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Research made easy JP Bruwer

REFERENCING While doing my Masters-degree in Internal Auditing, I was fortunate to be supervised by one of the best (if not the best) in the world, namely Professor Watkins. Besides being my supervisor, he also fulfilled the role of ‘mentor’ where he ‘drilled’ in the Harvard Referencing method into my head. At the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, majority of researchers make use of the Harvard Referencing when completing their respective research projects (both graduate and postgraduate. The Harvard Referencing model, as taught to me by Professor Watkins, is expanded upon below in detail underneath the following headings, namely: Books Journals/Magazines Published research papers Unpublished research papers Secondary sources Government Gazettes Laws/Acts Dissertations/Theses Newspaper articles Internet

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New York: Grand central publishing. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . Bibliographic reference: Referencing from one book (two authors): Citation inside sentence: According to Kiyosaki and Lechter (2003:15). most people have a misperception of money. 2003.Research made easy JP Bruwer BOOKS Referencing from one book (one author): Citation inside sentence: According to Baron (2007:14). Durban: Lexisnexis Butterworths. Baron. Perfect personality profiles. (Kiyosaki & Lechter 2003:15). & Lechter. Stiglingh and Venter (2006:3). & Venter. R.J. Value Added Tax form part of indirect taxation. Bibliographic reference: Hamel. human personalities can be broken down into a number of domains. 2006:3). E. Citation at the end of a sentence: Most people have a misperception about money.. London: Random House Books. 2006. Stiglingh & Venter. Citation at the end of a sentence: Value Added Tax forms part of indirect taxation (Hamel. 2007. H. The cashflow quadrant. Stiglingh. Referencing from one book (three authors): Citation inside sentence: According to Hamel. S. Citation at the end of a sentence: Human personalities can be broken down into a number of domains (Baron. M. 2007:14). ’n Studentebenadering tot inkomstebelasting. Bibliographic reference: Kiyosaki.

C. a person’s attitude inner feelings that are projected outward which can be either positive or negative. Bibliographic reference: Maxwell. accounting is the ‘language’ of the business world. Kleynhans. Koornhoff. positive or negative. Referencing from one book (various page numbers): Citation inside sentence: According to Maxwell (2008:2-4). 2008. 2005:2). K. L... Bibliographic reference: Flynn. accountants should be proficient in this ‘language’. Cape Town: Juta. et al. D. et al. Meyer and Posthumus (2005:2).. Meyer & Posthumus. & Posthumus. 2008:2-4). Koornhoff. The difference maker. Citations thereafter: According to Flynn. Citation at the end of a sentence: First citation: Accounting is the ‘language’ of the business world (Flynn. Kleynhans. 2005:2). can be described as inner feelings that are being projected outwards (Maxwell.Research made easy JP Bruwer Referencing from one book (more than three authors): Citation inside sentence: First citation: According to Flynn. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved .. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Kleynhans. (2005:16).. Citation at the end of a sentence: Any person’s attitude. 2005. Meyer L. J. Citations thereafter: Accountants should be proficient in the ‘language’ of accounting (Flynn. Fundamental accounting. Koornhoff.

success is all about having the correct mindset. 2008:8). Citation at the end of a sentence: A business is a clear reflection of its owner’s personality which fall within one of 16 possible personality types (Gerber. one must first know oneself before one can change their mindset. Mentoring 101. The e-myth revisited. Citation at the end of a sentence: Success is all about having the correct mindset (Maxwell. Bibliographic reference: Maxwell. J. M. 2007. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . Success 101. 208:1). H. 2008b. According to Baron (2007:18).Research made easy JP Bruwer Referencing from more than one book (different authors. New York: Harper Business Bibliographic reference: Referencing from more than one book (same author. J. Maxwell. 1995:5) (Baron. Gerber. 2008a. London: Random House Books. … only be achieved by can knowing your inner-self first (Maxwell. 1995. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. different year and different books): Citation inside sentence: According to Gerber (1995:5). 2007:18) Baron. According to Maxwell (2008b:1). Perfect personality profiles. any person can be classified into one of 16 personality types. a business is a vivid reflection of its owner’s personality. same year and different books): Citation inside sentence: According to Maxwell (2008a:8).

R. 2001:145). 2001. 2003:121.Research made easy JP Bruwer Referencing from more than one book (same author. 2003. different year and different books): Citation inside sentence: According to Kiyosaki and Lechter (2003:121). (Kiyosaki & Lechter 2003:121). & Lechter. Or: According to Kiyosaki and Lechter (2003:121. & Lechter. Citation at the end of a sentence: All people can be categorised in one of seven investment groups. Or: All people can be classified as a ‘type’ of investor which can improve accordingly by means of financial education (Kiyosaki and Lechter. According to Kiyosaki and Lechter (2001:145). Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . people can be categorised in one of seven investor-groups which can improve by means of financial education. New York: Warner Books Kiyosaki. New York: Grand central publishing. S. 2001:145) Bibliographic reference: Kiyosaki. Rich dad poor dad. S. The cashflow quadrant. people can be categorised as one of seven investors. R. money skills can be taught. … every person can enhance their financial education (Kiyosaki & Lechter. 2001:145).

G. 24(5):18-24. Strategy and Leadership October. Volume number of journal/magazine. Citation at the end of a sentence: Staff should only be held responsible for work actually done in working-hours (Fisher. To explain the last section inside the bibliographic row. To explain the last section inside the bibliographic row. & Norton. 2009:34). D. please refer to the following: 24: (5): 18-24: October 1996: Volume of journal/magazine. Date of publication Referencing from magazine: Citation inside sentence: According to Fisher (2009:34). April. Date of publication Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . 1996:20). Page numbers inside journal/magazine. please refer to the following: 24: 34-37: April: Volume of journal/magazine. Bibliographic reference: Fisher. Entrepreneur. 37:34-37. 1996. R. strategic Learning and the Balanced Scorecard. Citation at the end of a sentence: The balanced scorecard framework betters all business processes (Kaplan & Norton. October 1996. staff should only be held accountable from what they have actually delivered in working-hours.Research made easy JP Bruwer JOURNALS/MAGAZINES Referencing from journal: Citation inside sentence: According to Kaplan and Norton (1996:20). Page numbers inside journal/magazine. the balanced scorecard framework should excel all business processes. Bibliographic reference: Kaplan. Moving towards a results-only environment. 2009.

published research papers will be referenced as in the case of journal articles. This publication will normally be published in a journal full of other publication by other authors. Hence. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved .Research made easy JP Bruwer PUBLISHED RESEARCH PAPERS After a researcher has finished conducting their research. they normally write a paper for publication.

Ms Saaiman.Research made easy JP Bruwer UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH PAPERS Citation inside sentence: According to Bruwer. K. Faculty of Business. the lack of accounting knowledge and financial difficulties are mainly responsible for SMME failures. & Reagan. SMME sustainability mini thesis (Unpublished research material cited in terms of the written approval of Mr Bruwer. Soeker and Reagan. Soeker. South Africa. (2008:11). Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . Cape Peninsula University of Technology. S.. Saaiman. J. Bibliographic reference: Bruwer. Citation at the end of a sentence: The lack of accounting knowledge and financial difficulties are to blame for SMME failures (Bruwer. Soeker & Reagan 2008:11). A. Mr Soeker and Mr Reagan). Saaiman. Saaiman. 2008..

cited by Bloom (2009:62). July. Citation at the end of a sentence: Government funding institutions have had little success in recent times (Herrington (2009). (citing Bloom 2009). South Africa: Advancing or inhibiting entrepreneurs. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . 2009. K. Government funding institutions have had little success in recent times.Research made easy JP Bruwer SECONDARY SOURCES Citation inside sentence: According to Herrington (2009). Entrepreneur. Bibliographic reference: Bloom. 36:62.

To explain the last section inside the bibliographic row. Government Gazette. please refer to the following: 474: 34-37: Dec. Small business amendment act No. 2004:4). 15: Gazette volume number Page numbers inside journal/magazine. 29 of 2004. 15:4. Citation at the end of a sentence: Small businesses are regarded as either micro. small or medium. 2004. 474 (27101): Dec. Date of publication Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . small businesses are regarded as either micro.Research made easy JP Bruwer GOVERNMENT GAZETTES Citation inside sentence: According to the Government Gazette of 2004 (South Africa. 2004:4) Bibliographic reference: South Africa. small or medium in terms of the Government Gazette of 2004 (South Africa.

SMMEs can be classified by means of their employees. turnover or gross asset value (South Africa. Bibliographic reference: South Africa. Citation at the end of a sentence: SMMEs can be classified in terms of the number of tier employees. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . Small business amendment act No.Research made easy JP Bruwer LAWS/ACTS Citation inside sentence: According to the Small Business Act of 1996 No. 1996. 1996:8). Pretoria: Government Printer. 102 of 1996 (South Africa. 102 of 1996. 1996:8). turnover or gross asset value.

Research made easy JP Bruwer DISSERTATIONS/THESES Citation inside sentence: According to Bruwer (2010:69). J. Sustainability of South african FMGC Retail businesses in the cape peninsula. A dissertation submitted in full fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Magister Technologiae: Internal Auditing in the Faculty of Business at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Citation at the end of a sentence: Small businesses have difficulty analysing financial information (Bruwer: 2010:69). 2010. small businesses have difficulty in analysing financial information. Bibliographic reference: Bruwer. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved .

2008. 10:5 Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . hulp voor 2010. Bibliographic reference: Slabbert. KMMO’s verg baie werk. Die Burger. 2008:5). A. Nov. more than half of all small businesses were not well prepared for the Soccer World Cup. Citation at the end of a sentence: More than 50% of all small businesses were not ready for the Soccer World Cup (Slabbert.Research made easy JP Bruwer NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Citation inside sentence: According to Slabbert (2008:5).

za/index.iol. SMEs are feeling the pinch. Available from: www. B. Bibliographic reference: Jooste.Research made easy JP Bruwer INTERNET Citation inside sentence: According to Jooste (2008:Online). Citation at the end of a sentence: Most SMMEs were negatively effected by the recession (Jooste. the recession negatively affected most SMMEs.co. 2008:Online). [Online]. 2008.php?set _id=13&art_id=vn20081013054601261C397975 [Accessed 13/06/2009] Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved .

The key word is ‘practice’: Practice makes perfect.Research made easy JP Bruwer CONCLUSION In this section. Copyright ©2010 All rights reserved . but these above-mentioned sources are the most common ones used by researchers in a commercial field. you have been exposed to correctly reference 10 different sources based on the Harvard Reverencing method. and eventually the Harvard Referencing method will become ‘second nature’ to you. There are more types of sources which one can reference.