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Chennai Madras
— metropolitan city —

Clock-wise from top: Chennai Central, Marina Beach, Kapaleeswarar Temple, Santhome Basilica, Bharatanatyam recital

Chennai (
Location of Chennai ( in Tamil Nadu and India )


13°5′2″N Coordinates Former name Country State District(s) Mayor Corporation Commissioner Population • Density • Metro 80°16′12″ECoordinates: 13°5′2″N 80°16′12″E Madras, Madrasapatnam India Tamil Nadu • Chennai • Kanchipuram • Tiruvallur M. Subramaniam D. Karthikeyan
4,681,087[1] a (5th) (2011)

• 26,903 /km2 (69,678 /sq mi) • 7,413,779[2] (4th) (2010)

hardware manufacturing.[4] Chennai had a population of 4. [ˈt ennəj]). The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed. to Francis Day of the English East India Company. George.2 million people. and healthcare industries.5 million.[10][11][12] which leads it to be called as 'The Detroit of Asia'. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharata Natyam.[6] According to an A. a classical dance form. technology. information technology (IT) and information-technology-enabled services (ITES). located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Chennaipattinam was named after Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. The Tamil film industry. from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. dated August 1639. Chennai is regarded as one of the cleanest cities in India. it is also the world's 36th largest metropolitan area.[16] According to the second account. Names The name Chennai is a shortened form of Chennaipattinam. the name of the town that grew around Fort St. which was built by the English in 1640. A major chunk of India's automobile manufacturing industry is based in and around the city. Nayaka of Kalahasthi and Vandavasi father of Damarla Venkatadri the soundtracks of the films dominate its music scene. one of the largest film industries in India. is based in the city. formerly known as Madras (Tamil: . which includes performances by hundreds of artists. the annual Madras Music Season.189 square kilometres (459 sq mi) • 6 metres (20 ft) Codes[show] Website Chennai (Tamil: or chennaicorporation.[7] Chennai's economy has a broad industrial base in the automobile. Nielsen survey. computer.C. Chennapattinam was named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal .[15] There are two versions about the origin of the name Chennai: according to one . is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai accounts for 60 per cent of the country's automotive exports.[13][14] Chennai is an important centre for Carnatic music and hosts a large cultural event.[5] a The urban agglomeration of metropolitan Chennai has an estimated population over 8. [mæˈdrəs]) or Madarasapatinam ( ).Time zone Area • Metro • Elevation IST (UTC+5:30) 174 km2 (67 sq mi)[3] • 1. Chennai being the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the fifth most populous city in India.[8][9] Chennai Zone contributes 39 per cent of the State's GDP. The city is India's second largest exporter of software.34 million in the 2001 census within the area administered by the Corporation of Chennai and an extended Metropolitan Population of 6.

were merged. Madraspattinam and Chennapattinam. Stone age implements were found in a pit near Pallavaram in Chennai. may have named the village Madre de Deus.[20][21] [edit] History Main article: History of Chennai The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative. It is widely believed that Madras was renamed as it is an English name. George. ca.[18] Another possibility is that the village's name came from the prominent Madeiros family (variously known as Madera or Madra in succeeding years) of Portuguese origin. It has been suggested that the Portuguese. at a time when many Indian cities were being renamed. the word chenni in Tamil means face. who arrived in the area in the 16th century.[17] The city's former name. Madras. and economic centre since the 1st century. Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment. is derived from Madraspattinam. It is uncertain whether the name 'Madraspattinam' was in use before European influence. 1905 . Madras is an exonym and the origin of the name of the madras still remains a puzzle. the two towns. The state government officially changed the name to Chennai in 1996. military. which consecrated the Madre de Deus Church in the Santhome locality of Chennai in 1575.[22] Fort St. According to the archeological survey of India.Temple. a fishing village north of Fort St. and the English referred to the united town as Madraspattinam. George. There is some argument among researchers about the exact origin of the name Madraspattinam. and the temple was regarded as the face of the city. However.[19] Sometime after the English gained possession of the area in the 17th century.

who plundered the town and its outlying villages. an example of a colonial building in Chennai The area was ruled by various South Indian dynasties. Hyder Ali. the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat.[25] Under British rule. Fort St. the Governor of Mauritius. promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland. [22][24] In 1746. the city grew into a major urban centre and naval base. The Portuguese arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle. The violent agitations of 1965 against the . George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais. the British built Fort St George. Fort St. the Nayaka of Vandavasi.[26] After India gained its independence in 1947. establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital. the Chera Dynasty. the Sultan of Mysore. On 22 August 1639. George housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010. St Thomas.Victoria Public Hall. notably the Pallava. With the advent of railways in India in the late 19th century. when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden on 22 September 1914. causing disruption to shipping. which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city.[23] The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and fortified the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and another looming threat. In 1612. Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I. the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta. was once a major Pallavan port. just north of the city. A year later. the city became the capital of Madras State. now part of Chennai.. the Pandya. the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modernday states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.[23] who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 AD. the Chola.[22] He granted the British permission to build a factory and warehouse for their trading enterprises. The region was ruled by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu. as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean. Francis Day of the British East India Company bought a small strip of land on the Coromandel Coast. and Vijaynagar.[22] The town of Mylapore. By the late 18th century. renamed the state of Tamil Nadu in 1969.

Its average elevation is around 6. Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources. Two rivers meander through Chennai. runs parallel to the coast. and List of birds of Chennai Chennai is on a flat coastal plain.[29] and its highest point is 60 m (200 ft).5 mi) inland.7 metres (22 ft). 4 km (2. Flora and fauna of Chennai. flows through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the sea at Ennore. A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals. the Kortalaiyar. marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and the whole state. an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai. The state government periodically removes silt and pollution from the Adyar river. . A third river.imposition of Hindi as the national language. The popular Marina Beach Chennai is on the southeast coast of India in the northeast of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south. as shown on this Landsat 7 map. killing many and permanently altering the coastline. which is much less polluted than the Cooum.[28] [edit] Environment [edit] Geography Main article: Geography of Chennai See also: List of neighbourhoods in Chennai.[30] The Marina Beach runs for 12 km along the shoreline of the city.[31][32] The Buckingham Canal.[27] On 26 December 2004.

The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram Road and the Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur. Kottivakkam. The lowest temperature recorded is 15. Velachery.9) (75.5 31.[40] with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F).5) (77.6 34. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Central Chennai is the commercial heart of the city and includes an important business district. Villivakkam. West Mambalam. within its limits. Clay underlies most of the city including T. shale and sandstone. South Chennai and West Chennai.6) (78.1 25. home to a growing number of information technology firms.5) (97.6 24. Groundwater sources are becoming brackish.9 33.2 28.3 (83.[36] Chennai is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park.8) (89.4 °F) and highest 45 °C (113 °F)[41] The average annual rainfall is about 140 cm (55 in).7 33.6) (82.9) (94. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June.2 25. specifically a tropical wet and dry climate. Nagar. Koyambedu and Sriperumbdur in the west. The Otteri Nullah. such as Thiruvanmiyur. Adyar.4 29. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city.6 21. South and West.5) (75. Here rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil.[38] [edit] Climate Chennai has a tropical climate.linking the two rivers. George Town.4 36. runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge.9 33.2 (73) (70.4 29. known locally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil.9 27.[37] The city has an estimated 4. Areas of hard rock include Guindy. with minimum temperatures around 18–20 °C (64– 68 °F).7) (81) (78.5) (93) (92.9 25. Perungudi.7) 22.[33] Chennai's soil is mostly clay.8 °C (60.6) (90.3) (88.[34] Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts. financial companies and call centres.5) (84.[35] Chennai is divided into four broad regions: North. Anna Nagar. Month Average high °C (°F) Average low °C [hide]Climate data for Chennai Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year 28. Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet.[43] Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and October [44] and northeasterly during the rest of the year.6 36.4) (92. The city lies on the thermal equator[39] and is also on the coast. The highest annual rainfall recorded is 257 cm (101 in) in 2005.6 27.1) 20. North Chennai is primarily an industrial area.8 21.3 (69.1) (70.1 32.[42] The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north-east monsoon winds. previously mostly residential.6) (81.5) (97. Central. Parry's Corner.6) (77. Red Hills.9 31. Tondiarpet and the rest of coastal Chennai.2 23. Perambur and Virugambakkam.5% of its area under green cover. The weather is hot and humid for most of the year. The coolest part of the year is January.1) (85. which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature.6) . Santhome.3 25. an east-west stream. from mid-October to midDecember.2) (73. Sholavaram and Chembarambakkam Lake supply Chennai with potable water. are fast becoming commercial. the Guindy National Park.3 24.

0 204. With a steadily increasing population.76) (4.638) (1. Chennai is expected to face a huge deficit of 713 million litres per day (MLD) as the demand is projected at 2. An earlier Veeranam Lake project failed to solve the city's water problems.535 MLD in 2026. Subramanian Deputy Mayor R. which became operational in September 2004.9 1. Chennai has relied on annual monsoon rains to replenish water reservoirs.0 279.6 11 11 5.6 Sunshine 269.768. heavy and consistent monsoon rains and rainwater harvesting (RWH) by Chennai Metrowater at its Anna Nagar Rain Centre have significantly reduced water shortages.5 291.2 mm (0. 1: WMO [45] Source no.0 186.67) (0.37) (13.55) (14.2 27 17 16 49 61 121 111 141 365 351 154 1. it is the oldest municipal corporation not only in India.268) (inches) Avg. Ramanujan Chennai city is governed by the Corporation of Chennai erstwhile.4) (4.06) (0.4 . Established in 1688.5 hours Source no.93) (2.0 195.[49][50][51] However. the city has faced water supply shortages.7 271.248 MLD and supply estimated at only 1.1 7.(°F) Rainfall 16. newer projects like the Telugu Ganga project that bring water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh have eased water shortages. and its ground water levels have been depleted. Sathya Bama Corporation Commissioner Karthikeyan Commissioner of Police T.6 4. Rajendran Postmaster General M. as of September 2007[53][54] Mayor Ma.82) (6.429.S.0 192.63) (1. rainy days 2 .06) (56.[47] In recent years. has greatly reduced dependency on distant sources. 2: HKO (sun only.2 198. as no major rivers flow through the area.3 8.7 .6 2.5 59. Corporation of Madras. but . The city has constructed a sea water desalination plant to further increase the water supply.0 204.37) (5.3 183. but the New Veeranam project.2 294.[48] Moreover. 1971–1990) [46] [edit] Water Historically.[52] [edit] Administration Main article: Administration of Chennai See also: Chennai architecture and Subdivisions of India City officials.5 6.

[58] The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) has drafted a Second Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. Tiruvallur and Arakkonam to the west. whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.[56] The metropolitan region of Chennai covers many suburbs that are part of Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur districts. The Madras High Court. Ripon Building. It consists of 155 councilors who represent 155 wards and are directly elected by the city's residents. the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu. While the city covers an area of 174 km2 (67 sq mi). is the highest judicial authority in the state and is also in the city.5 million to over 8 million.[57] the metropolitan area is spread over 1. On doing this the population of Chennai is also set to increase from the present 4. Commissioned in 1913 and the seat of the Chennai Corporation Chennai.[55] The area of jurisdiction of the Corporation of Chennai is set to expand manifold from its present extent of 176 km² to 800 km² pending a decision to be taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu. Sriperumpudur. Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies — Chennai North.189 km2 (459 sq mi). Contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram to the south. houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings on the Fort St George campus but also in many other buildings scattered around the city. Chennai Central and Chennai South — and elects 16 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature. the councilors elect a mayor and a deputy mayor who preside over about six standing committees. and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats.also in any Commonwealth nation outside the United Kingdom. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities. and Kanchipuram town. From among themselves. Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar to the southwest. [edit] Law and Order .

000. The department consists of 36 subdivisions with a total of 121 police stations.[59] In 2005. [edit] Utility Services A Chennai Metropolitan Police patrol car . The city's traffic is managed by the Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP).3 per 100.000 and Kolkata's 23. Chennai suburban police has about 4. With a population density of 26. the second most densely populated city in the country after Delhi. The Metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police. Mumbai's 45. The city police force is headed by a commissioner of police. the city has 1 policeman for every 413 people. a division of the Tamil Nadu Police. the crime rate in the city was 313.[60] The number of crimes in the city showed a significant increase of 61.Madras High Court The Greater Chennai Police department. and outer district areas are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments. Chennai city. Delhi with 1:200 and Kolkata with 1:222.222 compared to Mumbai and Mumbai suburban with 1:267.000 police personnel compared with Delhi's 83. accounting for 6.[61] However. is the law enforcement agency in the city. the city is considered the safest of all the four major metros in the country.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. and administrative control rests with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry.093 police personnel and has a ratio of 1:1.8% from 2004.000. has a sanctioned strength of 14.000 people.903 persons per square kilometre.

has greatly reduced dependency on distant sources. [edit] Economy Main article: Economy of Chennai See also: List of tech parks in Chennai Parry's Corner. the city has faced water supply shortages.[50][51] Telephone services in the city are provided by nine mobile phone service companies that include nine GSM networks and two CDMA networks along with four land line companies. Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. newer projects like the Telugu Ganga project that bring water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh have eased water shortages.The Corporation of Chennai and municipalities of the suburbs provide civic services. popularly referred to as CMWSSB.[65] It has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile. making up 10. health care and financial services industries. hardware manufacturing. With a steadily increasing population.83 crores.488. software services. Water supply and sewage treatment are handled by the Chennai Metro Water Supply and Sewage Board.[47] In recent years. Chennai has relied on annual monsoon rains to replenish water reservoirs. The city has constructed water desalination plants to further increase the water supply. a private company. heavy and consistent monsoon rains and rainwater harvesting (RWH) by Chennai Metro water at its Anna Nagar Rain Centre have significantly reduced water shortages. Some areas of the city are also covered by a paid Wifi Internet service. as no major rivers flow through the area.[62] The city does not have a piped gas network and gas is supplied in cylinders by both state owned and private petroleum companies.[63][64] Commercial and domestic broadband Internet services are provided by all the four land line service providers and a majority of the mobile network service providers. An earlier Veeranam Lake project failed to solve the city's water problems. and by the Chennai Corporation in the other zones. the city's total personal income was 12. but the New Veeranam project.[48] Moreover.[66] As of 2000. and its ground water levels have been depleted. which became operational in September 2004. one of the older Business Districts of Chennai According to Forbes magazine. Garbage in most zones is handled by Neel Metal Fanalica Environment Management. Historically.9% of the . Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.

[67] In 2001. Foxconn and Siemens among others. The Integral Coach Factory manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways.[69] The city is base to around 30% of India's automobile industry[70] and 35% of its auto components industry.[72] The Ambattur-Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers. Telecom giants Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent. with some of them making Chennai their largest base. construction (6. Motorola. the total workforce in Chennai was about 1. Dell. finance and insurance companies.5 times its present size.3%) and other services (31. Renault.[73] Chennai contributes more than 50% of India's leather exports. TAFE Tractors. pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai.[74] Tidel Park is one of the many software parks in Chennai Many software and software services companies have development centres in income of Tamil Nadu. Daimler Trucks. Samsung. most of the city's workforce was involved in trade (25. Madras Rubber Factory (MRF). which was 31. 2. Caparo.79% of its population. of software in the country. including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT.. Standard Chartered Bank and Citibank have back office operations in the city. Royal Enfield. manufacturing (23. According to the 1991 census. TI Cycles of India. by the year 2025. The TVS Group (TVS Electronics and TVS Motors). .8%). Chennai metropolitan area accounts for over 75% of the sales tax revenue in the state.[68] According to the CII. Caterpillar Inc. Ashok Leyland. Komatsu.65%). Nissan. BMW. transportation (10. The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi produces military vehicles.[75] Major software companies have their offices set up here. and an SEZ for apparel and footwear manufacture has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city.[76] Chennai is home to two large national level commercial banks[77][78][79] and many state level co-operative banks. TICEL bio-tech park[80] and Golden Jubilee bio-tech park[81] at Siruseri house biotechnology companies and laboratories. Nokia Siemens.5 million.72%). Ford. Michelin and Apollo Tyres have or are in the process of setting up manufacturing plants in and around Chennai. Chennai is estimated to grow to a $100-billion economy. making it the second-largest exporter. behind Bangalore. including the World Bank. Mitsubishi. by city. which contributed 14% of India's total software exports of 144.[71] A large number of automotive companies including Hyundai.52%). Prominent financial institutions. Telecom and Electronics manufacturers based in and around Chennai include Nokia.214 crores during 2006– 07.

Medical tourism is another important part of Chennai's economy with health care providers like Apollo Hospitals and Fortis Healthcare based in the city and the city is considered to be the health care capital of India.6% 1. Zagreb.6 million in 2001 which makes it the third largest city in India. Panama City.903.087. Brisbane. The city has the fourth highest population of slum dwellers among major cities in India. According to the provisional population results of 2011.24 million.[94] slightly higher than the national average of 944.000 males. Vancouver. Bratislava. Denver.922 per km² (15.681. Chennai's level of network integration with other world cities is ranked as a "Gamma+". while the population density of the metropolitan area was 5.3% 9. In the Inventory of World cities from the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.5%. Nairobi.682 per km² (63. alongside cities such as Montreal. [1] with a density of 26. Chennai city has a population of 4.[96] much higher than the national average of 64. The city registered a growth rate of 7. making it one of the most densely populated cities in the world.1% [show]Population Growth of Chennai A resident of Chennai (Madras) is called a Chennaite or Madrasi.[83] [edit] Demographics Skyline of Chennai Religions in Chennai Religion Percentage Hindu Muslim Christian Jains 81. with about . the population density in the city was 24.5 million.[91][93] The sex ratio is 951 females for every 1. Manama and Cape Town.4% 7. making it one of the most densely populated cities in the world.926 per mi²).33%.[90] The population of the metropolitan area is estimated to be more than 8. With the area of the Chennai Corporation being extended to 456 km² the population with in the area administered by the corporation was 5.[92] In 2001.[91] The estimated metropolitan population in 2006 is 4.8% during the period 1991-2001. Casablanca.[82] The Tamil movie industry and the related Tamil music industry and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai's economy.[95] The average literacy rate is 85.Chennai has a fully computerised stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.337 per mi²).

education and white collar professions. out of the 937.6%) and Jains (1. Chennai is also known for Bharatanatyam.[101] The city is known for its classical dance shows and Hindu temples.4%). English is widely spoken especially in business. Bengalis and Punjabi. who come from other parts of Tamil Nadu and from the rest of the country apart from few Marwaris.[102] It features performances (kutcheries) of traditional Carnatic music by hundreds of artists in and around the city.[97] This number represents about 5% of the total slum population of India.000 people (18.8% were from rest of India and 1.6% of its population) in the city. 74.3% of the city's population. Oriyans.[99] According to the 2001 census.1%) are other major religious groups. Telugus form the majority of the population among the non-Tamil community. Chennai holds a five-week long Music Season celebrating the 1927 opening of the Madras Music Academy.5% were from other parts of the state.7% were from outside the country. which showcases various arts of Tamil Nadu is held in January every year. on the beach in the south of the city.820. An arts festival called the Chennai Sangamam. art and culture in India. Malayalis.6% of its population) living in slum conditions. and Muslims (9. Chennai also has a small expatriate population who work in IT firms. 23.000 migrants (21. The majority of the population in Chennai are Tamils.[103] . a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu.[100] [edit] Culture A Bharata natyam concert Main articles: Culture of Chennai and Cuisine of Chennai See also: Tamil cuisine and Cinema of Tamil Nadu Chennai is a major centre for music. Tamil is the primary language spoken in Chennai.[98] Chennai also has a large migrant population. Every December. As of 2001. Hindus constitute about 81. Christians (7. An important cultural centre for Bharatanatyam is Kalakshetra. Anglo-Indians.

two Grammy Awards in 2009 for the movie Slumdog Millionaire. home to most of the movie studios. Almost all major religious festivals such as Deepavali. . mythology and drama are among the popular genres.53 million and aircraft movements of 110. who during the Christmas season stage various carol performances across the city in Tamil and English. Sivaji Ganesan. Many of the city's restaurants offer light meals or tiffin.Chennai is also home to some of the best choirs in India. Rahman took Chennai to international fame by winning two Oscars. Ramachandran. is the third busiest airport in India. Pongal is celebrated over five days in January. dosa. Kamal Haasan.[112][113] The city is connected to major hubs across Asia. Mani Ratnam and S. and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers. M. K. Among Chennai's festivals. Rajinikanth. history. [edit] Transport Main article: Transport in Chennai [edit] Air Chennai International Airport Chennai serves as a major gateway to southern India. R. is the most important. Eid and Christmas are celebrated in Chennai. The airport is the second busiest cargo terminus in the country with a total fright tonnage of 249.[109][110][111] English plays are also staged in the city. political satire. idli and vadai. which usually include rice-based dishes like pongal. served with steaming hot filter coffee.[106] The industry makes more than 150 Tamil movies a year. A. Europe. Balachander. slapstick comedy. and the Chennai International Airport.[108] Chennai's theatres stage many Tamil plays.[104][105] Chennai is the base for the large Tamil movie industry. known as Kollywood.523. Some of the biggest names in the Indian film fraternity like Ilaiyaraaja. G.[107] and its soundtracks dominate the city's music.000 in 2009-2010. comprising the Anna international terminal and the Kamaraj domestic terminal with a total passenger movements of 10. Tamil cuisine in Chennai includes vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Shankar are based out of Chennai.

[117] Chennai Egmore is a terminus for trains to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu.200 acres (17 km2) of land. Chennai Central/Chennai Beach – Gummidipoondi . handling automobiles.[118] The Chennai suburban railway network. namely Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India. A mega shipyard project called the Kattupalli Shipyard cum Captive Port Complex is being built by L&T Shipbuilding at Kattupalli village near Ennore and is expected to be operational in 2012.Tirumalpur (Kanchipuram).Tiruttani. The city has two main railway terminals. ore and other bulk and rock mineral products. consists of four broad gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city.Arakkonam .[116] [edit] Rail The mass rapid transit system in Chennai Chennai is the headquarters of the Southern Railway.99 acres. and a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of 20. motorcycles and general industrial cargo.Sullurpeta and Chennai Beach – Tambaram Chengalpattu . the city's largest. it also handles a few inter-state trains. Regular services are offered in the following sectors from these termini: Chennai Central/Chennai Beach . The Chennai port is the largest in Bay of Bengal with an annual cargo tonnage of 61.The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion with an addition of 1069. Chennai Port. one of the largest artificial ports.[119] .523 million TEUs (2010-2011).[114] [edit] Sea The city is served by two major ports. The Ennore Port with an annual cargo tonnage of 11.[115] A smaller harbour at Royapuram is used by fishing boats and trawlers.000 million in Sriperumbudur on 4.46 million (2010-2011) and is India's second busiest container hub with an annual container volume of 1. and Ennore Port. Chennai Central station. Construction is underway for an underground and elevated Chennai Metro rail. one of the oldest in the country. The fourth sector is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) which links Chennai Beach to Velachery and is interlinked with the remaining rail network.01 million (2010-2011) handles cargo such as coal.

773 in 2006. 2011. starting with the Gemini flyover. Chennai's transportation infrastructure provides coverage and connectivity.21 million in 2001.58 million in 2011 from 0. built in 1973 over the most important arterial road. popularly known as Maxi Cabs and 'share' auto rickshaws ply many routes in the city and provide an alternative to buses. is the largest bus station in Asia. the terminus for all intercity buses from Chennai.[126] It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazzette and The . and moves an estimated 5. Anna Salai to the recently completed Kathipara Flyover. On the other hand.56 million in 2011 from 0.421 buses on 690 routes.[edit] Road An air-conditioned Metropolitan Transport Corporation bus in Chennai Chennai is well connected to other parts of India by road. in 1785. the Metropolitan Transport Corporation fleet strength was just 3.421. The government has tried to address these problems by constructing grade separators and flyovers at major intersections.52 million passengers each day.1% of the total vehicular population. on April 1. Many private inter-city and inter-state bus companies also operate services to and from Chennai. but growing use has caused traffic congestion and pollution. Numerous state highways link the city to Puducherry and other towns and cities in Tamil Nadu and neighbouring states. The Madras Courier. the two-wheeler population shot up to 2. [125] [edit] Media Main article: Media in Chennai See also: List of Tamil language television channels Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly. The MTC fleet strength was 2. Five major national highways link Chennai to Mumbai (via Bangalore). The Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) runs an extensive city bus system consisting of 3. Tiruchirapalli (Trichy) and Tirupati and onwards to the rest of the national highway system. or 0.[122] Vans. Metered call taxis.[121] Seven governmentowned transport corporations operate inter-city and inter-state bus services.93 million in 2001 while the number of four-wheelers jumped to 0. Kochi .[123][124] According to the Transport Department's official report.[120] The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT). Kolkata. tourist taxis and auto rickshaws are also available on hire.

Zee Tamil. which was set up in 1974. Magazines published from Chennai include Ananda Vikatan. Kungumam. Mint and The Financial Express. Tamil Murasu. with a daily circulation of 267. The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India recently joined the list. Frontline and Sportstar. was launched in 1899.[126] The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu.[128] The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times. Dish TV. Thuglak. Sun direct DTH. direct-to-home (DTH) is available via DD Direct Plus.[132] Radio broadcasting started from the radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex. The Spectator.[133] [edit] Education and Health Care Main article: Education in Chennai See also: Schools in Chennai and Education in India Anna University's Guindy campus . Doordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre. Private Tamil satellite television networks such as Sun TV. All India Radio and private broadcasters. founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio in 1938. Makkal TV. The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. Vaartha. Tata Sky.[126] The city has 4 AM and 11 FM radio stations. Vasanth TV. Reliance Big TV and Digital TV (AirtelBharti)[130][131] Chennai is the first city in India to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi. Kalaignar TV and Captain TV broadcast out of Chennai. While SCV is the monopoly cable TV service provider. The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper. Raj TV. The evening dailies are.Government Gazzette in 1795. The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. Business Standard. Dinakaran.[129] The one and only Hindi Newspaper published from Chennai is the Rajasthan Patrika. The Hindu Business Line. Videocon DTH. operated by Anna University.[127] The first Tamil newspaper. Dina Malar. Kalki. Kumudam. was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853. Star Vijay. Andhra Jyothi and Sakshi. Major Telugu dailies include Eenadu. Jaya TV. Makkal Kural and Malai Malar. Neighbourhood newspapers such as The Anna Nagar Times and The Adyar Times cater to particular localities. The New Indian Express. Dina Mani. As of 2004.349. founded in 1836. Swadesamitran.

with the former being the majority.[140] The newly constructed Anna Centenary Library is largest library in South Asia. arts and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras. Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI). some with financial aid from the government. Madras Medical College (MMC). Anglo-Indian board or the Montessori system. out of which 731 are primary. The Government General Hospital Colleges for science.A.[138] The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) and College of Engineering. 232 are secondary and 426 are higher secondary schools.[135] A few schools are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) board.389 schools in the city. . some colleges such as Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College.[139] It has been declared a UNESCO information centre. Guindy. Most colleges that offer engineering programs are affiliated to Anna University. The Connemara Public Library is one of four National Depository Centres in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in India.[134] The medium of education is either English or Tamil.J. there are even schools which cater National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board. The Indian Army's Officers Training Academy is also based in the city.Abdul Kalam) are the premier centres for engineering education in the city. the Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI) and the Institute for Financial Management and Research (IFMR) are in the city. Stanley Medical College (SMC). Most schools are affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board. Madras Christian College.P. Research institutions like the prestigious Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc). Loyola College and The New College are autonomous. Students then need to complete two years of higher secondary education in either science or commerce before being eligible for college education in a general or professional field of study. the Matriculation Board or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). which has three campuses in the city. Schooling begins at the age of three with two years of kindergarten followed by ten years of primary and secondary education. Kilpauk Medical College (KMC) and Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (SRMC) are the notable medical colleges in Chennai.Schools in Chennai are either run publicly by the Tamil Nadu government or privately. founded in 1794 and Madras Institute of Technology (Alma mater of former president Dr.[136][137] There are 1.

and Mahesh Bhupathi. the MRF Pace Foundation.H.Cherian heart foundation. and has hosted many hockey tournaments such as the Asia Cup and the Men's Champions Trophy at The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium.There are 15 Government hospitals and a large number of private hospitals which provide medical and health care. The Government General hospital. making it one of the preferred destinations for medical tourists from across the globe.[151][152] Chennai has produced popular tennis players over the years. one of the most successful in the tournament. There are many large private hospitals.Chennai was also formerly the home to the Chennai Superstars part of the defunct Indian Cricket League.[149][150] The city is home to a Premier Hockey League (PHL) team. Chettinad Health City and Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre are based in the city.A. Chidambaram Stadium (MAC) in Chepauk is one of the oldest cricket stadiums in India.[145][146] A cricket fast bowling academy.[142] [edit] Sports Main article: Sport in Chennai The M. among which many are multi-specialty hospitals. Leander Paes. Venkataraghavan and Kris Srikkanth.M.[141] Sankara Nethralaya. Prominent cricketers from the city include former Test-captains S. Chidambaram Stadium. whose coaches include Bob Simpson and Dennis Lillee. Madras Medical Mission (MMM).[143] The M. popularly referred to as the "G.A.[144] The Chemplast Cricket Ground on the IIT Madras campus is another important venue hosting first class matches. the Chennai Super Kings. MIOT Hospitals. Some of India's well-known health care institutions such as Apollo Hospitals (the largest private health care provider in Asia).". including Vijay Amritraj. Ramesh Krishnan. is based in Chennai. one of the premier cricket venues in India. the Chennai Veerans. Frontier Lifeline & K. is the biggest government-run hospital in the city.[153][154][155] and current star Somdev Devvarman also grew up primarily . The city based IPL franchise Chennai Super Kings with their IPL 2011 trophy Cricket is the most popular sport in Chennai.[147][148] Chennai is home to the Indian Premier League cricket team.

the chess World champion. both established in the late nineteenth century. the country's only (ATP) event. Since 1997 Chennai has been host to the only ATP World Tour event held in India. Horse racing is held at the Guindy Race Course.[159] Ex-Formula One driver and current Team Lotus reserve driver Karun Chandhok was born in Chennai. Viswanathan Anand.[156] ATP World Tour 250 series. which also houses a multi-purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball.[158] which has also been the venue for several international competitions. A Chennai Open match in progress at the SDAT Tennis Stadium Football and athletic competitions are held at the Jawaharlal Nehru the city. The city has two 18-hole golf courses. grew up in Chennai.[160][161][162] Other athletes of repute from Chennai include table tennis players Sharath Kamal[163] and two-time world carrom champion.[164] The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai Cheetahs. Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex. Chennai was the venue of the South Asian Games (SAF Games) in 1995. while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club. [157] Automobile racing in India has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence.[165] . the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai. basketball and table tennis. the Chennai Open. Sriperumbudur. Maria Irudayam.