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ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK FORM 5 2011 Name : SURESH A/L MANIAM I/C No.:940922-06-5557 Form Panel : 5C : Curriculum Development Centre CONTENT N o. 1 .0 2 .0 3 .0 PART I Content INTRODUCTION Page 4 .0 5 .0 6 .0 7 .0 PART II U Question 1 U Question 2 (a) U Question 2 (b) U Question 2 (c) U Question 3 (a) U Question 3 (b) U Question 3 (c) PART III FURTHER EXPLORATION REFLECTION REFERENCE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Mathematics is important in almost all field in world. The mathematics of cooking often goes unnoticed, but in reality, there is a large quantity of math skills involved in cooking especially in baking and decoration of cake.Math has a lot to do making. Baking is focused around different types of math. Baking can teach math and they will not even realize it Baking a cake required two main techniques, which is cooking technique and of course measuring technique. Measuring technique for example measuring the amount sugar, flour, amount of water, shape of cake, temperature needed for the cake to bake, setting the oven timer, provide basic math practice for young children. Besides, for decorative purposes, most cake will be covered with cream. Decorating with cream needs mathematics. Well cake bakers if they're making a symmetrical cake need to get all the angles of the cream decorations right so they don·t want one side to have a 30 degree angle and the other to have a 60 degree angle of cream. That would make cakes to become less attractive. The math involved in baking is a much simple mathematical system. A person only needs a basic knowledge of math in order to succeed. This is because even though there are many math calculations, it is all simple measurements and most can be done with a calculator if needed. Always double-check ones· math in order to not ruin the dish that is being prepared. 2.0 ² PART I ssuch as, baking soda, flour, sugar, should be in proper way to maintain the taste of the cake Before a cake is being produce, a rough calculation is needed to be calculate such as the cost needed to buy ingredients, cost to buy other materialssuch asaluminium foil, and of course the amount of electricity needed to bake a cake. Before baking cake, size of cake should be estimated. These included the volume, height, diameter and shape of cake. Cakes may come different heights and shape such as triangle, round, trapezium and, rectangle to meet the requirement of customers. Cake decorating is one of the frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be mould into three-dimensional persons, places and things. In many areas of the world, decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a bridal shower, wedding, or anniversary. Time needed to bake a cake is needed to estimate before baking. This is because, size of cake affect the baking time. Therefore estimated time should be calculated to make sure cake is not over baked Modification of recipe according to scale require mathematics skills. Most recipes give guidelines as to how much a single batch will produce. But what if you want more? It seems too time consuming to mix up another batch. What if the recipe makes only small rectangular size cakes and you need to double the size? Clearly, double istwo times more than original size, so we can multiply all the ingredients by two to make a larger batch There are several uses of Mathematics in cake baking and decorating such as measurement of ingredients, calculation of price and estimated cost, estimation of dimensions, cake decorating, calculation of baking time, and modification of recipe according to scale Amount of ingredients used should be accurate to produce a perfect cake. Measuring the amount of ingredient 3.0 PART II 3.1 ² Question 1 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V ! Tr 2 h 19000 = 3.142 x r2 x 7 r2 ! 1900 3.142 ' 7 r2 = 863.872 cm r = 29.392 cm d = 2r d = 58.783 cm 3.2 ² Question 2 The cake is in round shape. Therefore the maximum value of d = 60.0 cm h = 45.0 cm a) Different height from 1.0 cm to 45.0 cm is used to calculate the diameter. All the values is tabulated below h/cm d/cm 1.0 155.5262519 2.0 109.9736674 3.0 89.79312339 4.0 77.76312594 5.0 69.5534543 6.0 63.49332645 7.0 58.78339783 8.0 54.98683368 9.0 51.84208396 10.0 49.18171919 11.0 46.89292932 12.0 44.89656169 13.0 43.13522122 14.0 41.56613923 15.0 40.15670556 16.0 38.88156257 17.0 37.72065671 18.0 36.65788912 19.0 35.68016921 20.0 34.77672715 21.0 33.93861056 22.0 33.15830831 23.0 32.42946528 24.0 31.74666323 25.0 31.10525037 26.0 30.50120743 27.0 29.93104113 28.0 29.39169891 29.0 28.88049994 30.0 28.39507881 31.0 27.93333944 32.0 27.49341684 33.0 27.07364537 34.0 26.67253215 35.0 26.2887347 36.0 25.92104195 37.0 25.56835831 38.0 25.2296896 39.0 24.90413158 40.0 24.59085959 41.0 24.25911983 42.0 23.99822167 43.0 23.71753106 44.0 23.44646466 45.0 23.18448477 b) (i) The range of height that is not suitable : h < 7 and h>45 As i stated in (a), the maximum value of diameter should be 60 cm and maximum value of height is 45 cm. Any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven. (ii) The dimensions that i think most suitable for the cake is 29 cm in height and diameter of 28.88049994 cm which is approximately 29 cm. This dimension is most suitable because it is more symmetrical, balanced and easier to be decorated. c) (i) ! Tr 2 h V ! 19000 cm 3 d ! 2r r! d 2 3 19000c ! 3.142 ' d h 2 2 19000c 3 ¨d ¸ ! 3.142 ' © ¹ h ª2º d2 h ! 3.142 ' 4 19000 c 3 19000 c 3 ' 4 d ! 3.142 ' h 2 76000c 3 d ! 3.142 ' h 2 Value of h, 1/h and d2 is calculated and tabulated below based on the above equation. h 1 h 1.000 0 d2 h 1 h 0.0526 d2 h 1 h 0.0270 d2 1 24188.4 15 9 1 1273.0 74 7 3 653.74 1 2 0.500 0 12094.2 08 0 2 0.0500 1209.4 21 8 3 0.0263 636.53 7 3 0.333 3 8062.80 5 1 2 0.0476 1151.8 29 9 3 0.0256 620.21 6 4 0.250 0 6047.10 4 2 2 0.0455 1099.4 73 0 4 0.0250 604.71 0 5 0.200 0 4837.68 3 3 2 0.0435 1051.6 70 1 4 0.0244 539.96 1 6 0.166 7 4031.40 3 4 2 0.0417 1007.8 51 2 4 0.0238 575.91 5 7 0.142 9 3455.48 8 5 2 0.0400 967.53 7 3 4 0.0233 562.52 1 8 0.125 0 3023.55 2 6 2 0.0385 930.32 4 4 4 0.0227 549.73 7 9 0.111 1 2687.60 2 7 2 0.0370 895.86 7 5 4 0.0222 537.52 0 1 0 0.100 0 2418.84 2 8 2 0.0357 863.87 2 6 4 0.0217 525.83 5 1 1 0.090 9 2198.94 7 9 2 0.0345 834.08 3 7 4 0.0213 514.64 7 1 2 0.083 3 2015.70 1 0 3 0.0333 806.28 1 8 4 0.0208 503.92 5 1 3 0.076 9 1860.64 7 1 3 0.0323 780.27 1 9 4 0.0204 493.64 1 1 4 0.071 4 1727.74 4 2 3 0.0313 755.88 8 0 5 0.0200 483.76 8 1 5 0.066 7 1612.56 1 3 3 0.0303 732.98 2 1 5 0.0196 474.28 3 1 6 0.062 5 1511.77 6 4 3 0.0294 711.42 4 2 5 0.0192 465.16 2 1 7 0.058 8 1422.84 8 5 3 0.0286 691.09 8 3 5 0.0189 456.38 5 1 8 0.055 6 1343.80 1 6 3 0.0278 671.90 0 4 5 0.0185 447.93 4 d2 y = 24191x - 24188.415 ssd, 1, 1.120 R =1   ssd, 0.5, 12094.208 ssd, 0.3333, 8062.805 ssd, 0.25, 6047.104 ssd, 0.2, 4837.683 ssd, 0.1667, 4031.403 ssd, 0.1429, 3455.488 ssd, 0.125, 3023.552 ssd, 0.1111, 2687.602 ssd, 0.1, 2418.842 ssd, 0.0909, 2198.947 ssd,0.0769,1727.744 0.0833, 2015.701 ssd,0.0714,1612.561 1860.647 ssd,0.0667,1511.776 ssd,0.0625,1422.848 ssd,0.0588,1343.801 ssd,0.0526,1151.829 ssd,0.05, 1209.421 0.0556,1273.074 ssd,0.0476,1051.67 ssd,0.0435,930.324 ssd,0.0417, 1007.851 ssd,0.04, 967.537 0.0455, 1099.473 ssd,0.0357,732.982 ssd,0.0333,895.867 0.0385, ssd,0.0303,620.216 0.037, 863.872 ssd,0.0278,537.52 0.0345, 834.083 ssd,0.0256,493.641 0.0323, 806.281 0.0313, 780.271 ssd,0.0238,465.162 0.0294, 755.888 0.0286, 711.424 ssd,0.0213,456.385 0.027, 691.098 0.0263, 671.9 ssd,0.02, 483.768 0.025, 636.537 ssd,0.0192, 447.934 0.0233, 575.915 0.0222, 549.737 0.0227, 562.521 0.0244, 539.961 ssd, 0.0189, 653.741 0.0217, 525.835 0.0208, 514.647 ssd, 0.0185,604.71 0.0204, 503.925 0.0196, 474.283 1 h (ii) a) Based on the graph, When h = 10.5 cm, 1 = 0.095 h 1 = 0.095 , d2 = 2300 h From the graph (red line), when When d2 = 2300, d = 2300 , d = 47.95cm Therefore the value of d is approximately 48 cm b) Based on the graph, When d = 42 cm , d2 = 1764 From the graph (blue line), when d2 = 1764, h= 1 = 0.075 h 1 = 13.333cm 0.0075 Therefore the value of h is approximately 13.3cm 3.3 ² Question 3 a) From the dimensions that i have suggested in 2(b)(ii), the height of the cake is 29 cm, the diameter is 28.88049994 cm and the radius is The volume of cake without cream : h = 29.0 cm , r = 14.44 cm 28.8804999 4 = 14.44 cm 2 14.44 29.0 Therefore volume of cake without cream is 19000 cm3 The volume of cake with cream : 15.44 1 1 cm 3 The volume of cake with cream, V = 3.142 x (15.44)2 x (30) = 22471 cm3 Therefore the amount cream used is : Vcream= 22471 cm3 ² 19000 cm3 = 3471 cm3 b) (i) Triangle Shaped Cake Cake without cream : 36.2 36.2 29 Volume of cake without cream : V = 19000 cm3 Cake with cream : (2.5 cm is obtained by scale drawing)Front view of cake with cream Plan view of cake with cream Volume of cake with cream : V= 1 x39.7cmx39.7cmx30cm 2 = 23641.4 cm3 Therefore the amount of cream needed for triangular shape cake is Vcream= 23641.4 cm3 ² 19000 cm3 = 4641.4 cm3 (ii) Trapezium Shaped Cake Cake without cream : Volume of cake without cream V = 19000 cm3 Cake with cream : (Value 2 cm for each side is obtained by scale drawing) Plan view of cake Volume of cake with cream : V= 1 x (33.6 cm + 16.8 cm) x 31.9 cm x 29 cm 2 = 23312.5 cm3 Therefore the amount of cream needed for triangular shape cake is Vcream= 23312.5 cm3 ² 19000 cm3 = 4312 cm3 (ii) Rectangle Shaped Cake Cake without cream : Volume of cake without cream : V = 19000 cm3 Cake with cream : Plan View Front View Volume of cake with cream : V = 27.6 cm x 27.6 cm x 30 cm = 22852.8 cm3 Therefore the amount of cream needed for triangular shape cake is Vcream= 22852.8 cm3 ² 19000 cm3 = 3852.8 cm3 *(All the values are only estimated based on the assumption that the layer of cream is uniformly thick at 1 cm ) c) Based on the values of cream that i obtained from four shapes of cakes, round cakerequires the least amount of fresh cream to be used which is 3471 cm3 4.0 ² PART III Method 1 Differentiation Volume of Cake without cream V = r2h 19000 = 3.142r2h ------------------- Volume of Cream = Surface area of cylinder V = r2 + 2 rh V = 3.142r2 + ( 2 x 3.142 x rh) V = 3.142r2 + 6.284rh ------------------- From equation h = 19000 ------------------3.142r2 Substitute Equation into V = 3.142r2+ 6.284r19000 ------------------3.142r2 V = 3.142r2 + 38000 r V = 3.142r2 + 38000r-1 Differentiate V respect to r dV = 2(3.142)r²38000------------------- Minimum value turning point, dV = 0 dr r2 dr 0 = 2(3.142)r ² 38000 r2 38000 = 6.284r r2 38000 = 6.284r3 r!3 38000 6.284 r = 18.22 cm Therefore, substitute the value or r = 18.22 into Equation = __19000__ 3.142(18.22)2 = 18.22cm The dimension are r = 18.22cm , h= 18.22cm Method 2 Quadratic Function Let f(r) = Volume of cream r = radius of round cake Use same equation as above method Volume of Cake without cream f(r) = r2h 19000 = 3.142r2h ------------------- Volume of Cream = Surface area of cylinder f(r) = r2 + 2 rh f(r) = 3.142r2 + ( 2 x 3.142 x rh)------------------Factorize Equation f(r) = 3.142(r2 + 2rh) Do completing the square for the above equation f(r) = 3.142r + 2h2 ² 2h2 2 2 f(r) = 3.142(r + h)2 ² 3.142h2 Since the value of a = 3.142, thus The minimum value = -3.142h2 When r = -h Therefore substitute r into Equation 19000 = 3.142(-h)2h 19000 = 3.142h3 19000 h!3 3.142 h = 18.22 cm So, to find the value of r, substitute the value of h = 18.22 into Equation 19000 = 3.142r2(18.22) 19000 r! 3.142 ' 18 .22 r = 18.22cm The dimension are r = 18.22cm , h= 18.22cm I will not choose to bake a cake of such dimensionsbecause the height is 18.22cm which is quite tall. This makes the cake less attractive. Furthermore, the diameter of the cake is 2 x 18.22 = 36.44 cm which is quite small to withstand such a tall cake and makes the cake to become unstable. Since the cake is too tall, it is too hard to handlethe cake. 5.0 FURTHER EXPLORATION a) From the question, it is stated that : The height, h of each cake is 6cm The radius of largest cake is 31cm The radius of 2nd cake is 10% smaller than 1st cake The radius of 3rd cake is 10% smaller than 2nd cake Therefore, The radius of 2nd cake is 90% X 31 cm = 27.9cm The radius of 3rd cake is 90% X 27.90 cm = 25.11 The radius of 4th cake is 90% X 25.11 cm = 22.60 The progression will be 31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.60« a = 31, r = V = 3.142r h Volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31) (6) = 18116.772 Volume of 2nd cake =(3.142)(27.9) (6) = 14674.585 Volume of 3rd cake =(3.142)(25.11) (6) = 11886.414 Volume of 4th cake =(3.142)(22.60) (6) = 9627.995 ¡ ¡ ¡ 18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, « a = 18116.772, r = 0.81 The volume of cake shows a geometric progression ¡ ¡ b) From Part I, the question stated that ´a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800cm3µ This means that 15kg of cake will have : 15 kg X 3800cm3 = 57000cm3 Therefore S n ! a 1 rn , where Sn = 57000 ; a = 18116.772 ; r = 0.81 1 r 18116.772 1  0.81n 57000 ! 1  0.81 10830 ! 1  0.81n 18116 772 . n 0.81 ! 1  0.59779 0.81n ! 0.40221 nlog10 0.81 = log10 0.40221 n = log10 0.40221 log10 0.81 n = 4.322 n} 4 So, the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake is approximately 4 cakes 6.0 REFLECTION Additional Mathematics project work taught me billions of creative work. Before conducting this project, I found that cakes are delicious in taste, but after completing this project work, I found that baking cakes involves lots of calculation, baking cakes involves mathematics, baking cakes involve creativeness, and baking cakes need hardworking. Round cakes looks normal, but how about a Mickey Mouse cake, or superman cake or maybe mathematical symbol cake. Looks creative but involve mathematics. Everything is mathematics. Thank to my entire additional mathematics teacher because I can apply all the formulas and technique that they taught me in class. Most important thing here is, this project taught me how to design a cake with different shape and I·ve try 3 types, Triangle, rectangle and trapezium. I almost spend more than 2days to design those 3 cakes and its works out, making me good in drawing. In future, maybe I will design knowledge that I got from this project work. a cake something like this using the