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**in functionally graded materials
**

Baris Sabuncuoglu

a,⇑

, Serkan Dag

a

, Bora Yildirim

b

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Functionally graded materials

Fracture mechanics

Fatigue crack propagation

Finite element method

Stress intensity factors

a b s t r a c t

This article proposes a new ﬁnite elements based three dimensional method developed to study the phe-

nomenon of fatigue crack propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs). The particular problem

examined in detail is that of an initially-elliptical crack located in a functionally graded medium, sub-

jected to mode I cyclic loading. The crack is modelled by employing three dimensional ﬁnite elements;

and the stress intensity factors (SIFs) around the crack front are computed by the application of the dis-

placement correlation technique (DCT). Fatigue crack propagation calculations are based on the Paris–

Erdogan crack growth law. The developed procedure makes it possible to generate the crack front proﬁles

corresponding to given numbers of loading cycles. Proposed methods are validated by examining the

behaviours of both stationary and propagating cracks. Numerical analyses conducted for an initially-

elliptical crack lying in a graded medium demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively capture

the evolution of the crack front morphology. Hence, the methodology presented in this article can be used

along with fracture toughness data to assess the fatigue lives of functionally graded components contain-

ing cracks that possess arbitrary front proﬁles.

Ó 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are multiphase compos-

ites that possess spatial variations in the volume fractions of the

constituents. These variations are intentionally introduced so as

to take advantage of desirable properties of the constituents, such

as the high thermal resistance of ceramics and superior fracture

toughness of metals. FGMs have been used successfully in a num-

ber of technological applications including thermal barrier coat-

ings, solid oxide fuel cells, high performance cutting tools, and

biomedical materials. The spatial variations in the volume fractions

of the constituents of FGMs require that certain physical properties

be represented by continuous functions of spatial coordinates for

analytical and computational purposes.

Fracture mechanics of FGMs has been studied extensively in or-

der to develop an understanding of the inﬂuence of the continuous

gradation on the cracking behaviour. Although great bulk of this

work is based on the two-dimensional fracture mechanics theory,

in recent years there have been attempts to build computational

models for three dimensional fracture mechanics analysis of func-

tionally graded materials. Among the computational methods

proposed for three dimensional fracture analysis of FGMs, we can

mention the domain integral method [1], the displacement corre-

lation technique (DCT) [2,3], the method of enriched ﬁnite ele-

ments [4], the interaction integral approach [5], and the

boundary domain integral method [6]. Note that in all these stud-

ies on three dimensional computational fracture mechanics of

FGMs, the focus is on stationary cracks, and there seems to be no

work on fatigue behaviour of FGMs.

Present study is directed towards developing a three dimen-

sional computational analysis technique to study the phenomenon

of fatigue crack propagation in functionally graded structures. Fa-

tigue crack growth computations are carried out by considering

an embedded crack in the examined functionally graded medium.

The initial front proﬁle of the embedded crack is assumed to be in

the shape of an ellipse. Elliptical cracks or voids are known to be

the source of various structural failures especially under repeated

loading conditions. Fatigue crack growth calculations involving

elliptical cracks require the computation of the stress intensity fac-

tors (SIFs) around the crack border. We use the displacement cor-

relation technique [2,3] in conjunction with the ﬁnite element

method to evaluate the stress intensity factors. The subsequent

front proﬁles of the initially-elliptical cracks subjected to cyclic

loading are generated by adopting the fatigue crack growth analy-

sis methods proposed by Paris and Erdogan [7], and Joseph and

Erdogan [8]. The main outcome of this study is the ﬁnite elements

based three dimensional computational analysis tool, which can be

0927-0256/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

⇑

Corresponding author. Present address: Interuniversity Microelectronics Center

(IMEC), Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. Tel.: +44 (0) 1509 227520.

E-mail addresses: Baris.Sabuncuoglu@imec.be (B. Sabuncuoglu), sdag@metu.e-

du.tr (S. Dag).

Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Computational Materials Science

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ commat sci

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

used to predict the fatigue lives of functionally graded compo-

nents. Presented numerical results illustrate the inﬂuence of mate-

rial property gradation on the fatigue propagation characteristics

of cracks located in cyclically loaded ceramic–metal FGMs.

2. The computational procedure

In this section, we provide the details of the three dimensional

computational analysis methodology developed to examine fatigue

crack growth in functionally graded materials. The geometry of the

particular problem considered is depicted in Fig. 1. An elliptical

crack resides in an elastic functionally graded medium, whose

material properties are functions of the x-coordinate. The major

and minor radii of the elliptical crack are denoted by c and a,

respectively. The crack is loaded through the normal stress r ap-

plied over the remote bounding planes. Since, the material is as-

sumed to possess property gradation in x-direction, one-quarter

of the medium is modelled by considering symmetries about xy-

and xz-planes. The ﬁnite element model for the problem depicted

in Fig. 1 is constructed by using the general purpose ﬁnite element

analysis software ANSYS [9]. Fig. 2 shows the quarter model gener-

ated and close-up view of the region around the crack front. The

dimensions were taken such that the bounding planes would have

no effect on the behaviour of the elliptical crack. In order to simu-

late the square-root singularity of the strain ﬁeld near the crack

border, the volume around this border is modelled by utilizing col-

lapsed 20-noded isoparametric brick elements, whereas the do-

main excluding this volume is discretized by means of brick and

tetrahedral elements. Smooth spatial variations of the material

properties of the graded medium are taken into account in the ﬁ-

nite element model by computing the properties of each ﬁnite ele-

ment at its centroid. The properties are uniformover each element;

however they vary from element to element according to the posi-

tion of the centroid. This is the so called homogeneous ﬁnite ele-

ment approach and known to lead to highly accurate numerical

results so long as there is appropriate mesh reﬁnement in the ﬁnite

element model [2,3].

If the displacement ﬁeld for the cracked functionally graded

medium is known, the mode I stress intensity factor distribution

around the crack front can be evaluated by using one of the avail-

able computational methods. In the present study, we use the dis-

placement correlation technique in the evaluation of the SIFs. In

this technique, the expression of the stress intensity factor is de-

rived by considering a point P on the crack front. Fig. 3 shows such

a point P lying on the border of the crack. The origin of a Cartesian

coordinate system is also located at point P. This coordinate system

comprises tangential (t), normal (n), and binormal (b) directions.

Fig. 4 depicts the deformed shape of the crack in the normal plane

passing through point P. The normal plane is formed by n and b

Fig. 1. (a) An elliptical crack in an inﬁnite volume and (b) a point P on the elliptical crack front.

Fig. 2. (a) The quarter model and (b) the crack front region.

2 B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

axes. The nodes 1–3 in Fig. 4 are considered to be at the edge of a

collapsed 20-noded brick element. Under mode I loading condi-

tions, the asymptotic displacements of these nodes in b-direction

can be found from [3]

u

b

ðnÞ ¼

4ð1 Àðm

P

Þ

2

Þ

E

P

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

jnj

2p

K

I

; ð1Þ

where K

I

is the mode I stress intensity factor; E

P

and m

P

are the mod-

ulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio computed at point P,

respectively; and the superscript P implies that the corresponding

material property should be calculated at point P. The mode I SIF

at P is deﬁned as [2,3]

K

I

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2p

p

E

P

4ð1 Àðm

P

Þ

2

Þ

lim

jnj!0

u

b

ðjnjÞ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

jnj

¸

: ð2Þ

Then, using Eqs. (1) and (2) and the displacements of the nodes 2

and 3, it is possible to express the mode I stress intensity factor

in the following form:

K

I

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2p

p

E

P

4ð1 Àðm

P

Þ

2

Þ

R

3=2

3

u

b2

ÀR

3=2

2

u

b3

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

R

2

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

R

3

p

ðR

3

ÀR

2

Þ

¸ ¸

: ð3Þ

R

2

and R

3

in Eq. (3) are the distances of nodes 2 and 3 with respect

to the origin.

The fatigue crack growth calculations for the conﬁguration

shown in Fig. 1 are based on the mathematical models proposed

by Paris and Erdogan [7], and Joseph and Erdogan [8]. Suppose that

the stress applied to the graded medium r varies cyclically in time

with a constant stress range Dr and a constant mean stress. Then,

the growth rate at a point on the crack front can be calculated

using Paris–Erdogan law [7,8], which is expressed as:

dq

dN

¼ CDK

n

I

; ð4Þ

where q is the radius of curvature at the considered point on the

crack front, N is the number of cycles, DK

I

is the stress intensity fac-

tor range, and C and n are material parameters. In the ﬁnite element

implementation, ﬁrst, the increment for a particular point on the

crack front is speciﬁed as Dq

0

. The number of cycles corresponding

to this increment is computed using

DN

0

ﬃ

Dq

0

C

0

DK

n

0

I0

: ð5Þ

The increments at other points around the crack front are then cal-

culated by substituting Eq. (5) into Eq. (4):

Dq

i

ﬃ

C

i

DK

n

i

Ii

C

0

DK

n

0

I0

Dq

0

; ð6Þ

where the subscript i stands for a generic point on the crack front. A

sufﬁciently small value needs to be used for Dq

0

to be able to obtain

accurate results through Eqs. (5) and (6).

After calculating the crack growth increments for a speciﬁed

number of points on the crack front, the new crack front proﬁle

is generated by connecting the new locations by splines. The pro-

cedure is then repeated to form the crack front proﬁle correspond-

ing to the next speciﬁed increment.

3. Veriﬁcation of the developed procedure

We validated the methods described in the previous section on

problems involving stationary and propagating cracks. For the sta-

tionary cracks, the application of the displacement correlation

technique is veriﬁed by considering two different problems, the

ﬁrst of which is the problem of an elliptical crack in a homoge-

neous medium, and the second is that of a surface crack in a func-

tionally graded plate. As for the propagating cracks, the validation

study is conducted by examining fatigue growth in a homogeneous

medium. In what follows below, we present the results generated

for these validation problems.

By considering the elliptical crack problem shown in Fig. 1, Ir-

win [10] derived a simple closed form expression for the mode I

stress intensity factor. In this derivation, the material was assumed

to be homogeneous. We ﬁrst focus on this problem solved by Irwin

[10] and provide comparisons of the mode I SIFs computed by the

DCT developed in the present study to those obtained through Ir-

win’s formula. These comparisons are given in Table 1. In the cal-

culation of these results, the medium shown in Fig. 1 is assumed

to be homogeneous and made of Ti–6Al–4V. The material proper-

ties are taken from Refs. [3,11] and provided in Table 2. The minor

and major radii of the crack are respectively set as 0.5 cm and

1.5 cm. The normalized mode I stress intensity factor provided in

Table 1 at various locations around the crack front is deﬁned as

K

In

¼

K

I

r

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

pa

p : ð7Þ

Examining the results given in Table 1, it is seen that the nor-

malized mode I stress intensity factors computed by the DCT are

in excellent agreement with those obtained through Irwin’s for-

Fig. 3. Crack front and the local coordinate system at point P.

Fig. 4. Deformed shape of the crack surface in the normal plane.

Table 1

Comparisons of the normalized stress intensity factors computed by the displacement

correlation technique to those obtained by the formula given by Irwin [10].

2Ø/p Irwin [10] DCT % Difference

1 (minor axis) 0.8979 0.8977 0.02

0.875 0.8902 0.8898 0.05

0.75 0.8671 0.8675 0.04

0.5 0.7752 0.7755 0.03

0.375 0.7075 0.7068 0.10

0.25 0.6293 0.6270 0.37

0.125 0.5540 0.5523 0.31

0 (major axis) 0.5184 0.5180 0.09

B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 3

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

mula. Hence, it is possible to compute the mode I stress intensity

factors to within a high degree of accuracy by employing the dis-

placement correlation technique developed in the present study.

To be able to demonstrate the applicability of the developed

method for functionally graded materials, we provide additional

comparisons by considering the static surface crack problem stud-

ied by Walters et al. [1]. The problem geometry is shown in Fig. 5.

The ﬁgure depicts a semi-elliptical surface crack located in an iso-

tropic FGM plate, that is under the effect of remote normal stress r

at the ends y = ±L. The modulus of elasticity of the plate is repre-

sented by an exponential function, and given by

EðxÞ ¼ E

1

expðbxÞ; ð8Þ

where b is a nonhomogeneity constant. Poisson’s ratio is assumed

to be constant and equal to 0.25. L and B are taken as sufﬁciently

large by Walters et al. [1]; and as a result the stress ﬁeld around

the crack front is not affected by the boundaries at y = ±L and those

at z = ±B. Table 3 tabulates the normalized mode I stress intensity

factors computed by using the displacement correlation technique

developed in the present study and those given by Walters et al.

[1], which are evaluated by means of a three dimensional domain

integral method. The normalized mode I SIF is deﬁned by

K

In

¼

K

I

r

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

pa

1þ1:464ðc=aÞ

1:65

: ð9Þ

The results obtained by the developed displacement correlation

technique are in very good agreement with those provided by

Walters et al. [1], which is indicative of the high level of accuracy

achieved through the application of this technique. Percent differ-

ence at the point where the crack front intersects the free surface,

i.e. at / = 0, is relatively larger compared to the percent differences

computed at the other points. The degree of singularity at this

point is different from 0.5 and depends on the Poisson’s ratio

[12]. Both in the article by Walters et al. [1] and in the present

study, the special singular behaviour at the free surface is not con-

sidered, and the results are obtained by assuming that there is a

square-root singularity at all points around the crack front includ-

ing the point of intersection at the free surface. The change in the

singularity at this single point could be the main reason behind the

difference between the results computed for / = 0. However,

although the percent difference is relatively larger at this point,

it is less than 3% and the agreement is still acceptable. The ﬁnite

element mesh used in the calculation of the results tabulated in Ta-

ble 3 is shown in Fig. 6.

Next, we consider fatigue crack propagation in a homogeneous

medium subjected to cyclic loading for further veriﬁcation. The ini-

tial geometry of the crack is as depicted in Fig. 1; and the medium

is assumed to be subjected to a cyclically varying stress with a con-

stant stress range given as Dr = 100 MPa and a constant mean

stress of 50 MPa. The material is homogeneous Ti–6Al–4V. The ini-

tial minor and major radii of the elliptical crack are taken as 0.5 cm

and 1.5 cm, respectively. Fatigue growth behaviour of this crack is

examined by using two different methods, the ﬁrst of which is the

method elucidated in the previous section. The second method is

based on the assumption that the initially-elliptical crack retains

Table 2

Properties of Ti–6Al–4V [3,11].

Modulus of

elasticity (GPa)

Poisson’s

ratio

Paris–Erdogan law

coefﬁcient (C)

Paris–Erdogan law

exponent (n)

105.8 0.298 5.2 Â 10

À12

3.17

Fig. 5. (a) Surface cracked FGM plate problem considered by Walters et al. [1] and

(b) plan view of the semi-elliptical surface crack.

Table 3

Comparisons of the normalized mode I stress intensity factors computed by the

displacement correlation technique to those given by Walters et al. [1]. a/h = 0.5, a/

c = 2, E(h)/E

1

= 5.

2Ø/p Walters et al. [1] DCT % Difference

1 (major axis) 0.580 0.587 1.21

0.875 0.595 0.600 0.84

0.75 0.629 0.631 0.32

0.5 0.679 0.686 1.03

0.375 0.685 0.693 1.17

0.25 0.677 0.684 1.03

0.125 0.656 0.664 1.22

0 (minor axis) 0.596 0.613 2.85

Fig. 6. Finite element model used in the solution of the semi-elliptical crack

problem considered by Walters et al. [1].

4 B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

its elliptical form during propagation. Hence, in the second method

it is possible to generate the crack front proﬁle at each step by con-

sidering only two points on the crack border. In our calculations

pertaining to this second method, we used the points on the minor

and major axes to generate the crack front data. In fact, it is previ-

ously shown that, for homogeneous materials it is sufﬁcient to use

just two points along the crack front for accurate prediction of the

crack shape and the fatigue life [13]. The crack front proﬁles gener-

ated by these two different approaches are shown in Fig. 7. The cir-

cular symbols and the full lines in this ﬁgure represent the crack

front proﬁles formed by using the fatigue crack growth analysis

procedure described in Section 2, whereas the dashed lines are

for the results obtained through the numerical procedure based

on the invariant elliptical crack front assumption. The number of

cycles corresponding to each crack front proﬁle is provided in Table

4. As can be seen from Fig. 7, the results obtained using the two dif-

ferent approaches are in very good agreement, which is a valida-

tion of the proposed ﬁnite elements based crack growth analysis

algorithm.

4. Fatigue crack propagation in functionally graded materials

The numerical results regarding fatigue crack propagation in

FGMs are generated for the initially-elliptical crack depicted in

Fig. 1. Two different types of gradation proﬁles are considered in

the analyses. In the ﬁrst case, material properties are assumed to

vary in the direction of the minor axis as shown in Fig. 8a, whereas

in the second case the variation is along the major axis as illustrated

in Fig. 8b. In both examples, the total length His taken as 15 cm, and

the initial major and minor radii are set as 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm,

respectively. The applied stress range is 100 MPa and the mean

stress is 50 MPa. The medium is 100% metal at x = ÀH/3 and 100%

ceramic at x = 2H/3. The particular metallic and ceramic compo-

nents used are Ti–6Al–4V and zirconia (ZrO

2

). Material properties

of Ti–6Al–4V are given Table 1 and the properties of zirconia are

tabulated in Table 5.

The spatial variation of each of the material properties is repre-

sented by the following relation:

AðxÞ ¼ A

cr

exp

2

3

À

x

H

ln

A

m

A

cr

; ð10Þ

where A symbolizes any of the material parameters E, m, C, and n; and

the subscripts cr and m refer to the 100% ceramic and 100% metallic

material properties, respectively. Notice that A(ÀH/3) = A

m

and

A(2H/3) = A

cr

.

Three different types of ﬁnite elements are used to simulate fa-

tigue crack propagation in functionally graded materials. The vol-

ume around the crack border is modelled by utilizing collapsed

20-noded isoparametric brick elements, whereas the domain

excluding this volume is discretized by means of brick and tetrahe-

dral elements. Note that remodelling is required to compute stress

intensity factors, for the crack front morphology changes under re-

peated loading. The number of ﬁnite elements used at a given step

in the ﬁnite element computations is different from those used at

the other steps. Extensively reﬁned ﬁnite element meshes are used

throughout the computations so as to assure the generation of con-

vergent results. For example, in the initial conﬁguration of the prob-

lem in which the direction of elastic gradation coincides with the

minor axis, a total of 71,514 ﬁnite elements are used; while for

FGMs with elastic gradation in the direction of the major axis total

initial element number is 75,635. For each case, 960 collapsed sin-

gular elements are utilized in the modelling of the crack front re-

gion. The element number is determined through a mesh

reﬁnement study. After successive mesh reﬁnements, the mesh

resulting in convergent results is chosen to compute the stress

intensity factors. Since the examined medium is functionally

graded, the material properties vary from element to element. In

our analyses, we followed the homogeneous ﬁnite element method,

and computed the material properties of a given ﬁnite element at

its centroid. The approach of utilizing homogeneous ﬁnite elements

leads to the generation of highly accurate results so long as there is

sufﬁcient mesh reﬁnement in the model. The validation study we

describe in Section 3 indicates that, highly accurate fracture analy-

ses can be conducted through the use of the homogeneous ﬁnite

element method employed in the present study. Fig. 7. Crack front proﬁles for an elliptical crack in a homogeneous medium.

Table 4

Cycle numbers corresponding to the crack front proﬁles.

Proﬁle Number of cycles (N)

1 178,943

2 307,326

3 409,383

4 494,869

Fig. 8. (a) Material property gradation in the direction of the minor axis and (b)

material property gradation in the direction of the major axis.

B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 5

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

Results illustrating the crack front proﬁles in FGMs subjected to

cycling loading are presented in Figs. 9 and 10. The numbers of cy-

cles corresponding to the crack front proﬁles are provided in Tables

6 and 7. From Figs. 9 and 10, it can be observed that the elliptical

shape of the crack is distorted in functionally graded materials due

to the existence of the material property gradation. In both cases,

the crack grows more rapidly towards the 100% ceramic surface.

This is the expected result since the exponent of the Paris–Erdogan

law for ceramic materials is much larger compared to that for

metallic materials. Due to the brittle nature of ceramics, crack

growth in these materials occurs at much larger rates. Moreover,

crack growth in the direction orthogonal to the direction of grada-

tion is seen to be signiﬁcant when the orthogonal direction coin-

cides with the minor axis and suppressed when the orthogonal

direction coincides with the major axis. The results given in Figs.

9 and 10 and Tables 6 and 7 indicate that the method presented

in this article could prove useful in keeping the track of crack front

morphology and computing the fatigue lives of functionally graded

structures.

5. Concluding remarks

The main objective in the present study is to develop a compu-

tational method capable of generating useful data regarding fati-

gue crack propagation behaviour of functionally graded

materials. For this purpose, we considered the general conﬁgura-

tion of an initially-elliptical crack in an elastic functionally graded

medium. The crack and the graded medium are modelled by means

of a three dimensional ﬁnite element approach. The square-root

singular behaviour of the strain ﬁeld around the crack front is inte-

grated into the ﬁnite element model by employing singular ﬁnite

elements. The smooth spatial variations in the material properties

of FGMs are taken into account by specifying material properties at

the centroid of each ﬁnite element. Mode I stress intensity factors

around the crack front are computed through the application of the

displacement correlation technique. Fatigue crack propagation

algorithm is based on the Paris–Erdogan law [7] and can be consid-

ered as an extension of the technique proposed by Joseph and

Erdogan [8]. The comparisons of SIFs given in Section 3 display

the high level of accuracy achieved in the applications of the three

dimensional displacement correlation technique for both homoge-

neous and functionally graded materials. Moreover, results on fati-

gue crack growth provided in Section 3 illustrate that, the elliptical

crack front form, that occurs during propagation in homogeneous

materials, can be captured quite accurately by means of the pro-

posed computational algorithm.

In Section 4, we present results pertaining to fatigue crack

growth in functionally graded materials, which demonstrate the

distortion of the elliptical shape of the crack due to the inﬂuence

of the material property gradation. Under cyclic loading, the crack

is seen to grow much more rapidly towards the 100% ceramic

plane; and crack growth increments are generally relatively small

towards the 100% metallic plane. Furthermore, crack growth rates

in the direction orthogonal to the direction of gradation are larger

when the orthogonal direction coincides with the minor axis than

when the orthogonal direction coincides with the major axis. It is

concluded that the computational method proposed in this study

is an effective way of generating crack front proﬁles and computing

fatigue lives of functionally graded structures. This method is

deemed to be among the ﬁrst in the literature dealing with the

phenomenon of fatigue in functionally graded materials. It can fur-

ther be extended to study the propagation of mixed-mode cracks

in FGMs. This requires the computation of the modes I–III stress

intensity factors as well as the utilization of a relation that corre-

lates crack growth rates with mixed-mode stress intensity factor

ranges.

References

[1] M.C. Walters, G.H. Paulino, R.H. Dodds Jr., International Journal of Solids and

Structures 41 (2004) 1081–1118.

[2] O. Inan, S. Dag, F. Erdogan, Materials Science Forum 492–493 (2005) 373–378.

Table 5

Properties of ZrO

2

[3,14].

Modulus of

elasticity (GPa)

Poisson’s

ratio

Paris–Erdogan law

coefﬁcient (C)

Paris–Erdogan law

exponent (n)

116.4 0.333 2.7 Â 10

À16

19

Fig. 9. Crack front proﬁles generated by considering property variations along the

minor axis.

Fig. 10. Crack front proﬁles generated by considering property variations along the

major axis.

Table 6

Numbers of cycles corresponding to the crack front

proﬁles shown in Fig. 9.

Crack proﬁle Number of cycles

1 5359

2 8529

3 10,472

4 11,863

Table 7

Numbers of cycles corresponding to the crack front

proﬁles shown in Fig. 10.

Crack proﬁle Number of cycles

1 5349

2 8512

3 10,442

4 11,768

6 B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

[3] B. Yildirim, S. Dag, F. Erdogan, International Journal of Fracture 132 (2005)

369–395.

[4] A.O. Ayhan, International Journal of Solids and Structures 46 (2009) 796–

810.

[5] H. Yu, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Wu, S. Du, International Journal of Solids and Structures

47 (2010) 2178–2189.

[6] Ch. Zhang, M. Cui, J. Wang, X.W. Gao, J. Sladek, V. Sladek, Engineering Fracture

Mechanics 78 (2011) 585–604.

[7] P. Paris, F. Erdogan, ASME Journal of Basic Engineering 85 (1963) 528–534.

[8] P.F. Joseph, F. Erdogan, International Journal of Fracture 41 (1989) 105–131.

[9] ANSYS, ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide, Release 5.4, ANSYS Inc.,

Canonsburg PA, USA, 1997.

[10] G.R. Irwin, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 29 (1962) 651–654.

[11] R.O. Ritchie, D.L. Davidson, B.L. Boyce, J.P. Campbell, O. Roder, Fatigue and

Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 22 (1999) 621–631.

[12] A.O. Ayhan, H.F. Nied, International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Engineering 54 (2002) 899–921.

[13] J.M. Martinez-Esnaola, A. Martin-Meizoso, International Journal of Fracture

109 (2001) L17–L22.

[14] J. Acala, M. Anglada, Materials Science and Engineering A 232 (1997) 103–109.

B. Sabuncuoglu et al. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 7

Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.06.010

The origin of a Cartesian coordinate system is also located at point P. normal (n). the material is assumed to possess property gradation in x-direction. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx used to predict the fatigue lives of functionally graded components. we provide the details of the three dimensional computational analysis methodology developed to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. The major and minor radii of the elliptical crack are denoted by c and a. we use the displacement correlation technique in the evaluation of the SIFs.06.commatsci. The normal plane is formed by n and b Fig.010 . Fig. the mode I stress intensity factor distribution around the crack front can be evaluated by using one of the available computational methods. 4 depicts the deformed shape of the crack in the normal plane passing through point P. The geometry of the particular problem considered is depicted in Fig. respectively.2011. 1. however they vary from element to element according to the position of the centroid. If the displacement ﬁeld for the cracked functionally graded medium is known. Mater. 1 is constructed by using the general purpose ﬁnite element analysis software ANSYS [9]. The dimensions were taken such that the bounding planes would have no effect on the behaviour of the elliptical crack. a point P lying on the border of the crack. Since. The computational procedure In this section. Please cite this article in press as: B. The properties are uniform over each element. The ﬁnite element model for the problem depicted in Fig. 2 shows the quarter model generated and close-up view of the region around the crack front. Sci. Fig.3]. Smooth spatial variations of the material properties of the graded medium are taken into account in the ﬁnite element model by computing the properties of each ﬁnite element at its centroid.1016/j. and binormal (b) directions.2 B. Sabuncuoglu et al. (a) An elliptical crack in an inﬁnite volume and (b) a point P on the elliptical crack front. 1. doi:10. In this technique. 3 shows such Fig. the expression of the stress intensity factor is derived by considering a point P on the crack front. (2011). In order to simulate the square-root singularity of the strain ﬁeld near the crack border. This is the so called homogeneous ﬁnite element approach and known to lead to highly accurate numerical results so long as there is appropriate mesh reﬁnement in the ﬁnite element model [2. This coordinate system comprises tangential (t). Presented numerical results illustrate the inﬂuence of material property gradation on the fatigue propagation characteristics of cracks located in cyclically loaded ceramic–metal FGMs. The crack is loaded through the normal stress r applied over the remote bounding planes. An elliptical crack resides in an elastic functionally graded medium. the volume around this border is modelled by utilizing collapsed 20-noded isoparametric brick elements. one-quarter of the medium is modelled by considering symmetries about xyand xz-planes.. Comput. 2. (a) The quarter model and (b) the crack front region. whose material properties are functions of the x-coordinate. 2. In the present study. whereas the domain excluding this volume is discretized by means of brick and tetrahedral elements. Sabuncuoglu et al. Fig.

2Ø/p 1 (minor axis) 0.5523 0. Sci. Under mode I loading conditions. and C and n are material parameters. EP and mP are the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio computed at point P. The procedure is then repeated to form the crack front proﬁle corresponding to the next speciﬁed increment. it is seen that the normalized mode I stress intensity factors computed by the DCT are in excellent agreement with those obtained through Irwin’s for- Table 1 Comparisons of the normalized stress intensity factors computed by the displacement correlation technique to those obtained by the formula given by Irwin [10].5184 DCT 0. 1 are based on the mathematical models proposed by Paris and Erdogan [7]. 3.6293 0.7075 0. The fatigue crack growth calculations for the conﬁguration shown in Fig.05 0. We ﬁrst focus on this problem solved by Irwin [10] and provide comparisons of the mode I SIFs computed by the DCT developed in the present study to those obtained through Irwin’s formula.10 0. Then. 3. doi:10.6270 0. we present the results generated for these validation problems. which is expressed as: Examining the results given in Table 1.8977 0. (2011).375 0. the medium shown in Fig. the increment for a particular point on the Please cite this article in press as: B.B. it is possible to express the mode I stress intensity factor in the following form: # 3=2 3=2 R3 ub2 À R2 ub3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ : KI ¼ R2 R3 ðR3 À R2 Þ 4ð1 À ðmP Þ2 Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ P 2pE " We validated the methods described in the previous section on problems involving stationary and propagating cracks.5180 % Difference 0. A sufﬁciently small value needs to be used for Dq0 to be able to obtain accurate results through Eqs. the validation study is conducted by examining fatigue growth in a homogeneous medium. The nodes 1–3 in Fig.8979 0. and Joseph and Erdogan [8]. Sabuncuoglu et al.8898 0. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 3 crack front is speciﬁed as Dq0. In this derivation.8675 0. the asymptotic displacements of these nodes in b-direction can be found from [3] ub ðnÞ ¼ 4ð1 À ðmP Þ2 Þ EP rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ jnj KI. The minor and major radii of the crack are respectively set as 0. and the second is that of a surface crack in a functionally graded plate. The mode I SIF at P is deﬁned as [2. 4 are considered to be at the edge of a collapsed 20-noded brick element. 4.11] and provided in Table 2.02 0. Comput. Veriﬁcation of the developed procedure Fig.125 0 (major axis) Irwin [10] 0.5 cm and 1. (3) are the distances of nodes 2 and 3 with respect to the origin. and the superscript P implies that the corresponding material property should be calculated at point P. axes. (5) into Eq.37 0.8]. 2p ð1Þ where KI is the mode I stress intensity factor. (1) and (2) and the displacements of the nodes 2 and 3.. These comparisons are given in Table 1. [3. As for the propagating cracks.04 0.3] ) ub ðjnjÞ KI ¼ lim pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ : jnj 4ð1 À ðmP Þ2 Þ jnj!0 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ P 2pE ( ð2Þ Then. For the stationary cracks.25 0. ﬁrst. respectively. C i DK Iii Dq0 . 1 is assumed to be homogeneous and made of Ti–6Al–4V. The normalized mode I stress intensity factor provided in Table 1 at various locations around the crack front is deﬁned as ð3Þ KI K In ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ : r pa ð7Þ R2 and R3 in Eq. 1.commatsci. Suppose that the stress applied to the graded medium r varies cyclically in time with a constant stress range Dr and a constant mean stress. In the calculation of these results. Irwin [10] derived a simple closed form expression for the mode I stress intensity factor.010 .31 0. using Eqs.2011. In the ﬁnite element implementation. By considering the elliptical crack problem shown in Fig. the growth rate at a point on the crack front can be calculated using Paris–Erdogan law [7.5540 0.7752 0. I dN ð4Þ where q is the radius of curvature at the considered point on the crack front.7068 0.8671 0.03 0.8902 0. (5) and (6).7755 0. (4): Dqi ﬃ Fig. C 0 DK n 0 I0 n ð6Þ where the subscript i stands for a generic point on the crack front. N is the number of cycles.1016/j. In what follows below.875 0. Mater.5 0. DKI is the stress intensity factor range. The number of cycles corresponding to this increment is computed using DN 0 ﬃ Dq0 : C 0 DK n0 I0 ð5Þ The increments at other points around the crack front are then calculated by substituting Eq. the new crack front proﬁle is generated by connecting the new locations by splines. The material properties are taken from Refs. Sabuncuoglu et al. the ﬁrst of which is the problem of an elliptical crack in a homogeneous medium.06.09 dq ¼ C DK n . the application of the displacement correlation technique is veriﬁed by considering two different problems. Crack front and the local coordinate system at point P. After calculating the crack growth increments for a speciﬁed number of points on the crack front. Deformed shape of the crack surface in the normal plane.75 0. the material was assumed to be homogeneous.5 cm.

693 0. although the percent difference is relatively larger at this point.5 and depends on the Poisson’s ratio [12].298 B. ð8Þ where b is a nonhomogeneity constant. and as a result the stress ﬁeld around the crack front is not affected by the boundaries at y = ±L and those at z = ±B.595 0. 5..2 Â 10À12 Paris–Erdogan law exponent (n) 3. Finite element model used in the solution of the semi-elliptical crack problem considered by Walters et al. that is under the effect of remote normal stress r at the ends y = ±L. Percent difference at the point where the crack front intersects the free surface.631 0.629 0. 6. 6.875 0. which is indicative of the high level of accuracy achieved through the application of this technique. The modulus of elasticity of the plate is represented by an exponential function. Poisson’s ratio is assumed to be constant and equal to 0. The ﬁgure depicts a semi-elliptical surface crack located in an isotropic FGM plate. 2Ø/p 1 (major axis) 0. and the medium is assumed to be subjected to a cyclically varying stress with a constant stress range given as Dr = 100 MPa and a constant mean stress of 50 MPa. is relatively larger compared to the percent differences computed at the other points. the ﬁrst of which is the method elucidated in the previous section. [1].84 0. [1]. The initial minor and major radii of the elliptical crack are taken as 0.5 0. doi:10.580 0. [1]. E(h)/E1 = 5. it is less than 3% and the agreement is still acceptable.684 0. Please cite this article in press as: B. The problem geometry is shown in Fig. The change in the singularity at this single point could be the main reason behind the difference between the results computed for / = 0. [1] and in the present study. (2011). Comput.010 . Fig.75 0. at / = 0.679 0. The normalized mode I SIF is deﬁned by The results obtained by the developed displacement correlation technique are in very good agreement with those provided by Walters et al. To be able to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method for functionally graded materials. 1.03 1.22 2. The initial geometry of the crack is as depicted in Fig.32 1.17 mula.613 % Difference 1. the special singular behaviour at the free surface is not considered. [1] 0.677 0. and given by KI K In ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ : r pa 1þ1:464ðc=aÞ1:65 ð9Þ EðxÞ ¼ E1 expðbxÞ.686 0. 5. Sabuncuoglu et al. Both in the article by Walters et al. Mater. i. respectively. (a) Surface cracked FGM plate problem considered by Walters et al.587 0. Sabuncuoglu et al.4 Table 2 Properties of Ti–6Al–4V [3.e. Fatigue growth behaviour of this crack is examined by using two different methods.25.685 0. However. [1]. Table 3 tabulates the normalized mode I stress intensity factors computed by using the displacement correlation technique developed in the present study and those given by Walters et al. Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 105. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx Table 3 Comparisons of the normalized mode I stress intensity factors computed by the displacement correlation technique to those given by Walters et al. The ﬁnite element mesh used in the calculation of the results tabulated in Table 3 is shown in Fig.2011. which are evaluated by means of a three dimensional domain integral method.25 0.664 0. The degree of singularity at this point is different from 0.600 0.596 DCT 0. and the results are obtained by assuming that there is a square-root singularity at all points around the crack front including the point of intersection at the free surface. we provide additional comparisons by considering the static surface crack problem studied by Walters et al.5 cm.21 0. it is possible to compute the mode I stress intensity factors to within a high degree of accuracy by employing the displacement correlation technique developed in the present study.17 1.656 0.125 0 (minor axis) Walters et al. [1].5.8 Poisson’s ratio 0.11].5 cm and 1.commatsci. we consider fatigue crack propagation in a homogeneous medium subjected to cyclic loading for further veriﬁcation. Sci.1016/j. Next.03 1. The material is homogeneous Ti–6Al–4V. [1] and (b) plan view of the semi-elliptical surface crack. Hence. a/h = 0.375 0. L and B are taken as sufﬁciently large by Walters et al.85 Paris–Erdogan law coefﬁcient (C) 5.06. a/ c = 2. [1]. The second method is based on the assumption that the initially-elliptical crack retains Fig.

The validation study we describe in Section 3 indicates that. which is a validation of the proposed ﬁnite elements based crack growth analysis algorithm. 7. In the ﬁrst case. In both examples. The crack front proﬁles generated by these two different approaches are shown in Fig. ð10Þ dral elements. Mater. Please cite this article in press as: B. material properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the minor axis as shown in Fig. whereas the domain excluding this volume is discretized by means of brick and tetrahe- Fig. and computed the material properties of a given ﬁnite element at its centroid.326 409.010 . 8a. Sci. Two different types of gradation proﬁles are considered in the analyses. Extensively reﬁned ﬁnite element meshes are used throughout the computations so as to assure the generation of convergent results. Notice that A(ÀH/3) = Am and A(2H/3) = Acr. the results obtained using the two different approaches are in very good agreement. we used the points on the minor and major axes to generate the crack front data. In our analyses. the mesh resulting in convergent results is chosen to compute the stress intensity factors. 8.635. C. where A symbolizes any of the material parameters E.1016/j. for homogeneous materials it is sufﬁcient to use just two points along the crack front for accurate prediction of the crack shape and the fatigue life [13]. the material properties vary from element to element. Fatigue crack propagation in functionally graded materials The numerical results regarding fatigue crack propagation in FGMs are generated for the initially-elliptical crack depicted in Fig. 4.383 494.06. Material properties of Ti–6Al–4V are given Table 1 and the properties of zirconia are tabulated in Table 5. The volume around the crack border is modelled by utilizing collapsed 20-noded isoparametric brick elements. For each case. Proﬁle 1 2 3 4 Number of cycles (N) 178. Note that remodelling is required to compute stress intensity factors.commatsci. In fact. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 5 its elliptical form during propagation. The number of cycles corresponding to each crack front proﬁle is provided in Table 4. a total of 71. Hence. we followed the homogeneous ﬁnite element method.2011. the total length H is taken as 15 cm. À 3 H Acr Fig.5 cm and 0. The number of ﬁnite elements used at a given step in the ﬁnite element computations is different from those used at the other steps. In our calculations pertaining to this second method. 1. respectively. while for FGMs with elastic gradation in the direction of the major axis total initial element number is 75.. doi:10. 7. After successive mesh reﬁnements. whereas in the second case the variation is along the major axis as illustrated in Fig. Since the examined medium is functionally graded. 7. The particular metallic and ceramic components used are Ti–6Al–4V and zirconia (ZrO2). Crack front proﬁles for an elliptical crack in a homogeneous medium. Sabuncuoglu et al. for the crack front morphology changes under repeated loading. Comput. respectively.869 AðxÞ ¼ Acr exp 2 x Am ln . For example. it is previously shown that. The circular symbols and the full lines in this ﬁgure represent the crack front proﬁles formed by using the fatigue crack growth analysis procedure described in Section 2. 960 collapsed singular elements are utilized in the modelling of the crack front region.5 cm. (2011).514 ﬁnite elements are used. and n. whereas the dashed lines are for the results obtained through the numerical procedure based on the invariant elliptical crack front assumption. m. (a) Material property gradation in the direction of the minor axis and (b) material property gradation in the direction of the major axis. Three different types of ﬁnite elements are used to simulate fatigue crack propagation in functionally graded materials. As can be seen from Fig. The applied stress range is 100 MPa and the mean stress is 50 MPa. and the subscripts cr and m refer to the 100% ceramic and 100% metallic material properties. Sabuncuoglu et al. and the initial major and minor radii are set as 1.B. 8b. in the second method it is possible to generate the crack front proﬁle at each step by considering only two points on the crack border. The medium is 100% metal at x = ÀH/3 and 100% ceramic at x = 2H/3.943 307. The approach of utilizing homogeneous ﬁnite elements leads to the generation of highly accurate results so long as there is sufﬁcient mesh reﬁnement in the model. The spatial variation of each of the material properties is represented by the following relation: Table 4 Cycle numbers corresponding to the crack front proﬁles. in the initial conﬁguration of the problem in which the direction of elastic gradation coincides with the minor axis. The element number is determined through a mesh reﬁnement study. highly accurate fracture analyses can be conducted through the use of the homogeneous ﬁnite element method employed in the present study.

can be captured quite accurately by means of the proposed computational algorithm. 5.768 neous and functionally graded materials. Under cyclic loading. [1] M. Crack proﬁle 1 2 3 4 Number of cycles 5359 8529 10. 9 and 10.06. Paulino. International Journal of Solids and Structures 41 (2004) 1081–1118. (2011). Please cite this article in press as: B. which demonstrate the distortion of the elliptical shape of the crack due to the inﬂuence of the material property gradation. The crack and the graded medium are modelled by means of a three dimensional ﬁnite element approach. Materials Science Forum 492–493 (2005) 373–378. we considered the general conﬁguration of an initially-elliptical crack in an elastic functionally graded medium. 9. The numbers of cycles corresponding to the crack front proﬁles are provided in Tables 6 and 7...1016/j. Crack front proﬁles generated by considering property variations along the major axis.2011. Moreover. The comparisons of SIFs given in Section 3 display the high level of accuracy achieved in the applications of the three dimensional displacement correlation technique for both homoge- Fig. Furthermore. This requires the computation of the modes I–III stress intensity factors as well as the utilization of a relation that correlates crack growth rates with mixed-mode stress intensity factor ranges. The smooth spatial variations in the material properties of FGMs are taken into account by specifying material properties at the centroid of each ﬁnite element. Sci. It can further be extended to study the propagation of mixed-mode cracks in FGMs.472 11. crack growth in these materials occurs at much larger rates. Dag.442 11. This method is deemed to be among the ﬁrst in the literature dealing with the phenomenon of fatigue in functionally graded materials. The results given in Figs.4 Poisson’s ratio 0. Crack front proﬁles generated by considering property variations along the minor axis. we present results pertaining to fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. 9 and 10 and Tables 6 and 7 indicate that the method presented in this article could prove useful in keeping the track of crack front morphology and computing the fatigue lives of functionally graded structures. Sabuncuoglu et al. Moreover. the crack grows more rapidly towards the 100% ceramic surface.H. and crack growth increments are generally relatively small towards the 100% metallic plane. it can be observed that the elliptical shape of the crack is distorted in functionally graded materials due to the existence of the material property gradation. Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 116. that occurs during propagation in homogeneous materials. G. From Figs. Erdogan. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx Paris–Erdogan law coefﬁcient (C) 2. Due to the brittle nature of ceramics. crack growth rates in the direction orthogonal to the direction of gradation are larger when the orthogonal direction coincides with the minor axis than when the orthogonal direction coincides with the major axis. crack growth in the direction orthogonal to the direction of gradation is seen to be signiﬁcant when the orthogonal direction coincides with the minor axis and suppressed when the orthogonal direction coincides with the major axis. S.14]. Mode I stress intensity factors around the crack front are computed through the application of the displacement correlation technique.6 Table 5 Properties of ZrO2 [3. [2] O.333 B. In Section 4. It is concluded that the computational method proposed in this study is an effective way of generating crack front proﬁles and computing fatigue lives of functionally graded structures. R. Inan.010 . Table 6 Numbers of cycles corresponding to the crack front proﬁles shown in Fig. Comput. F. Sabuncuoglu et al.863 Table 7 Numbers of cycles corresponding to the crack front proﬁles shown in Fig. doi:10. results on fatigue crack growth provided in Section 3 illustrate that. 10. Walters. For this purpose.commatsci. This is the expected result since the exponent of the Paris–Erdogan law for ceramic materials is much larger compared to that for metallic materials. Fatigue crack propagation algorithm is based on the Paris–Erdogan law [7] and can be considered as an extension of the technique proposed by Joseph and Erdogan [8]. In both cases. The square-root singular behaviour of the strain ﬁeld around the crack front is integrated into the ﬁnite element model by employing singular ﬁnite elements. Crack proﬁle 1 2 3 4 Number of cycles 5349 8512 10. 9. Dodds Jr. 9 and 10.C. the elliptical crack front form. Concluding remarks The main objective in the present study is to develop a computational method capable of generating useful data regarding fatigue crack propagation behaviour of functionally graded materials. References Fig. 10. the crack is seen to grow much more rapidly towards the 100% ceramic plane.H.7 Â 10À16 Paris–Erdogan law exponent (n) 19 Results illustrating the crack front proﬁles in FGMs subjected to cycling loading are presented in Figs. Mater.

X. J. L. Du.B. Yu.P.commatsci. Yildirim. H. A. Sci.010 . A. (2011). Ayhan.. S. J.L. Canonsburg PA. International Journal of Solids and Structures 47 (2010) 2178–2189. D. Zhang. Joseph. Cui. International Journal of Fracture 132 (2005) 369–395.1016/j. Guo. J. 1997. F. Campbell.. S. Sladek.O. ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide. Ritchie. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 78 (2011) 585–604. M.M. M.W. Please cite this article in press as: B. Sabuncuoglu et al. Wu. Erdogan. Release 5. [5] H.06. Comput.L. H. G. Mater.4. F. Boyce. Martin-Meizoso. Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 22 (1999) 621–631. Wu.F. [6] Ch. F. ASME Journal of Basic Engineering 85 (1963) 528–534. International Journal of Fracture 109 (2001) L17–L22. Nied. International Journal of Solids and Structures 46 (2009) 796– 810. Paris. doi:10. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 29 (1962) 651–654. Materials Science and Engineering A 232 (1997) 103–109. / Computational Materials Science xxx (2011) xxx–xxx [3] B. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] 7 ANSYS.O. Erdogan. Erdogan. Sabuncuoglu et al. O. B. V.2011. J. Wang. R. Gao. J. Davidson.R.F. Roder. [8] P. Dag. Ayhan.O. USA. Sladek. ANSYS Inc. Anglada. Martinez-Esnaola. L. [7] P. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 54 (2002) 899–921. International Journal of Fracture 41 (1989) 105–131. Irwin. [4] A. Acala.

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