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# LSM1101 Tutorial 1 : pH and buffers 1. (a) What is the pH of a mixture of 5 ml of 0.1M sodium acetate and 4 ml of 0.

1M acetic
acid ? (pKa of acetic acid is 4.76). (b) What is the pH change upon the addition of 1 ml of (i) 0.1M HCl, and (ii) 0.1M NaOH to the mixture? (c ) What is the pH if 1 ml of (i) 0.1M HCl, and (ii) 0.1M NaOH is added to 9 ml of water?

2. Consider two solutions of lactic acid and sodium lactate (pKa, 3.86, total lactate, 0.1M).
Lactic Acid Sodium lactate A 0.05M 0.05M B 0.015M 0.085M

Calculate the pHs of buffer A and B. Add NaOH to each solution in an amount equivalent to 0.005M. What is the pH change in each of the solutions? What conclusions can you draw from these calculations? -max buffer capacity when [acid]=[salt], as seen when both are of equal amounts, pH=pKa -Buffer A is more resistant to changes in pH as compared to buffer B when 0.005M of NaOH is added.

3. Drug HX has a pKa of 6.5 is absorbed into the blood through the cells lining the stomach
(pH 1.5) and the upper small intestine (pH 6.0). Calculate the amount of X absorbed in each of the sites. Which is the major absorption route?

HX )aq) H+ (aq) + X- (aq) Ka= [H+][X-]/[HX] By Henderson Balch eqn: pH = pKa + log[base]/[acid] In stomach: 1.5 =6.5 + log[X-]/[HX] 1.0x10-5 = [X-]/[HX] % of X = [1x10-5/1+1x10-5] x 100%=1x10-3% Thus, % of HX approx=100% At Ph=6 6=6.5 + log [X-]/[HX] [X-]/[HX] = 0.316227766 % of HX= 1/1+0.316227766 x100%= 76%

4. The amino acid glycine is often used as the main ingredient of buffers in biochemical experiments. (a) What are the buffering groups of glycine? State their pKas. (b) In what range can glycine be used as an effective buffer due to its amino and carboxyl groups? (c) In a 0.1M solution of glycine at pH 9.0, what fraction of glycine has its amino group in the NH3+ form? (d) In order to have 99% of the glycine in its NH3+ form, what must the pH of the solution be?

## 5. One of the most useful buffers is tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethane (R3-C-NH2, where R

= CH2OH) (TRIS) with a pKa of 8.2. (a) Write the equilibrium expression for the ionization of Tris starting from the acidic form (b) What is the effective buffering range for TRIS ? (c) What is the ratio of the basic to acidic form of TRIS at pH 7.4 (d) What percent of TRIS is in the basic form at pH 7.4? (e) At pH 7.4, is TRIS a better buffer against acid or against base?