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1.What is an operating system?

An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers and manages computer hardware resources[1] and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, [2][3] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware, but will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and GNU/Linux.[4]

2.What is UNIX? Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as UNIX with small caps) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. The Unix operating system was first developed in assembly language, but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in C, Unix operating systems are widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile devices.[2] The Unix environment and the client–server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a time-sharing configurationBoth Unix and the C programming language were developed by AT&T and distributed to government and academic institutionsnix became synonymous with "open systems. Unix, the "operating system" consists of many of these utilities along with the master control program, the kernel. The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, 3.What are the components of UNIX OS? The Unix system is composed of several components that are normally packed together. By including – in addition to the kernel of an operating system – the development environment, libraries, documents, and the portable, modifiable source-code for all of these components, Unix was a self-contained software system. This was one of the key reasons it emerged as an important teaching and learning tool and has had such a broad influence.

Kernel – source code in /usr/sys. Other tools – including an object-code archive manager (ar). including boot code dev – device drivers for control of hardware (and some pseudo-hardware) sys – operating system "kernel". Commands sh utilites document formatting-nroff. was the primary library make include Other languages – V7 Unix contained a Fortran-77 compiler. compiler-development tools (e. and debugging tools. defining key structures within the system and important system-specific invariables Development Environment – Early versions of Unix contained a development environment sufficient to recreate the entire system from source code: o o o o o o o o cc – C language compiler (first appeared in V3 Unix) as – machine-language assembler for the machine ld – linker. supercomputers and micro-computers.g. for combining object files lib – object-code libraries (installed in /lib or /usr/lib). etc. including main-frame computers. libc. troff. The documentation included: W hat are the advantages of unix? Unix is more flexible and can be installed on many different types of machines. h – header files. symbol-table lister (nm). lex & yacc). composed of several sub-components o o o o conf – configuration and machine-dependent parts. . tbl. refer. the system library with C run-time support. handling memory management. process scheduling. eqn. system calls. and pic graphics communication Documentation – Unix was the first operating system to include all of its documentation online in machine-readable form.

That is not the case with Unix. .The mostly free or inexpensive open-source operating systems. It is a software application that provides the interface between the hardware and the user. file. multiuser. . which is free. It handles the process. the world’s most widely used Web server. such as Linux and BSD.Unix also inspires novel approaches to software design. . device and network management for the operating .Unix is the leader in serving the Web. therefore requires less administration and maintenance. Full multitasking with protected memory.Unix has greater built-in security and permissions features than Windows.. such as solving problems by interconnecting simpler tools instead of creating large monolithic application programs. a shell layer and a utilities and applications layer. About 90% of the Internet relies on Unix operating systems running on Apache. Many of the smartest programmers are developing state-of-the-art software free of charge for the fast growing "open-source movement”. . with their flexibility and control. multitasking operating system. 6 STRUCTURE OF UNIX OS? The UNIX operating system (OS) consists of a kernel layer.Software upgrades from Microsoft often require the user to purchase new or more hardware or prerequisite software.the most truly portable operating system.  Kernel  The Kernel is the heart of the Unix OS. memory. These three layers create a portable. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system Very efficient virtual memory • Available on a wide variety of machines . . .Unix possesses much greater processing power than Windows. prove to be very attractive to (aspiring) computer wizards.Unix is more stable and does not go down as often as Windows does.

gpfs hfs. It is the interpreter that translates the commands that are typed into the terminal session. The user can change her default shell by using the "chsh" command. It is also called the Berkeley Fast File System. the Korn shell (ksh) and the Bourne Again shell (bash). It is a distant descendant of the original filesystem used by Version 7 Unix. Utilities and Application  The final layer of the Unix OS is the Utilities and Applications layer. word processors. AIX HP-UX Solaris Irix : jfs. This layer includes the commands. or they can create a text file containing a series of commands that can be sent to the shell. Users can type commands directly into the terminal. these programs were accessed by typing the commands to start the program on the command line.system. Each shell has own set of shell commands. the BSD Fast File System or FFS. but they can now also be accessed through the GUI. Traditionally. There are multiple shells that are used by the Unix OS. the C shell (csh). The initial shell that the user logs into is defined by the system administrator. zfs Xfs . FILE SYSTEMS OF UNIX? The Unix file system (UFS) is a file system used by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. Users may want to change their shells in order to use particular features that are available in one shell or not another. Operating system commands are the same across all the shells. They include the Bourne shell (sh). They can still be accessed in this way. The kernel is responsible for ensuring that all system and user tasks are performed concurrently. Shell  The shell is the program that sits between the user and the kernel. vxfs ufs. or they may simply prefer a particular shell environment. graphic programs and database management programs. The series of commands are called a shell script.

that is. All of the “flavors” were based on either AT&T’s System V or Berkeley System Distribution (BSD) UNIX. Dozens of different UNIX “flavors” appeared. With the help of Dennis Ritchie. that is. Ken rewrote UNIX entirely in “C” so that it could be used on different computers. Over the years. hundreds of people added and improved upon the system. Automatic transition from job to job as directed by special control statements. 9. utility programs.Functions Of Operating System Today most operating systems perform the following important functions 2. That is. assemblers. This need arises because it is usually necessary to share expensive resource such as tapes drives and phototypesetters. the need for managing and protecting the memory. 8.When a computer has multiple users. Interpretation of commands and instructions. File management. 3. Brief history of unix? CVVFVCVDDFD In the beginning. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system. the OS was licensed to universities for educational purposes. It also establishes data security and integrity. 5. yet still having enough similarities to the original AT&T version. input/output devices and other resources are even more apparent. and it spread into the commercial world. During the late 1980’s there were several of commercial implementations of UNIX: • • • • • Apple Computer’s A/UX AT&T’s System V Release 3 Digital Equipment Corporation’s Ultrix and OSF/1 (renamed to DEC UNIX) Hewlett Packard’s HP-UX IBM’s AIX . co-ordination and assignment of the different output and input device while one or more programmes are being executed. allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data. there was AT&T. or a hybrid of both. each with unique qualities. the inventor of the “C” programing language. and other software to the various user of the computer system. 6. 4. Bell Labs’ Ken Thompson developed UNIX in 1969 so he could play games on a scavenged DEC PDP-7. that is. Coordination and assignment of compilers. 7.8. the storage of file of various storage devices to another. it determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. 10. Memory management. It also allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other files manipulation routines. In 1974. Input/output management. Facilities easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator (human).

accessing a directory. or disk drive.) Before there was a Windows environment. In general. if you leave a port open in Windows it can be easily used by a hacker to introduce a virus in your environment. Unix provides more power and flexibility than windows. Unix is much better at handling multiple tasks for a single user or for multiple users than windows. UNIX is more secure than Windows on a network because Windows is more vulnerable than UNIX.Unix is better. DOS was based on and was similar. the main difference is Windows uses a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and UNIX does not. and enables protection. Solaris. Unix in general. Windows is easier for less sophisticated users. In short -. preventing one program from accessing memory or storage space allocated to another. For the less sophisticated user. Windows can often more easily be installed and configured to run on cheaper hardware to run a desired 3rd party product. requiring users to have permission to perform certain functions. and especially Sun's Solaris provides many more utilities for manipulating files and data than windows does. For a corporate environment. but only a poor subset. file.answers. for a programmer or for an administrator. enables the administrator to mirror or stripe data across several disks to minimize risk or optimize performance without 3rd party DLSB9gYs . In Windows one uses the click of a mouse to execute a command where as in UNIX one must type in a command. Unix ( especially Solaris ) provides much more control for the administrator than windows does. i.• • • Lynx’s Real-Time UNIX ets Simply stated.e. Also. For each user. DOS (Disk Operating System) was used on PCs. to the UNIX system. for example. There are GUIs that can be used in a UNIX environment though very few UNIX users will stoop that low to use one. Differences between UNIX and WINDOWS: Unix is safe. For example. • • Read more: http://wiki.

User friendly C. and therefore have different experiences and opinions.IT S FREE AND CAN BE SHARED E. With Linux and other open source operating systems. or possibly three.UNIX is proprietary E. F. h.5 . supports almost all of the filesystems that are currently available on any operating system . G. h. Linux. UNIX is very old B. The developers of commercial editions of UNIX have a specific target audience and platform for their operating system F. Less compatibility with other operating systems.UNIX is intended for mainframes and high end computers and cannot run on mos PCs D. Linux has become such a powerful tool is its immense compatibility with other operating systems. DIFFICULT TO USE C. however.DIEFERENTIATE UNIX/linux UNIX A.IT IS BASED ON UNIX B. Linux can go from mainframes down to low end personal computers D. different local filesystem types LINUX A. Most commercial version of UNIX supports two. a patch can be released in source code form and end users can install it. Developers come from many different backgrounds. The source code is not freely available for any of the commercial versions of UNIX G.