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Carbohydrate-2 Polysaccharides

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Some Properties
Storage: starch, glycogen Structural: chitin, cellulose Cellular recognition, communication Also called glycans: Homopolysaccharides: glucans (only glucose), mannans (only mannose) Heteropolysaccharides Possible linkage: 1,2; 1,3; 1,4; 1,6 Linear, branch α or β
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Some Polysaccharides Structural: Cellulose and chitin Storage: Starch and Glycogen 3 .

1 4 β-D-Glucose-(1 4)-β-D-Glucose-(1 4)-... 4 .

Cellulose Structural Model 5 .

1 4 6 .

4) and α(1. starch is hydrolyzed by α-amylase Glycogen Glycogen is the storage polysaccharides in animals Glycogen is like amylopectin. α(1.6) glucose In animals. left-handed helix Amylopectin (90-70%).Starch Principal carbohydrate reserve in plants Mixture of glucans. but more highly branched Degraded by glycogen phosphorylase 7 . branched α(1. Composition: α-amylose (10-30%).4) glucose.

α-Amylose 8 Amylopectin .

Glycoproteins Proteins that are covalently associated with carbohydrates Glycoprotein carbohydrate chains are highly diverse Bacterial cell walls are framework of peptidoglycans 9 .

10 Peptidoglycan framework in bacterial cell wall .

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Major Carbohydrate Pathways Glycogen related Glycogen ↔ Glucose (Green) Glucose related Glucose ↔ Others (Red) Other ↔ Other (Yellow. Blue) Other related Other ↔ Other (Purple) 13 .

1.3-BPG DHAP FBP F6P GAP G1P G6P Glc PEP Pi PPi Pyr UTP UDPG .3-bisphosphoglycerate .3-phosphoglycerate .Uridine triphosphate .Abbreviations 2PG 3PG ADP ATP 1.2-phosphoglycerate .Inorganic pyrophosphate .Phosphoenolpyruvate .Glucose-1-phosphate .Uridine diphosphate-glucose 14 .Glucose .Adenosine tri phosphate .Dihydroxyacetonephosphate .Fructose-6-phosphate .Glucose-6-phosphate .Phosphate .6-bisphosphate .Adenosine diphosphate .Fructose-1.Pyruvate .Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate .

In animals. Epinephrine Where is it taking place: Cytosol 15 . Muscles cannot mobilize fat as fast as glycogen 2. Fatty acids cannot be metabolized anaerobically 3. Glucagon.Glycogen Metabolism (Green Label) Why do we need glycogen in the place of fat: 1. fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose Storage of glycogen: Liver and muscle Important hormones involved: Insulin.

4)-glycosyl transferase) (b) Release the last sugar from branch point (amylo-α(1. Glycogen (n residues) + Pi Glycogen (n-1) + G1P Glycogen phosphorylase From non-reducing ends Stop when only 4 sugar units (Limit branch/dextrin) 2.6)glucosidase) 3.Glycogenolysis (degradation) 1. Glycogen debranching enzyme (a) Transfer of three sugars from limit branch to another (α(1. G1P G6P G6P (Phosphoglucomutase) Glc (Gluco-6-phosphatase) 16 .

Glycogenolysis (degradation) Part-a 17 .

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Glycogenolysis (degradation) Part-b 19 .

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Glycogenesis (Formation) 1.4 1. Glycogen (n) + 3. Glycogen branching 21 .6)-glycosyl transferase) 2. Glc + ATP G6P G1P G1P + UTP G6P + ADP (Hexokinase) (Phosphoglucomutase) UDPG + PPi (UDPG pyrophosphorylase) UDPG Glycogen (n+1)(Glycogen synthase) (α-(1.

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