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LSM_1101 Biochemistry of Biomolecules Semester-1 (2009-10

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A/P Kunchithapadam SWAMINATHAN (SWAMI)

Dept. of Biological Sciences National University of Singapore
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Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbohydrates

2h 4h 4h

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Nucleic Acids

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Baby making movie 4 .

Topics in nucleic acids I Genetics II Structures III Concepts / Applications 5 .

Evolution 6 .I.

Beginning of genetics Generation dependent genetic variation is very important 7 .

8 when co-injected into mice. .Magic of DNA (transforming principle of DNA) Non-pathogenic (R-form) and virulent (S-form) but heat treated bacteria. could kill the mice.

9 .Chromosomal theory of genetics A portion of the genetic map of a chromosome.

Nucleic acid structure 10 .II.

Prokaryotic cell Nucleic acid distribution in a prokaryotic cell. Note that DNA has no special envelope. 11 .

Eukaryotic cell Nucleic acid distribution in a eukaryotic cell. 12 . Note that DNA has a special envelope.

They inject their DNA / RNA into their hosts.Viral genome Viruses contain nucleic acids. 13 .

Chromosomes DNA is compactly packed as chromosomes 14 .

Chromosome P Q Chromatid Telomere Centromere The close-up view of a chromosome 15 .

Gene location 16 .

Chromatin. Histones undergo chemical modifications to yield to transcription. nucleosome and histone core DNA is wound around the histone core. H3. 17 . H2B. an octamer of H2A. H4 proteins.

The anatomy of DNA Major groove Minor groove 18 .

RNA and DNA The anatomy of a nucleotide 19 .

DNA chain The formation of a DNA chain 20 .

DNA base-pairing Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Base-pair geometry 21 .

base-pair and stacking geometry Some geometrical definitions in a basepair and adjacent basepairs 22 .DNA base.

B-DNA 23 .

B-DNA View down the helical axis 24 .

A-DNA 25 .

A-DNA View down the helical axis 26 .

Z-DNA 27 .

Z-DNA View down the helical axis 28 .

B and Z.DNA 29 .Comparison of A.

The supercoil is unwound for transcription by some enzymes. 30 .Supercoiled DNA DNA in a chromosome is normally arranged in a supercoiled conformation.

Supercoiled DNA The number of coils in a circular piece of circular DNA cannot be changed without opening the strand(s) L=T+W L = Linking number T = twist (no. of basepairs / 10) W = writhing number 31 -Biochemistry (Stryer) .

RNA mRNA – Messenger RNA rRNA – Ribosomal RNA tRNA – Transfer RNA RNAs are also an important class of nucleic acids 32 .