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1a. Membrane 1b. Fluid mosaic model Membrane proteins Erythrocyte 2a. Transport across membrane 2b. Lipid molecules 2b. Lipid metabolism


Freeze etching of membrane

Freeze etching of membrane

Membrane contains several molecules

One of the embedded molecules is an integral protein molecule

Hydrophobic tail

Lipid molecules are oriented in water

a. Single tailed lipid, with tapered van der Walls envelope b. Spheroidal micelle c. More than optimal number of lipids will form unfavorable water filled center d. Such micelles flatten to collapse the hollow center, but develop water filled spaces

a. Cylindrical van der Waals envelop of phospholipids b. Forms extended disklike micelles, described as lipid bilayers

Transverse movement of lipid molecules is very rare


Temperature controls lipid molecules


Membrane contains several small lipid molecules also


Membrane Properties
Lipid bilayer with transmembrane proteins These proteins decide the membrane function Each living cell and organelle will have its own function Structure of the membrane is also unique


Composition of Membrane
Membrane Mouse liver cells Human erythrocyte Mitochondrion Outer membrane Inner membrane Gram-positive bacteria Protein 46 49 52 76 75 Lipid Carbohydrate 54 43 48 24 25 2-4 8 2-4 1-2 10


Lipid Composition of Membrane

Lipid Human Erythrocyte 1.5 19 18 0 0 17.5 10 25 Human Myelin 0.5 10 20 0 0 8.5 26 26 E. coli 0 0 65 18 12 0 0 0

Phosphatidic acid Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylehanolamine Phosphatidylglycerol Cardiolipin Sphingomyelin Glycolipids Cholesterol


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5 3 4

Functions of Membrane
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Delineation and compartmentalization Organization and localization of functions Transport Signal detection Cell-to-cell communication


a. Delineation and compartmentalization

Membrane acts as a barrier for hydrophilic molecules Keeps essential substances inside the cell and keeps the undesirable substances out Intracellular membranes serve to compartmentalize function within eukaryotic cells


b. Organization and Localization of Function

Inner membranes of mitochondrion role in respiration Thylakoid membranes of chloroplast role in photosynthesis Endoplasmic reticulum site of synthesis of biomolecules (protein, lipids)


c. Transport
Regulate movement of substances into and out of the cell and organelles Different types of transport (active transport, passive transport, endocytosis, exocytosis)


d. Cell-to-Cell Communication
In animal cells gap junctions In plant cells - plasmodesmata


e. Signal Detection
Electrical and chemical signal received at cell outer surface Plasma membrane plays a key role in signal transduction (through ligand-receptor interaction and followed by events on the inner surface of the membrane)