preoccupations are with learning tasks and with integrating these tasks into lessons and/or units (Nunan 1987. In fact. In the same way. But prior to all these a theoretical framework will be proposed incorporating the findings of modern development in the field of linguistics. p.discussed. Once having been presented with the curriculum guidelines or syllabus specifications. These are rather the abstract levels of curriculum process.17). Curriculum guidelines National Curriculum and Textbook Board including the syllabus checklist provided in it will be discussed. Insight from other related and interrelated disciplines like sociolinguistics. in fact. Shavelson and Stern 1981). these are the people who are the consumers of other people's syllabus and are presented with curriculum guidelines and sets of syllabus specifications. Different institutes translate the intentions of curriculum planners into actions that is. the teaching methodologies adopted in different institutions. 1989a-17. It will also look in the curriculum and syllabus .

However. who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the programme. curriculum development has been viewed as a collaborative effort between learners and teachers. resources available. . implementing. no curriculum can be totally learner centred or subject centred. In this approach. information by and from learners is used in planning. however. In recent years. This study stays somewhere in the continuum. chapter 2 will look in the social strata and proficiency levels of learners and teachers in an ethnographic manner. For a thorough study of the infrastructure. traditional examination system has failed to assess students' progress and attainment in terms of their ability to use English in real life. This gave rise to the learner-centred approaches to language teaching. it should be installed rightly before. there is a need to develop appropriate evaluation tools and concerned parties should interpret and use them successfully.examiner who will set an end. A syllabus checklist is something that illumines others' way to proceed. Chapter 2 of this work is furnished with the information about the proficiency levels of the two parties in relation to social stratification. teacher community and the students. For the successful operating of any programme. So.course-examination. and evaluating language programmes (Nunan 1989a P-17). However.


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