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Introduction

which makes controlling a factory with large number of machines easier than before. it was not good in industrial operations. The first really powerful 8-bit microprocessor appeared in early 1974 as the Intel 8080 chip. This was known by congenital control. Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore set up the Intel Corporation to manufacture memory chips for the mainframe computer industry. poorly implemented interrupt mechanisms. 8080 microprocessor was the first microprocessor used in homes as a personal computer named Altair. Circuits like start stop an induction motor using contactors were common. However. the Microcontroller is the base of any modern factory. It is simple to program a Microcontroller. Later in 1971. . These chips were basically designed for a calculator named Busicom which was one of the first portable calculators. the first microprocessor chip 4040 was manufactured by Intel for a consortium of two Japanese companies. there is a new technology. 8080 has been a very successful microprocessor but soon other companies began producing microprocessor chips. This was a simple microprocessor with limited resources. and multiplexed address and data busses. In 1976. its operation is affected by heat. Z80 was used in man microprocessor based applications. the control components like contactors and relays were used in the control circuits. 4040 chip was so successful that it was soon followed by Intelµs 8-bit 8008 microprocessor. it has a very big problem. The microcontrollers were introduced in the world of industry. Therefore. Now. 4 bits (a nibble) at a time. Zilog introduced the Z80 microprocessor which was much more advanced than the8080. One Microcontroller can control a whole factory with enormous number of machines very easy. Using these components. change the program and even testing the program before it is runs in the factory by simulation on the computer. Recently. they were able to control the machines in the factories and make it safe to the user.In the past. The instruction set of Z80 was downward compatible with the 8080 and this made Z80 to be one of the most successful microprocessors of the time. This microprocessor had separate address and data busses with 64 Kbyte of address space which was enormous in 1975 standards. including home computers and games consoles. This was a very simple calculator which could only add and subtract numbers. Motorola introduced the 8-bit 6800 chip which had a different architecture to the 8080 but has also been very popular. In 1969.

a microcomputer system can be anything from a large computer having hard disks. Some microcomputer systems include additional components such as timers. 8049. . Such microcomputer systems are also called microcontrollers and they are used in many household goods such as microwave ovens. counters. Thus. fridges. This was a major step in the evolution of the microcontrollers which are basically computers consisting of only one chip. analogue-to-digital converters. Motorola 6809. we see many other microcontroller chips in the market. TV remote control units. 8051. and so on. to a single-chip embedded controller.In 1976. Atmel 89C51. data memory. hi-fi equipment. The term microcomputer is used to describe a system that includes a minimum of a microprocessor. and printers. etc. etc. program memory. In later years. and input±output (I/O). In this book we are going to consider only the type of microcomputers that consists of a single silicon chip. cookers. floppy disks. such as Intel 8048. Motorola created a microprocessor chip called 6801 which replaced a 6800 chip plus some of the chips required to make a complete computer system. CD players. personal computers.