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11, 2003

Biplab. K. Datta1, C. Ratnayaka2, Arild Saasen3, Yngve Bastesen4 1 Dept of POSTEC, Telemark Technological R & D Centre, Norway 2- University College of Telemark, Norway 3- Statoil ASA, Stavanger, Norway 4- National Oilwell, Asker, Norway

ABSTRACT It has been shown that a simple model for pressure drop calculation based on classical Darcys equation with some modifications can be used for pneumatic conveying. The predicted pressure values match with the test data reasonably well. INTRODUCTION It has been reported that on offshore drilling rigs the abrasion rate in the bulk handling pipe system could be as high as 0.6 mm per transferred 1000 ton of weight material1. Leaks in the bulk handling system leads to discharges of bulk material to the atmosphere and significant dusting problems with associated difficulties to satisfy occupational hygiene requirements on the rigs. Hence, it is of utmost importance that the bulk material handling system for the offshore industry is designed with great care. The major challenge facing the designers of pneumatic transportation systems has been always to reliably scale up based on the results from pilot scale test facilities. It is difficult to relate the rheological properties of bulk material in a pneumatic conveying system to applicable common quantities like the viscosity of the mixture. In this paper the rheological properties has been built into a pressure drop coefficient concept. A simple model2 for prediction of pressure drop in pneumatic conveying systems has been used for calculating pressure drops in both horizontal and vertical

pipe sections. A pressure drop coefficient (K) has been introduced, which has been shown to be independent of the pipe diameter and could be used for both dilute and dense phase pneumatic conveying situations. LITERATURE SURVEY Many of the widely used pressure drop calculation techniques3-7 do not take into account the location and number of bends. In some cases8 a constant pressure gradient has been considered along straight pipe sections. In most of the calculation techniques available, pressure drop in a straight section has been considered often to comprise of two components, i.e. pressure drop due to air alone and additional pressure drop due to the presence of solids. Further, the pressure drop calculation techniques often require knowledge of the value of the coefficient of friction due to solids and some techniques9 even use solid velocity values. Determination of solid velocity value would be rather difficult in dense phase pneumatic conveying situations. Even with respect to assessment of the solids friction factor, divergent opinions can be found in the literature9-11. TEST SET-UP During the testing, three different test loops were used. The three test loops with pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm were 70 m, 66 m and 68 m long respectively and had no vertical section. A schematic pipe layout with 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm

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pipelines is presented in Figure 1, which was a closed loop. Several pressure transmitters were located at different points on the pipeline. The pressure data was recorded using LABVIEW software. The tests were conducted at different start pressures at the blow tank, and an attempt was made to cover a wide range of solids loading ratios during the transportation in order to achieve a wide range of pressure drops during pneumatic transportation.

the additional pressure drop (Ps) due to the presence of solid particles12,13. P = Pf + Ps (1)

In this article, the Darcys equation has been used in a slightly modified form2 for the pressure drop calculation as given below. The air-solid flow has been considered as a mixture having its own flow characteristics.

P = K L sus v entry 2 2D

(2)

Equation (2) has been used for calculating the pressure drop for straight pipe sections irrespective of whether it is vertical or horizontal. For pressure loss due to bends the equation in a slightly different form has been used, which is similar in form to that used by others12,13.

P = K sus v entry 2 2

(3)

Figure 1. Schematic layout of the pipelines used. TEST MATERIAL The three bulk powders used for the test programme were as follows: Table 1. Test Material Barite Cement Ilmenite Data for Test Material Mean Density Particle Size (kg/m3) m 12 4200 15.5 3100 9.5 4600

Using equations (2) and (3), the value of K was calculated for horizontal sections and bends based on pressure drop values from experiments. TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Tests were carried out with 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm diameter pipelines with all the three test bulk materials, i.e. barite, cement and ilmenite. All the pressure data were recorded from the various pressure transducers located on the pipeline at different locations. Using the pressure drop values in the horizontal sections, K values have been calculated for all the tests. The distance between two consecutive transmitters considered for this purpose was never more than 2 m to 3 m. All K values for barite tests with 80 mm pipeline are plotted with respect to the (velocity)2 for horizontal section and are presented in Figure 2. The velocity here denotes the air velocity

MODEL FOR PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION The usual assumption of pressure drop determination in gas-solid two-phase flow has been to consider the total pressure drop comprising of two components, i.e., pressure drop due to the flowing gas alone (Pf) and

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0.0012 0.0010 0.0008

0.0012

0.0010

Value of K

0.0008

Value of K

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0.0000

0.0000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Figure 2. Nature of Variation of K for Barite With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 80 mm. It is clear that the value of K decayed exponentially until it reached almost a constant value. Based on the test data with 100 mm pipe and bulk material barite, the variation of K with the local (velocity)2 is presented in Figure 3.

0.0012

Figure 4. Nature of Variation of K for Barite With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm.

0.0012 0.0010 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

0.0010

0.0008

Value of K

Value of K

0.0006

0.0004

Figure 5. Nature of Variation of K for Cement With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameter 80 mm.

0.0009

0.0002

0.0000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Value of K

Figure 3. Nature of Variation of K for Barite With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 100 mm. Similar tests were then conducted with barite using 125 mm pipeline also. It was quite interesting to note that all the three graphs for K for barite for horizontal section for 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm pipelines showed similar trends. A cumulative plot of all the data is presented in Figure 4. Naturally next sets of tests were conducted with cement with 80 mm pipe size in order to ensure that similar nature prevailed for cement also. The nature of

0.0005 0.0004 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Figure 6. Nature of Variation of K for Cement With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm. It was noticed that when all the three graphs for K for horizontal section for cement for 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm pipelines were superimposed on each other

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they also followed the pattern as observed for barite and the same has been presented in Figure 6.

0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006

0.0005 0.0004 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Figure 7. Nature of Variation of K for Ilmenite for horizontal section With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm. Figure 7 depicts the variation of K for horizintal section for ilmenite for pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm all together.

0.040 0.035 0.030

VALIDATION From the tests already done, there was enough data corresponding to a number of pressure transmitters placed along the pipelines at several locations, for each pipe size and bulk material combination. For each pipe size and bulk material combination, several starting pressures at the blow tank and airflow rates were used. With each of these test parameters, pressure drops were calculated in steps of discrete pipe lengths using K values already obtained and calculated pressure drops along the whole pipe layout for the total length of the pipeline used for the experiments. This procedure generated pressure data at each of the transmitter locations on the pipeline. Consequently, the calculated pressure vs. experimentally recorded pressure data were plotted at each of the transmitter locations.

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Value of K

Value of K

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Figure 8. Nature of Variation of K for 5D bend for Ilmenite With Change in (Velocity)2, Pipe diameters 80 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm. Similar graphs for K values have been obtained for all pipe components including bends, valves etc. which contributes to pressure drop during pneumatic conveying. It was found that all the K graphs followed similar trends. As an example the variation of K for 5D bend during Ilmenite transportation using all the three pipe sizes has been presented in Figure 8.

Figure 9. Calculated vs. Experimental Pressure Values at Different Locations on Pipeline; Bulk Material-Barite, Pipe Diameter 80 mm. Figure 9 shows the calculated pressure values vs. the predicted pressure values for barite in 80 mm pipeline at various locations on the pipeline. Figure 10 depicts the calculated pressure values vs. the predicted pressure values for cement in 80 mm pipeline at various locations on the pipeline.

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3500

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

The unique thing about this technique is that it could be applied to both dense phase and dilute phase pneumatic conveying situations. Hence, this technique promises to be a valuable tool for scaling up in case of both dense phase and dilute phase pneumatic conveying.

Experimental Pressure in mbar

Figure 10. Calculated vs. Experimental Pressure Values at Different Locations on Pipeline; Bulk Material-Cement, Pipe Diameter 80 mm.

4000 3500

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

LIST OF SYMBOLS KPressure drop coefficient P- Total pressure drop (mbar). Pf - Pressure drop due to flowing gas alone (mbar). Ps- Additional pressure drop due to presence of solids (mbar) LLength of pipeline (m) DPipe diameter (m) sus - Suspension density defined as

Mass of solids + Mass of gas (kg/m3) Volume of solids + Volume of gas

Figure 11. Calculated vs. Experimental Pressure Values at Different Locations on Pipeline; Bulk Material-Ilmenite, Pipe Diameter 80 mm. Figure 11 shows the variation of predicted pressure vs. calculated pressure for ilmenite transportation in 80 mm pipeline. It is clear from Figures 9-11, that the calculated pressure values are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental pressure data and the predicted values are almost evenly distributed about the central line. CONCLUSIONS The scaling up technique proposed in this article is based on a simple model and does not need complicated calculation techniques. This technique, when applied to three different pipe sizes and two different bulk materials, gave reasonably good results. The rheological properties of the mixture are imbedded into a pressure drop coefficient.

(volume of gas to be calculated at the entry pressure condition at the test section) ventry True air/gas velocity at the entry to the test section (m/s) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge their gratitude towards Hydralift ASA (now National Oilwell) and Statoil, for permitting publication of the findings of the study, funded by them. REFERENCES 1. Saasen, A., Hoset, H., Rostad, E., Fjogstad, A., Aunan, O., Westgrd, E. and Norkyn, P.I., "Application of Ilmenite as Weight Material in Water-Based and OilBased Drilling Fluids", paper SPE 71401 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Lousiana, Sept. 30 - Oct. 3, 2001. 2. Datta, B. K., and Ratnayaka, C., 2003, A Simple Technique For Scaling Up Pneumatic Conveying Systems, Communicated to

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Particulate Science & Technology (A Taylor & Francis publication) for publication. 3. Mills, D., Mason, J. S., and Stacey, R. B., 1982, A Design Study for the Pneumatic Conveying of a Fine Particulate Material, Solidex 82, Harrogate, U.K., pp c1-c75. 4. Mason, J. S., Mills, D., Reed, A. R. and Woodcock, C. R., 1983, Notes for Short Course on Pneumatic Handling of Bulk Solids, Session B2/B3, Thames Polytechnique, U. K. 5. Wypych, P. W. and Arnold, P. C., 1987, On Improving Scale-up Procedure for Pneumatic Conveying Design, Powder Technology, Vol. 50, pp 281-294. 6. Wypych, P. W. and Arnold, P. C., 1989, Demands of Long Distance and Large Throughput Pneumatic Conveying th Applications in Australia, 6 International Symposium on Freight Pipelines, Columbia, USA, May. 7. Wypych, P. W., Kennedy, O. C. and Arnold, P. C., 1990, Pneumatic Conveying of Pulverised and Crushed R.O.M. Coal, Pneumatech, 4th Int. Conference on Pneumatic Conveying Technology, Glasgow, Scotland, 26-28 June. 8. Bradley, M. S. A. and Mills, D., 1988, Approaches to Dealing with the Problem of Energy Loss due to Bends, 13th Powder and Bulk Solids Conference, U.S.A., pp 705-715. 9. Chambers, A. J. and Marcus, R. D., 1986, Pneumatic Conveying Calculations, 2nd International Conference on Bulk Materials Storage and Transportation, Wollongong, Australia, 7-9 July. 10. Weber, M., 1981, Principles of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Conveying in Pipes, Bulk Solids Handling, Vol. 1, No. 1, February.

11. Pan, R. and Wypych, P. W., 1992, Scaleup Procedure for Pneumatic Conveying Design; Powder Handling and Processing, Vol. 4, No. 2, June. 12. Bradley, M. S. A., 1990, Pressure Losses Caused by Bends in Pneumatic Conveying Pipelines, Effects of Bend Geometry and Fittings, Powder Handling and Processing, Vol. 2, No. 2, November. 13. Bradley, M. S. A. and Reed, A. R., 1990, An Improved Method of Predicting Pressure Drop Along Pneumatic Conveying Pipelines, Powder Handling and Processing, Vol. 2, No. 3, September.

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