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# MEASUREMENT

DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT Measuring is important scientific skill. In your observation, you measure something by comparing an object with the quantity as a unit. To measure the length of a table using a book, and the book is used as a unit. Length is one of fundamental quantities. The result of measurement is useful if it uses a standard measurement. It is a unit measurement with fixed value. A book which is used as a unit of measurement is not standard because there are different lengths of books.

Prefixes in SI prefix Kilo Hector Deca Deci Centi Mili micro nano symbol Multiplying factor k 1000 d 100 da 10 d 0.1 c 0.01 m 0.001 µ 0.000001 n 0.000000001

QUANTITIES AND UNITS FUNDANMENTAL QUANTITIES LENGTH MASS TIME ELECTRIC CURRENT TEMPERATURE AMOUNT OF SUBTANCE LUMINOUS INTENSITY SI UNIT METER KILOGRAM SECOND AMPERE KELVIN MOLE CANDELA SYMBO L m kg s A K mol cd

Temperature Temperature is one of the fundamental quantities. A hot object is said to have high temperature, but a cold object has low temperature.The temperature flow from low to high temperature. Temperature can be also be stated in a smaller unit than a thermometer.

. For regularly shaped object. Volume Volume is derived quantity. Life time is between birth and death. width. Graphs In laboratory experiments. Mass Mass is not the same as weight although they are sometimes mixed up in our daily life. you can measure the length. pie charts. and nanosecond. Line graph s can show these relation clearly. microsecond. you can use milisecond. etc. and height and multiply them. For example. Example the kind of graphs scatter plots. Length can be also be stated in a smaller unit than a ruler. from the fundamental quantity of length. daylight is between the sunrise and sunset. you will usually be controlling one variable and seeing how it affects another variable. one standard meter is the same as the distance which is traveled by light in vacuum in1/299792458. bar graphs. 1 day 1 hour 1 minute = 24 hours = 60 minutes = 60 second But for a fast event. meter tape. Time Time is the duration between two events.Length Length uses SI unit in meter (m).

liquid. The state of certain matter depends on its temperature. there are three states of matter: solid. have mass. Gas Gas has no-fixed shape and no-fixed volume. Basically. . IF THE TEMPERATURE TO BE DECREASE THEN THE PARTICLE WILL MOVE TO BE SLOWER. Liquid flows from high place to low place. water changes into vapour (gas). IF THE TEMPERATURE TO BE HIGHER THEN THE PARRTICLE WILL MOVE TO BE FASTER. Solid Every solid has unchanged shape and volume or solid to have fixed shape and fixed volume. For example. SO. and can be in the form of different states. water becomes ice(as solid) in the low temperature and water is liquid in the room temperature. Liquid Liquid have no-fixed shape and fixed volume. and gas.MATTER AND ITS STATES STATE OF MATTER All matters fill the space. phase Solid Liquid gas procemity Close Close Far apart energy Little moderate A lot motion Vibrational Rational translational volume Definite Definite indefinite shape Fixed Fixed No-fixed gas liquid solid SO. At the higher temperature.

It. HEAT The heat energy is a total energy of particles composing of matter. causes the metal to expand to any direction. Conduction. Solid liquid Liquid solid Liquid gas Gas liquid : melting : freezing : evaporation : condensation . B. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Heat transfer : A. Expansion (and also contraction) happens to solid. is transfer of heat does not propagate through a certain medium. is the transfer of heat through a substance. Convection. Radiation. is transfer of heat through a substance but the parts of the substance do not move along. liquid. the part of the substance move along.DENSITY Density is a specific property of a matter. Example : the heat from sun ray. = m/v density = mass/volume EXPANSION Do you know why in a hot day roads can damage. Example: if the one of side of iron heated (by fire) the other side of iron will also heated. and gas. Example : if we cook water. it also makes the density of the metal decrease. metal for instance. is heated. a matter with more mass will have higher heat energy too. This expansion makes the volume of the metal bigger and hence. If a solid. therefore. C. why A gap is given between rail roads. and why bridge connectors are given a space? Al these are related to their expansion. the atoms and molecules of the metal will vibrate faster than usual because of the high temperature. At the same temperature.

Gas solid Solid gas : crystal : sublimation .