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T e x a S A & M U n i v e s i t


Why do we need to use Common-Mode Feedback Circuits ? • In the past, circuits have mainly one input and one output and both referred to ground. • Low voltage power supply make single ended circuits very difficult to perform optimally. An alternative to single-ended circuits is to use fully differential circuits. • To double the output swing a fully differential circuit are used. • The output terminals of fully differential circuits are equal and opposite polarity. it l it • Additional properties of fully differential circuits are: improved output swing, linearity and common-mode rejection ratio. p g y j • How are the differential outputs referred to ? • How are the common-mode signals eliminated in a Fully differential circuit ?

· A CMFB circuit, in a fully differential circuit, is generally needed for two reasons: (1) To control the common mode voltage at different nodes that cannot be stabilized by the negative differential feedback. This is usually chosen as a reference voltage yielding maximum diff i ldi i differential voltage gain and/or ti l lt i d/ maximum output voltage swing (2) To suppress the common mode components, that tends to saturate different stages, through applying common mode negative feedback.

Background and motivation . VDD ID Vin R M1 Vo1 1 Vo1 = VDD - IDR Vb Vin VDD M2 M1 Vo2



Can we determine the DC operating points for Vo1 and Vo2? Let us f rst cons der the case of one trans stor and one res stor. first consider transistor resistor.

Vo1 M1 saturation Vo1 = Vin - VT1 M1 ohmic M1 OFF Vin






Analog and Mixed-Signal Center


VSG VDD .Vo2 Second case: Two transistors one n-type and one p-type M1 triode M1 saturation ID1 VDD I VGS1 = VIB P2 VDD . • V02 is difficult to fix and the regions of operation of M1 and M2 are very sensitive to process variations and input variations.(VSG . M2 triode 1 d III M1 sat.(VSG |Vtp|) P1 V =V GS1 IA II III P1’ IV Vo2B For F VSS ≠ 0 VDD .|Vtp|) VDD VDS Vo1B P2’ I M1 cutoff II M1 sat. Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) . M2 sat IV M1 triode. M2 sat VI K ′pW2 K ′ W1 2 N Vin − V SS − VT1 (1 + λ N (V01 − VSS )) = VDD − Vb − VT2 2 1 + λ p (VDD − V01 ) 2 L1 2 L2 ( ) ( )[ ] KCL I D1 = I D2 • Small variations due to process (or to the input) could force the operations in III to move to regions II or IV.

in ID1 and ID2 . Since this error can not be produced. this results in Vo = 4V. We will study techniques to force ΔI close to zero. M2 is forced into triode region region. is given by Vo=(Ip . Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) .What is the effect of mismatch between the p-type current source and the n-type current source? Ip I p .In) ro = Δ IRo For instance for ΔΙ=15μΑ and ro = 266 kΩ.In In rop Vo ron ro = rop // ron Vo due to the transistor mismatches.

Vo + Vo+ .Vo + Vb .Vo + VinVb Vin+ .Vo + VB Vin+ + .Examples of voltage amplifiers types • Single-Input Single-Output Amplifiers Vb Vin Vo MD R Vin MD Vo Vref Vin + Ib MD Vo Vo M2 MD Is M4 Ic M3 Vc Vin MD Ib2 Vb Ib1 Vo Vin • Pseudo Differential Amplifiers Vin+ Vin+ .Vo + VB Fully-Differential y Vb3 Vin + Vin.Vo + Vin- Vin + Vb2 VinVb4 .

• FD amplifiers consist of common source circuits embedded in differential pairs. the properties of the single-input common source circuits are part of the FD amplifiers amplifiers. VDD RD Vin+ M1 Vo + M1’ ISS RD VinVin + M2 + Vo Vin+ M1 VDD M2’ + M1’ ISS Vin- Vb Vo Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) . Thus.How is the common source amplifier related to common-mode feedback? • Fully differential (FD) circuits need common-mode feedback to operate properly and to fix the DC of the output nodes.

Duque-Carrillo.Vo + VDD M2 M2’ P+ Vin - • CM Levels depend on how close IDM2 and IDM2’ are to ISS/2. • In practice ISS is implemented by a NMOS current source. and similarly for M2 and M2’ by means of a PMOS current = VDD − I SS R D / 2 • For the case of a current source load implemented by PMOS transistors M2 and M2 the common-mode level is not well M2’ common mode defined.e.F.• In a number of applications the inputs and output are short circuited. M1’ ISS Vb2 M3 Reference. • These two current sources are not ideal creating a finite error between ID. No. Analog Integrated and Signal Processing.. “ Control of the Common-Mode Component in CMOS Continuous-Time Fully Differential Signal Processing. 4. Vb Vin+ M2 PM1 . pp131-140.-J. M2’ and ISS/2. M2. i. for the load resistor RD.2. Vin + + Vo input and output common-mode levels is well defined Vo. the p . 1993 .Vol. • From previous slide. Sept.

and P+. DM2’. so that their drain currents remain ISS/2. then Vp.Effects of drain current mismatches on the DC output voltage: An example of a FD “resistor equivalent”: VDD W L P+ M1 M1’ W L M M2 MB2 PM1 M2’ + - + P- Vo P+ - Vo + Rb MB3 W L W 2 L M3 ISS Suppose that the drain currents of M2 and M2’ (in the saturation region) are slightly smaller than ISS/2. to satisfy KVL at nodes P.and Vp+ must drop forcing M3 to enter in triode region. Also if drain currents of M2 and M2 are slightly greater than M2’ ISS/2 then both M2 and M2’ must enter into the triode region. Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) . producing only 2IDM2.

p p • Op Amps in open loop yield VDD Vo = or -VSS Fortunately. This is the case of Single-Ended Differential Amplifiers (Op Amps and OTAs). − VR Closed-Loop Negative Feedback Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) .Closed loop negative feedback effects on the DC output voltage • The high impedance nodes are difficult to fix their DC operating points.dc for symmetric power supplies. operating point. Linear Applications of single ended circuits are based on negative feedback and this feedback circuitry also fixes the DC feedback. R2 R1 V+ A Vo Vo = A (0 .V-) o 1 but V = R1 + R 2 and Vo dc = 0 o. i.e..

Yielding maximum output voltage swing and (maximum) differential voltage gain. V + . Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) .dm R1 + R 2 Therefore Vo.(well defined) d But = be set? Determined? Output Vo+ This i th Thi is the region where Vo.= A (V+ .Vo. Vo.I/0 characteristics of a FD = 0 if V+ = = 1/2 (Vo+ + Vo-) = ? (undefined) Where should the value of i h must be fixed.V-) R1 = Vo+ .VSlew Region Linear Region Slew Region Vo- I/0 characteristics of a FD Amplifier.

Differential i. y — Avoid injection of CM signals to nodes of the amplifier which do not correct the hi h d h 2 Vo. + − Vo + Vo = Vo. Amplifier Vin ( (H1) Vo VCMC CM (H ) 2 Level + Sense Circuit CM Detector Reference Voltage g H3 Vcorrection — Comparison with a voltage reference i. • Basic Operations Vin+ Vo+ Fully — Sensing the output CM − Vref — Injecting the error correcting level to the amplifier bias circuitry. Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) Conceptual Architecture of Common-Mode Feedback Stability requires to have negative feedback: PHASE (H1H2H3) < 135º FOR ω < ω u is usually fixed by an additional negative (common-mode) feedback circuit such that the differential voltage gain is maximized.

the CMF architecture could be represented as follows: Viin+ VinFully ll Differential Amplifier ICMC CM Sense + Current Amp + Iref + Transconductance Level Sense Circuit CM Sense Current Amp S C A io+ Icmc MY’ MX’ Iref MY MX ioVoicm Vo+ Vo+ Vo- A conceptual current mode implementation of Level Sense Circuit. CM Sense Current Amplifier (Comparator) .If the output signals are current signals.

A Simple CM Feedback Without Reference VDD M10 VCM M11 Vo1 Output O t t Branch CORE OP AMP Output Branch Vo2 • • • • Simple Si l approach h Core Op Amp can be a two-stage. folded cascode or other Needs higher power supply Sacrifices output voltage swing. swing .

Oxford p Output Branch .EXAMPLE OF LOCAL CM FEEDBACK WITHOUT REFERENCE TWO-STAGE AMPLIFIER VDD + M10 Vcm M3 VBP - M11 M4 M7 M6 Vo1 CZ RZ M1 M2 RZ CZ 2 Vo v i+ v i− M9 + VBN - M5 M8 p Output Branch Reference. Holberg 2nd Edition . E. Allen and D. P. R. CMOS Analog Circuit Design.

dm + α 3v CM Detector 2 VoR1 IB1 R2 Vo+ ΔR ΔI B Δβ + + ΔR 1 2R 4I B 4β α2 = + ⋅ 4R 8 βI B 2 2R + βI B 1 ⋅ 8 βI B ΔVT + ΔI B 2I B 2I B 2 α1 = 1 o . No. Analog Integrated and Signal Processing.2. 1993 . “ Control of the Common-Mode Component in CMOS Continuous-Time Fully Differential Signal Processing. pp131-140.F. + α 2vo . Sept.Vol.CM signal detectors : two conventional cases Performance Observations • High DC offset due to source followers • Oth buff s can be used t Other buffers n b us d to reduce the DC offset • Mismatching between the passive resistors is the dominant error in α2 VS = α1vo . dm VS IB2 ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ I B ⎜ 2R + ⎜ βI B ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 α3 = ⋅ ⋅ 2 I B 8 βI B ⎛ ⎜ 2R + 2 ⎜ βI B ⎝ + β 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 CM Detector 3 VoVo+ α1 = 1 α2 = β Δβ ΔVT + ⋅ 4β 4 IB 1 β 8 IB VS • High DC offset • Highly non-linear CM signal detector α3 = J. Duque-Carrillo.

0.4 dB σ=8.2 .2 dB σ=11.Amplifier performance with CM control by current steering.5 dB WC=33.22 % A folded amplifier as an example of a FD amplifier l f lf To gates of M1AM1B Vref Vo + Vo Vbias mean=22.5 dB WC=23 dB 1.3 0. .7 dB 1.015 % Low-distortion CM steering loop.05 % Vi+ MA M4C MB Vi- M3A Vbias5 To gates of M1AM1B Vref + Vo CM detector Vo 3 mean=20 dB σ 9.06 % To gates of M1AM1B + Vo Vref Vo Vbias To gates of M1AM1B + Vo Vref Vo Vbias mean=9. STRUCTURE * ADC ACM GBWCM = ADM GBWDM THD ± 1V p − p @ 100KHz M1A M2A VoM4A Vbias1 M1B Vo+ VDD To gates of M1AM1B Vref Vbias2 M2B Vbias3 M3B Vbias4 M4B VSS + Vo CM detector Vo 2 mean=8.1 0.2 dB 1.5 σ=9.6 dB WC=36.1 dB WC=21 dB 1.2 0.1 dB σ=9.

+ Vo1 1 Vcm Vo2 Vcm 2 VCMC VB1 + + VCMC VDD M5 VB1 M7 M25 ICMS VCM M10 Vo2 Vi1 C M9 M1 M2 VB2 Vi2 C Vo1 M21 M22 M23 M24 M3 M4 M6 M26 VB3 M27 VB3 -VSS op amp CM sense .Example of a compensated Op Amp and a CM sense circuit Vi1 Vi2 + .

We will discuss the advantages and limitations of this feed-forward versus the common-mode feedback. Next we consider two examples. . Then this input common-mode current is p pp added at each of the two output terminals (or applied to an internal node of the amplifier) with the purpose to cancel the output common-mode current component. one with a BiCMOS OTA implementation and another one with a fully balanced fully symmetric CMOS OTA.What is a common mode feed forward common-mode feed-forward correction circuit ? A common mode feed-forward circuit is a circuit sensing the input voltage.

d = g md Vcm − Vin / 2 Vin + + I 0 = I C . d = g md Vcm + Vin / 2 − + I C . IEEE Trans. d − I C = g md Vin / 2 − − I 0 = I C . (a) Conceptual idea (b) BiCMOS implementation cancellation idea.d Cancellation of the output common mode current signal + I0 − I0 IC gmc (a) gmd = gmc Note that the output of gmc has two identical current copies I C = g mc Vcm + − Vin = Vcm + Vin / 2 I0 − VC Vin = Vcm − Vin / 2 + I C . A. Rezzi. November 1995. . pp 896-903. 42. Baschiroto. d − I C = − g md Vin / 2 + I0 Vbias ( ( ) ) M1 ⎛ W⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L⎠ M2 ⎛ W⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠ − Vin M1 ⎛ W⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2L⎠ M2 (b) Pseudodifferential BiCMOS transconductor with feed-forward common-mode cancellation.d − I C.+ Vin − Vin gmd + IC. [*] F. “A 3V 12-55 MHz BiCMOS Pseudo Differential Continuous-Time Filter”. Castello. Circuits Systems I. and R. implementation. vol.

In practice the value of aIo is a = 1 or a = 1/2.-Vin+) . respectively. and Io.are equal to gmDRIVER (Vin+. FD OTA . Consider a fully differential OTA with two current-mirrors aIo+ aIo- Vcm Io Vo+ Vin+ Vin- Io Vo- Icm level sensing circuit Ibias Itaill Ibias CM correcting Sense Amp signal Iref • Correcting signal can be voltage or current. That is. respectively. we are sensing the input voltage. voltage voltage • aIo+ and aIo. Note that Io+.Let us explore how a common-mode feedforward can be sensed and then applied.Vin-) and gmDRIVER( Vin.are copies of Io+ and Io-. We are not sensing the output voltage.

FD OTA with common-mode feedforward (current-mode) M3 io VoVinVcm MX’ MY’ Vb Vb MY Vin+ M4 io M2 M2 M3 io + Vo+ M4 io + Vcm MX current addition transformed into a Vcm • Since Vreference = 0. MY’ Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) . Vcorrection = Vcm and can be applied to MY and MY.

FD OTA CMFF (current-mode) M4 M3 M2 M2 M3 M4 ioVoVinM1 M1 Vin+ io+ Vo+ MY’ MX’ MX MY • OTA FD CMFF Implementation (Self-Bias) Analog and Mixed-Signal Center (AMSC) .

previous = Vin+ Vo-. any other amplifier connected to this amplifier does not need the extra CMFB. p • Furthermore.Common feedback of more than one amplifier and their interconnections • Observe that only one CMFB circuit is needed per output.e. the Fully Balanced 4 current-mirror OTA p p Complete Amplifier 1 Complete Amplifier 2 p p Vin1+ Vin1- CommonMode Feedforward Detector Vo+.. An example of this type has been discussed before i. If the Amp 1 is connected with a CMFB. in some architectures the CM detector is a feedforward and forms part of the amplifier. previous = Vin- CommonMode Feedforward Detector Vo+ Vo- Vcm .

g m5 Vin + g m1 g m2 V1 g m3 I1 1 2 g m4 Vx=Vcm + g m6 - Io1 + Ving m1 g m2 V2 g m3 I2 g m5 g m6 - + Io2 Block Bl k Diagram Representation VDD M3 I1 I1 + I 2 2 Vref Vo+ M7 Io1 I1 − I 2 2 M5 V1 I1 vin+ M2 I1 M1 M2 I2 M1 V2 M3 I2 I2 M5 I 2 − I1 2 M7 Vref Vo - vin - Io2 M4 M6 I1 + I 2 2 VCMFB M8 M6 M4 Vx M8 VCMFB (from next stage) NEXT OTA IS DETECTING THE COMMON MODE FROM THIS OTA AND FEEDING BACK TO THIS OTA .

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): a) CMFF b) CMFB c) CMFB & CMFF .

Transient Response .

Total Harmonic Distortion ( g (Single-ended) ) .

Total Harmonic Distortion ( (Double-ended) ) .

COMMON-MODE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS: Characterization and Simulation Merged Amplifiers Ideal Response Vi Vi − + + + - H1 ' H1 . VREF VS . v s = α 1vo . cm + α 2 vo . dm H2 + CM Detector + Fully Differential Amplifier With Common-Mode Feedback Analog and Mixed-Signal Center TAMU (ESS) . cm . dm + α 3 vo . Vo+ Vo− 1 α1 = 2 Taking into account mismatches on the ' Amplifiers H1 and H1yields: 2 v s = α 1vo .

effective ≅ ACD ff i .cm Using MASON’s Rule LGCM = ASC ACS LG DM = ASD ADS Δ LGCM = ACS ASD Δ LG DM = ADS AS D = 1 − LGCM − LG DM ADD (1 − LGCM ) + ADC Δ LGCM ≅ ADD D A (1 − LG DM ) + ACD Δ LG DM ACC . Note here that the notation is changed to α1 = ACS . effective = ACD . ASC ADS ACS ADC Vi. α 2 = ADS Vi.effective = CC D ADS ADC . effective ≅ − ADD ACS ADD .Let assume the linearized ideal case α1 ≠ 0. α 3 = 0 and α 2 ≠ .cm ACD ACC ADD ASD vs Vo.

dm . 2 2 2 1 α 3 ASD ACL HD3 ≅ 2 2 2 LGCM LG DM . α1 = ACS It can be shown that: vi .ex ACL = gm f .To investigate the non-linear effects. dm = vi cos ωt 1 α 3 ASD ACL HD2 ≅ Vi 2 LGCM LG DM .cm + α 3vo . assume α1 ≠ + ASC vs where vs ≅ ACS vo .ex = f ADD Analog and Mixed-Signal Center TAMU (ESS) .dm + ASD vs vo . Thus vo .cm vi . α 3 ≠ 0 and α 2 = 0. dm gm Σ FD with CMFB f vo. The following expressions can be approximated.ex LG DM .cm = ADC g mv i .dm − ADC f vo . dm vo .dm − ADD f vo .dm = ADD g m vi . .

H1H 2 H 3 < 1 H CM + H3 VREF = VCM In Common .COMMON-MODE FEEDBACK LOOP + Vin − Vin + Fully Differential p Amplifier H1 + + Vo − Vo + CommonMode Detector + vocm vCM.Mode H1CM H1CM ( s ) VOC = = = ' ' VinC 1 + H1H 2 H 3 1 + H1 ( s ) H 2 ( s ) H 3 ( s ) H DM = H1 ' • Stability determined by open loop H1H x H 3 • H3 is the CM-sense (or comparator) Amplifier.control = vCMC H2 (vOCM − VCM ) • Negative Feedback. • Goal to force vOCM = VREF .Mode In Differential .

' • H1 is defined as the gain between input vCMC and the output Vo+ − Vo− i.e. two examples ( ) VDD Vbias + vin − vin Vo+ Vo− VFIX determines the current for vCMC = 0. − VSS A Simple Fully-Differential Op Amp VDD Vbi 1 bias vCMC VFIX Vbias2 Vo+ Vbias3 vi+ • Inherent CM detector vOCM vi− Vbias2 Vo− Vbias3 • vOCM ≅ −VGS ? vCMCV − VSS A Simplified Folded-Cascode Fully Differential Op Amp .

e.- CM Detector + - Differential-Mode.- H i Vo− cm CM Detector + - H2 i.STABILITY REMARKS • The poles of the common-mode feedback are given by the open loop gain ' H1 ( s ) H 2 ( s ) H 3 ( s ) • The bandwidth of the common-mode gain and the differential-mode gain. common mode differential mode gain • For differential inputs in an ideal amplifier vind 2 vind − 2 Vo+ Vo− + + . How to simulate this D-M? Vref Common-Mode H CM = H1CM ' 1 + H1H 2 H 3 H1 vicm + + . H 2 = 1 2 H3 Vref f .

cm + - Vref Analog and Mixed-Signal Center TAMU (ESS) . V − ocm L CM Detector + - v i . .How to check stability of this loop? + - + - + Vocm . L .

+ VC IB IB VREF IB IB VSS VDD IB IB IB IB Vo VinMC IB IB IB IB Vin+ GND R1 M1 IB R1 M1 IB VSS Pseudo-differential OTAs including the CMFB for the first one with good PSRR . The common-mode voltage is b i d f i obtained from the input of h i f the following stage. Poor PSRR Vin+ Vin.LV CMFB FOR OTAS VB1 IB IB IB IB VDD VB2 Typical OTA connection in i l i i fully differential OTA-C based circuits.






Final Remarks • DC operating points for high impedances are difficult to fix • Fully differential amplifiers with high output impedance nodes must use common-mode feedback circuits . common mode • Common mode circuits can fix the DC operating points as well as eliminate th common m d output component. • Common mode circuits for LV should be used both at the input and output . ll s limi t the mm mode tp t mp t • Low voltage constraints impose optimal bias conditions at p p both the input and output ports of an amplifier.