You are on page 1of 3
Methods-TimeMeasurement(MTM) Standardsin relation to the Ergos Work Simulator and Valpar Work SamPles any which analyzes manualoperationor methodinto is Measurement definedas a procedure Methods-Time which is time standard to the basicmotionsrequiredto perform it and assigns eachmotion a predetermined by determined the natureof the motion and the conditionsunderwhich it is made. usedto perform it: reaching,grasping, a of In the analyses work, MTM measures numberof basicelements the The analysisalso measures influenceon work turning, moving, positioning,applyingpressure. time and body, leg and foot eye-traveltime, eye-focus performance using two handssimultaneously, of: Eachelement a has andkneeling. stooping turning,bending, motionsincludingwalking,side-stepping, predetermined time standard. a The analysis of the methodsrequired to perform a specific work task or series of tasks establishes standard"time" in which the task(s)shouldbe completed. That time is the 100%MTM Standard. Performing a task in less than standard time means you have exceededthe 100% standard. And, conversely,taking more than the standardtime to perform it meansyou have not reachedthe 100% standard. of againstwhich the performance the individual worker is the The 100%MTM, then, becomes standard compared. the This type of comparisonis extremely important, for it measures capacity of a personto carry out a performingthat task. requiredfor work task againstthe standard is the then, becomes criterion againstwhich performance compared. The established standard, "standard by time" established the MTM analysisis based Now, an importantfactor to note here is that the to on the conceptthat sometraining time will be needed learn to perform the tasksto be able to reachthe standard; will not be attainedthe first time the task is performed. it This conceptis also referredto asthe learning cume of the work task. upon the diffrculty of the task. For example,learningand performing Training time will differ depending requiringonly reaching turningwill take lesstime than and to 100%standard simpleonestepoperation a a will learningand performingto 100%standard very complextask incorporatingseveralbasicelements including very precisework with little or no room for error. Another important factor related to MTM analysisis that the l00Yo MTM standardimplies "no errors". Very simply put, that meansperformingthe task requiredin the time requiredwithout making any errors. later in this section. We'll address issueof errorsas it relatesto vocationalassessment the MTM Analysis of Ergos Dexterity Testsand llork Samples the work taskscan also be usedto analyze work tasksrequiredto The MTM procedures usedto analyze complete dexteritytestsandwork samples. for or Basedon that analysis, standard a time canbe established completionof an entiretest or work sample, for that part of the test or work sample which is completed within a specified time period.The MTM analysis in made)needto be completed that time period for the how many items(holesfilled, assemblies determines 100%MTM standard. evaluee reachthe to Each Ergos test and each Work Sample has been analyzedusing MTM procedures.The evaluee's performance thosetestsis compared the MTM standards. on to MTM Standard and Errors and Valpar lVorh Samples has implies that the task analyzed beenperformedwithout erors. We statedearlier that the MTM standard Errors are not a consideration. being able to measurethe effect of errors related to the However, in the area of vocational assessment, evaluee's capacity to successfully carry out the tasks required in specific jobs, training programs, process. part of the assessment etc. workshops, is an important classrooms, production.Let's look at how that conceptworks. Rework Time is commonlyusedin industrymeasure a In an actualwork situation,a task mustbe completedwithout any errorsbefore it is considered finished parts in placecorrectly before it can be piecemusthaveall its product. For example,a specificassembled or used,or shipped, sold,etc. "reworked" in order for it incorrectly,the productis rejectedand mustbe If parts are missingor assembled The standards. time it takesto rework the product is, in effect, the time it takesto to reachacceptable overcomethe errorsmadein the original assembly. Now, if the rework time is addedto the time it took to completethe incorrect assemblyin the first place, product. to the total time usedwould be greaterthan the time standardestablished completean acceptable The in lessthan the 100%MTM standard. that Consequently, total time would result in completingthe task bottom line, as they say,is that productionis negativelyaffected. Using the concept of Rework Time to determinethe effect of errors on MTM standardsin completing resultsin the samesituationsas describedin the previousparagraphs. certain Work Samples For example,a Work Sampleneedsto be completedin a specific way. All its parts, or as many as can be correctly. time period, must be in place and assembled worked with within an established incorrectly,those"errors"needto be partsare missingor assembled If, when the task is completed, to capacity work at variouslevels. for accounted astheyrelateto the evaluee's time the ReworkTime factorsallowsto measure effectthat errorshaveon the recorded Using predetermined the for completing test or sample. Adding the time it would take to fix the errors to the time it takes to completethe test or samplein the first the placeresultsin a total time which now includes effectof errorson the MTM standard. Evaluation MTM Standardsand Ergos:ResidualFunctionalPhysicalCapacities The use of MTM Standards in the evaluationof an individual'sresidualfunctionalphysical capacitiesis as of they give an objectivemeasure thosecapacities they relateto the PhysicalDemands importantbecause factorsrequiredto carry out work. and,in tells you that the individualis performing at, aboveor belowthe MTM 100%Standard. The measure in the the eventof abovsandbelowperformances, measurealsotells you how far from the Standard either directionthe individual is. present to capacity carry out a specificPhysical That informationis directly relatedto the individual's Demandin a work situation. of Test Carryingan objectweighing25 poundsfor a distance 50 feet at For example, the ErgosStrength On for 100%standard established carrying the indicates that the individual is performing75o/obelow 25%llt.dTlll.l out that specificwork task. measured and can be are Each specific PhysicalDemandon Ergos for which MTM Standards appropriate objectivedatabasedetailingthe of in evaluated that manner,resultingin the development a comprehensive, individual's present residual functional physical capacitiesas they relate directly to work tasks in the labor market. competitive (PhysicalDemands) MTM Standards:Ergosand Identificationof Work HardeningCandidates 100% below the established On Ergoscarryingtasksthe individual !s pg{ormpS.?t +e 21% YTM' or 75%o to is i "flag" inlicating that shouldbe examined determineif a work Standard 25o/o St-Oia. The'acfrieved and/orfeasibleprogrcmis appropriate hardening performance needanswering: prior to makingthat decision, following questions relatedto the individual's the performance? 1. Is it differentfrom pre-injuryor disease medicalconditionandresultingphysicallimitations? 2. Is it consistentwith the present can be found in the review of the individual'smedical and work history. If The answerto both questions presentphysicalfunctioningrelatedto this task is at or near maximumand/or is not evidenceindicatesthe there is no need for a work hardeningprogram to increasethe different from past work performance, andits specificwork task. PhysicalDemand to individual'scapacity carry out this is that the performance consistent indicates programif evidence Also, thereis no needfor a work hardening relatedto the individual'sfunctioninglevel (e.g.,the individualcan lift up to 40 with the medicalinformation or involvement mobility problem). poundsandhasno armllegstrength If, on the other hand, evidenceindicatesthat Maximum PhysicalFunctioninghas not been achievedand for mobility problems,etc. do exist, the individual is a candidate a work hardeningprogramas it relatesto and specificwork task.EachTest,eachWork task on Ergoscan be setto the needsof this PhysicalDemand candidate. the work hardening on MTM Standards:Work HardeningProgram Development Ergos of are MTM Standards importantfactorsin the development individualizedwork hardeningprogramsonce have been identified. The objectivephysicalcapacitiesinformationthey provide relatedto the candidates physicalexercise formsthe basisfor establishing individual'scapacityto perform specificPhysicalDemands capacities. physicaltolerance work and to designed increase and/orwork regimeprograms in For example,as described one work task situationabove,the individual performsa carrying task at 25%o for below the 100% MTM Standardestablished carrying out that task. Observationand MTM, or 75o/o for the can analysisof the individual'swork task performance determine specificreasons achievingthe 25o/o problems,etc.). Basedon that data,a specific, pain and/or fatigue,mobility Standard(leglarm/wrist/hand by within the medicallimitationsdetermined the progressive exercise and/orwork programcanbe developed of and analyses the individual's thosesameobservations physician.As was described the previoussection, in can performance relatedto MTM Standards be usedfor all Ergostestsand/or for a combinationof testsas they related to individual work tasks. The resulting information can be used to develop specific work by programs; again,within the medicallimitationsestablished the physician. hardening MTM Standards:Work HardeningProgram Monitoring on Ergos the The goal of using Work Hardeningon Ergosis to increase individual'scapacityto carry out work tasks. performance the the in For ecample, the carry exercise, programcould decrease differencebetweenthe 25o/o the This resultcould increase as established the work Standard. and the 100%performance achieved initially labor market. performsuccessfully the competitive in individual'scapacityto programprovidesongoing, reevaluation physicalcapacities in Usingthe MTM Standards a scheduled and/or Increases on objectiveinformationrelatedto the individual'sperformance the work taskin question. on can decreases performance be monitoredwith the ErgosWork Simulatorbased the percentof gain or in evaluation, MTM on the second performingthe carryingtask at the40o/o lossin MTM results.For example, (gain) in the individual's increase a work program,establishes l5o/o following an activeexerciseandJor capacltyto carry out that task. A third, fourth, fifth, etc. evaluationcan be monitored in the samemanner, progam established the individual for of objectiveevaluation the work hardening resultingin a continuous, and/orwork the can area.Decisions be maderegarding exercise in this Work RelatedPhysicalDemand on etc) level,discontinue, based the Ergosresultsprovided regimeprogram(continueat samelevel, increase with medicalinformationprovidedby the physician. combined by the monitoringsystem of Summary ErgosandValpar Manualson MTM relatedaspects December 2003