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Additional mathematics project work (TASK 1) Question : Part I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are

among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. Answer Part I : Geometry - To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced. Calculus (differentiation) - To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate min. or max. amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate min. or max. size of cake produced. Progressions - To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount of cream for decoration.

Part II Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers Day celebration.

(1)

If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 cm3, and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. [Use T = 3.142]

and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used.392 Diameter. h cm. From the formulae.142 r 2 7 19000 r2 ! 3. Solution : Given V = 19 000 cm 3. Then 5 kg of cake = 3800 v 5 = 19 000 cm 3 If h = 7 cm. V ! Tr 2 h 19000 ! 3.392) d ! 58.0 cm in width and 45.142 v 7 r 2 ! 863. d ! 2r d ! 2(29. explore by using different values of heights. (a) If the volume of cake remains the same. then Formulae for volume. V ! Tr 2 h ¨d ¸ 19000 ! T © ¹ h ª2º Td 2 h 19000 ! 4 19000 ( 4) d2 ! Th 19000 ( 4) d2 ! Th 76000 d! Th 2 .0 cm in length.784 (2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.Solution : If 1 kg of cake = 3800 cm 3 of volume. Tabulate your answers.872 r ! 29.872 r 2 ! 863.0 cm in height. d cm. 60.

49342 27.56836 25.49342 27.15831 32.79312 77.68017 34.56614 40. (i) State the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers.18172 46.55345 63.98683 51.28873 25.10525 30.10525 30.93861 33. Solution : h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 d/cm 155.28912 23.15671 h/cm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.8805 28.74666 31.84208 49.79312 77.88156 37.39508 h/cm 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 d/cm 27.28912 23.93334 27.59086 24.5263 109.18448 d/cm 155.3917 28.76313 69.65789 35.74666 31.72066 36.49333 58.89656 43.13522 41.89293 44.8805 28.67253 26.5263 109.42947 31.50121 29.50121 29.93861 33.92104 25.7834 54.07365 26.18448 .22969 24.59086 24.9737 89.98683 51.77673 33.49333 58.3917 28.7834 54.90413 24.56614 40.92104 25.71753 23.71753 23.67253 26.9737 89.44646 23.72066 36.84208 49.65789 35. h/cm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.93334 27.90413 24.18172 46.89293 44.55345 63.76313 69.77673 33. d ! for 1 h h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 76000 Th 45 .28873 25.68017 34.39508 h/cm 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 d/cm 27.88156 37.93104 29.99822 23.44646 23.93104 29.15831 32.13522 41.99822 23.The table below constructed using the formulae.22969 24.07365 26.15671 (b) Based on the values in your table.56836 25.89656 43.42947 31.

d 2 ! for 1 h 54 . [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.] Solution : Given V = 19 000 cm 3. h < 7 cm is NOT suitable because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven. h = 8 cm. the cake will be too short and too wide.From the table above. Give reasons for your answer. plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. V ! Tr 2 h ¨d ¸ 19000 ! T © ¹ h ª2º Td 2 h 19000 ! 4 19000 ( 4) d2 ! Th 19000 ( 4) d2 ! Th 76000 2 d ! Th 2 The table below constructed using the formulae. Other than that height more than 45 cm will be too tall to be fit into the baking oven. Furthermore. making it less attractive.99 cm. Hence. It will produce a cake with diameter. (c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. This cake will more attractive and can fit into oven very well and the size is suitable for easy handling. d = 54. (ii) Suggest the dimensions that you think most suitabl e for the cake. From the formulae. Solution : I suggest the height. 76000 Th .

50 0.40 0.14 0.42 12094.04 0.488 3023.77 68.2805 d 155.80 77.06 0.473 1051.05 0.801 1273.h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1/h 1.30 0.55 0.05 0.829 1099.56 63.15 0.8672 863.647 1727.04 0.561 1511.04 0.10 0.842 2198.701 1860.85 0.683 4031.04 0.06 0.98 89.78 d2 26000 25000 24000 23000 22000 21000 20000 19000 18000 17000 16000 15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0.403 3455.00 0.0833 806.65 0.104 4837.872 834.07 0.17 0.805 6047.33 0.00 1 h .35 0.90 0.04 0.20 0.75 0.13 0.744 1612.45 0.848 1343.03 d2 24188.53 109.70 0.20 0.60 0.04 0.25 0.80 0.421 1151.95 1.05 0.09 0.21 8062.00 0.3237 895.07 0.08 0.08 0.776 1422.10 0.03 0.851 967.06 0.552 2687.50 0.5366 930.49 58.25 0.05 0.11 0.602 2418.074 1209.947 2015.67 1007.05 0.

d = 2400 d = 49 (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray. Solution : When h = 10. Solution : When d = 42. 1 When.(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a ca ke where the height of the cake is 10. use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained.5 cm. = 0. 1 = 0. h = 1 0.4 cm . d 2 = 1764 From the graph. When d2 = 1764. 1 = 0.065 h = 15.095 h From the graph.095.065 h Therefore.5 cm. then d2 = 2400 h Therefore.

142)( 28. of actual cake = Tr 2 h í 19000 = (3.(3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream.5 cm + 1cm = 28.5 cm h = 8 cm Actual cake r = 27. Solution : r = 27. of cake with cream ² Vol.5) 2 9 í 19000 = 22969 í 19000 = 3969 cm 3 . The thickness of t he cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm. (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii).5 cm Actual cake h = 8 cm + 1cm = 9cm Actual cake with cream Solution : Volume of cream used = Vol.

of cake with cream ² Vol.(b) Suggest three other shapes for cake. Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). of actual cake = l2 v h í 19000 = (512 v 9) í 19000 = 23409 í 19000 = 4409 cm3 . Solution : (i) Square shaped cake 8 cm Volume of square shaped cake = w v l v h = l2 v h (where w = l) @ l2 v h = 19000 19000 l2 = 8 l = 2375 l = 49 cm Cake with cream Actual size 9 cm 51 cm Estimated volume of cream used = Vol.

(i) Triangle shaped cake 8 cm Volume of triangle shaped cake 1 = wvlvh 2 @ 1 w v 70 v h = 19000 (assuming l = 70 cm) 2 19000 v2 w= 8 v 70 w = 68 cm 9 cm Estimated volume of cream used = Vol. of cake with cream ² Vol. of actual cake 1 = v 70 v 72 v 9 í 19000 2 = 22680 í 19000 = 3680 cm3 .

of cake with cream ² Vol.(i) Trapezium shaped cake 8 cm Volume of triangle shaped cake 1 = (a + b) v l v h 2 1 (a + b)v l v h =19000 (assuming a =40 cm b =50 cm) 2 19000 l= v2 8 v 90 l = 53 cm 9 cm Estimated volume of cream used = Vol. of actual cake 1 = (42 + 52) v 55 v 9 í 19000 2 = 23265 í 19000 = 4265 cm 3 .

when plotted into a graph will form a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation. Part III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Give reasons for your answers.142 r 2 Surface area in contact with cream ¨ 19000 ¸ = Tr 2  2Tr © 2 ¹ ª 3. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. dy !0 dx . the triangle shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. Formula for the surface area = Tr 2  2Trh h= 19000 3.142r º ¨ 38000 ¸ = Tr 2  © ¹ ª r º The values. Hence. Solution : METHOD 1: Differentation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate t he cake.(c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Solution : Type of cake Volume of cream needed ( cm3 ) Round 3969 Square 4409 Triangle 3680 Trapezium 4265 From the table above.

07835278 19.   I would not choose to bake a cake with such dimension because its dimensions are not suitable.195683 3771.55262519 Volume of cream used / cm3 19983.380579 3533.44078148 18.958572 3363.66 cm 3 when h = 18 cm.120672 3346.39169891 27.917063 3382.86032835 18.38836357 16.07372 4585.74666323 29.49341684 25.03779 7474.56761061 20.284r 3  38000 38000 ! 6.409389 3634.024292 3402.936074 3363. For example the height is too high.22 cm METHOD 2: Comparing Value so height against volume of the cream h / cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 r/cm 77.104 ! r 3 18.981833 3310. Furthermore such cakes are difficult to handle easily.96930528 16.92104198 24.87333161 15.98683368 44.89656169 38.742114 From the table above.3 cm .44646466 22.284999 3335.368708 5130.620011 3319. r = 18.65622 3304.027734 3458.132889 4217.57915416 16.84008461 17.001202 3958.21473264 15.696569 3317.76312594 54.22 ! r When r ! 18.284r 3 6047.421308 5987.77672715 31.88156297 34.78306961 20.53252 3303.61097 10546. .858421 3332.44828085 21.733804 3307.dy ¨ 38000 ¸ ! 2Tr  © ¹ 2 dx º ª r ¨ 38000 ¸ 0 ! 2Tr  © 2 ¹ ª r º 0 ! 6.59085959 23. h = 18.32894456 17. When h = 18 cm.22 . the minimum value of cream used is 3303.

6 cm 3 . By comparing all these values. determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns.8 cm 3 Volume of cake 2 = Tr 2 h = 3. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake.Further exploration Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31. Solution : Volume of cake 1 = Tr 2 h = 3.142 v (0. as shown in Diagram 2. (a) Find the volume of the first. the third and the fourth cakes.142 v 31 v 31 v 6 = 18116.9 v 31) 2 v 6 = 14676. the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of t he second cake and so on.0 cm. the second.

9 v 31) 2 v 6 = 11886.8 15 kg = 57 000 cm 3 18116 .9 v 0.81 14676 .8.8 11886. r = 0.142 v (0.772(1  0.371 0.81 14676. calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake.6 9628 ! 0. 14676.8 n ) ! 1 r 1  0.371 n log 0.4 cm 3 Volume of cake 4 = Tr 2 h = 3.142 v (0.81 18116 .8 . Verify your answer using other methods. Solution : Sn ! a (1  r n ) 18116 .629 " (1  0.9 v 0.8 n ) 0.9 v 0.4 ! 0.772 (1  0. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers.8 n 0.8 n ) 57000 " 0. The pattern formed is a geometrical progression.8 n log 0.81 11886 .8 n )  0.371 " 0.2 11400 " 18116.9 v 31) 2 v 6 = 9628 cm3 The values 18116.Volume of cake 3 = Tr 2 h = 3.4 (b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg.6. 11886.6 ! 0.772(1  0.4 and 9628 form a number pattern.371 log 0.8 n log 0.

Total mass of 4 cakes = 18116.log 0.6 + 11886.34 kg Total mass of cakes must not exceed 15 kg.444 n n=4 Verification of answer If n = 4. .371 n log 0.4 + 9628 = 54307. Total mass of 4 cakes = 18116. Therefore. Without it I can not fulfil my big dreams and wishes.8 4.4 + 9628 + 7798.8 + 14676.5 cm 3 Total mass of cakes = 16. maximum number of cakes needed to be made = 4. I have spent countless hours doing this project.6 + 11886.8 cm 3 Total mass of cakes = 14.29 kg If n = 5 If n = 4. I realized that this subject is a compulsory to me.7 = 62106. Reflection In making this project.8 + 14676.