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Fluid-Mosaic Model
Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson, 1972 Fluid: Lipid components are in constant motion, capable of lateral diffusion Mosaic: Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer

Fluid-Mosaic Properties
Freedom of motion of membrane components, especially lipid molecules and some proteins Chain length, degree of unsaturation of fatty acids and amount of cholesterol present affect the membrane fluidity Some organisms compensate for temperature changes through lipid composition alteration, known as homeoviscous adaptation

Cell Fusion
(a) Tag proteins of membranes of two cells, human and mouse, with fluorescent antibodies Induce cell fusion through membrane encapsulated Sendai virus (b) Photomicrograph shows separate colors (c) After about 40 minutes, we see mixed colors, indicating that the proteins have intermingled

Membrane Protein
Membrane proteins may move laterally; some may be restricted if they are anchored to the cytoskeleton Two broad categories: Integral proteins Peripheral proteins

Integral (or intrinsic) membrane proteins: Possesses hydrophobic regions, with affinity for the interior of the lipid bilayer The hydrophilic regions extend outward to the aqueous environment Some proteins, known as transmembrane proteins, span the membrane. The number of segments and orientation vary according to function Proteins not easily removed

Peripheral (or extrinsic) proteins: No discrete hydrophobic sequences Do not penetrate into lipid bilayer Weak interaction with membrane and easily removed

Bacteriorhodopsin - Transmembrane helices

An all helical membrane protein

Hydropathy Plot
Indicates which region is hydrophilic and hydrophobic I V L F C M A 4.5 4.2 3.8 2.8 2.5 1.9 1.8 G T S W Y P H E Q D N K R -0.4 -0.7 -0.8 -0.9 -1.3 -1.6 -3.2 -3.5 -3.5 -3.5 -3.5 -3.9 -4.5

Outer membrane protein F - barrel

An all beta membrane protein

Liver cytochrome b5 Partial association

Some membrane proteins are only partially buried


No organelles and minimum function; well characterized Its biconcave shape facilitates O2 diffusion to hemoglobin Membrane contains several proteins The blood groups (A, B, AB, O) are marked by presence of A, B antigens (components of erythrocyte surface sphingoglycolipids), both antigens or no antigen respectively

Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins

Erythrocyte as a case study