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KODAK: Student Filmmaker's Handbook

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Student Filmmaker's Handbook
The Kodak Worldwide Student Program gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Ryerson Polytechnic University's Digital Media Projects Office in association with The Kodak Worldwide Student Program for the publication of The Student Filmmaker's Handbook.
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Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events

Introduction Which Film Should I Use? Anatomy of a Data Sheet Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data Physical Characteristics Storage of Raw and Exposed Film How do I know I'm ordering the right film? How to identify the film's format, emulsion, length, and winding Cores and Spools Winding Perforations Film Identification Filtration Motion Picture Sound Recording Projection Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory Laboratory Operations Marketing a Film Distribution and Promotion Glossary of Motion Picture Terms

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KODAK: To The Student Filmmaker

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To The Student Filmmaker
The Student Filmaker's Handbook is a compilation of information available in many different Kodak publications. It is a resource for you to use as you pursue a career in this most exciting of industries. It will interest you to know that you are entering the film industry at one of its most exciting and dynamic times. Technological innovations recently announced and those just around the corner guarantee that FILM will be a fascinating career far into the next century. Silver halide technology, the bedrock of film manufacturing, is moving ahead each year with new Kodak T-GRAIN® Emulsions and new and improved color dye systems. Our scientists assure us that they will be able to improve the quality of film many times over in the next few years. What that means for you is that you will be recording sharper and more accurate color images than you have ever seen before. Those images will be manipulated in many new ways. HDTV (High Definition Television) is on the horizon and just beyond that is the whole new world of digital transmission of images over optical fiber networks. Eastman Kodak Company has recently demonstrated a new CCD HDTVTelecine and a High Resolution Electronic Intermediate System which will bridge the gap between electronic and silver halide technologies. And that is just the beginning. The good news for you is that your productions on film will be recorded on the one worldwide production standard. Wherever your work takes you, film will be the standard for motionpicture image production. And what's more, you will have recorded your program on the highest resolution, brightest and most accurate color medium in the world. No other technology offers the quality of a film image; and remember, that quality is going to improve in the years ahead. So, welcome to the motion picture industry. I hope you will find this book useful, and I hope you will look upon Eastman Kodak Company as a source of quality products and technical support now and in the future.
Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events

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KODAK: Which Film Should I Use?

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Which Film Should I Use?
Before selecting a specific film or films, you, the producer, and the director, will have to answer a number of basic technical and aesthetic questions about the entire production. The answers you provide will help greatly in the selection of the films that will best translate your concepts into moving pictures on a screen that convey your intended message accurately, completely, and effectively. You should consider the following factors because they directly affect your choice:
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Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events

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Anticipated release format. Will the finished prints be 35 mm or 16 mm? Shooting a 16 mm camera film to produce 35 mm release prints will involve some sacrifice in image quality. Number of finished prints needed. If you need only one and you need it fast, a reversal film designed for direct projection will be ideal. If you are producing several prints, the camera film should be selected with an eye toward the economics of the various film printing systems. The finished form of the picture. Should the finished film be in color or in black-and-white? The aesthetic impact of black-andwhite film is distinctly different from that of color. What feeling should the film convey? The sharp distinctions in hue and density provided by a color film image can convey more information than the same image composed of shades of gray. Filmmakers should not assume, however, that color is always more interesting, or that black and white is always less expensive. Should the film be silent or should it have sound? A sound track can help to focus and direct a viewer's attention to the message. Answers to these questions depend on the purpose and audience for the film. Type of lighting and exposure index. Will the subject be filmed indoors or out? Can you control the light? Some films are especially designed for low levels of light or for sensitivity at particular bands of the spectrum. All films are balanced for particular kinds of lighting. Will your film give you an accurate record of the colors in the scene if you make the motion picture only in the light available to you? Type of filtration needed. If you have to use several filters to compensate for uncontrolled elements in the scene or in the lighting, will the film be fast (sensitive) enough to record a highquality image? Type of processing and printing facilities available. Few labs process all types of film. If your nearby laboratory processes only color film, you may have to send your black-and-white film to an out-of-town lab. This situation can be especially time-consuming if the film requires editing and must be shuttled back and forth several times. You can avoid much anxiety by getting to know the personnel at the laboratories that process your films and explaining your special needs to them. It may be worthwhile to select films that can be processed by a laboratory directly familiar with your needs.

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and Numbers Film Descriptions Negative Camera Films Exposure Information ¡ Exposure Index ¡ Exposure Latitude ¡ Illumination (Incident Light) Table ¡ Lighting Contrast Ratios ¡ Reciprocity Characteristics ¡ Filter Factors ¡ Color Balance ¡ Printing Conditions Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Kodak's film data sheets are the best source for technical information about Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films." If you scroll down and find the (4) and the heading "Exposure Index. we are using that form of a Film Data Sheet as a road map. Dept. For example. The next four pages illustrate a data sheet for a hypothetical film that can be used in every stage of motion picture work. Each data sheet consists of one or more pages of detailed technical information for a particular film. NY 146500532." you can read about that topic. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . The large circles on the hypothetical data sheet illustration that is shown on the next few pages contain page numbers referring you to the beginning of a discussion on that specific topic. These sheets provide useful information for the careful and knowledgeable reader. does not contain paragraphs titled "Printing Conditions" because printing conditions are only relevant to laboratory and print films. A single free copy of any film data sheet is available from our website or write: Eastman Kodak Company. .KODAK: Anatomy of a Data Sheet Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Anatomy of a Data Sheet l l l l Film Types. Names. Rochester. A real data sheet would obviously have fewer entries--camera film data sheet. for example. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). In the discussion of professional motion picture films that follows. Each number on the data sheet will refer you to that section in the text. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. 412-L. the data sheet has a (4) on the section "exposure indexes.

Many kinds of camera films are available for the many conditions under which subjects often must be filmed. laboratory films used to produce the intermediate stages needed in the lab for special effects. Camera film is used to record the original scene. for the special effects the cinematographer wants to produce. there will always be a brief description of the overall characteristics of the film. and Numbers areas 1 and 2 Student Main Film production-from recording motion with a camera to projecting the image on a screen or cathode-ray tube-often involves three different kinds of film. Names. About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Film Descriptions area 3 Under the heading General Properties on a typical data sheet. Print film . both the 7000 and 5000 series of digits appear on the data sheet. Most film names are selfdescriptive. the film is 35 mm or wider. Kodak EKTACHROME Film indicates a reversal color film. is used to print both the first workprint and as many copies as needed of the final edited version of the project. for example) rather than by name (Eastman Color Negative II Film.KODAK: Film Types. Negative film produces an image that must be printed on another stock for final viewing. indicates a 16 mm film or a film that will be slit down to these narrower gauges after processing. The paragraphs that follow describe each of the Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films currently available and are similar in coverage to paragraphs found on each film data sheet. The first of the four digits indicates the size or "gauge" of the film. the four -digit number is more prominently displayed on the film data sheet than the name. Once the film has been edited from a workprint. a 7. Using intermediates also protects your valuable. on the other hand. and for the processing and projection requirements of the job. and Numbers Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Film Types. The name also indicates properties of the film. Names. Since at least one intermediate stage is usually produced to protect the original footage. Negative Camera Films Camera films are available in two general types: negative and reversal. titling. When a film is available in both the 16 mm and 35 mm widths. People in the photographic industry generally refer to films by number (5248. in this case). Thus. When the first digit is 5. original footage from potential damage during the printing process. on the other hand. The important thing to remember about the name and number is to use both accurately when ordering film or film data sheets. Panchromatic and orthochromatic refer to the light-sensitivity range of the film. etc. negative camera film is an .

KODAK: Film Types. Printing techniques for negative-positive film systems are very sophisticated and highly flexible. Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. All negative films can go through several print generations without pronounced contrast buildup. Names. negative film is especially appropriate for complex special effects. hence. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). and Numbers efficient choice when significant editing and special effects are planned. .

. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).KODAK: Data Sheet Page 1 Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .

lights. On the other hand.light levels. There are many variables for a single exposure. Individual cameras. Illumination Table.KODAK: Exposure Information Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Exposure Information Film data sheets for camera films give exposure information under these headings: Film Exposure Indexes. and equipment to find the exposures that produce the best results. and Filter Factors (black-and-white film) or Color Balance (color films). there are three kinds of exposure meters: The averaging reflection meter and the reflection spot meter are most useful for daylight exposures while the incident exposure meter is designed for indoor work with incandescent illuminations. The other side of the card has 90-percent reflection for use at low. Data sheet Exposure Index figures are applicable to meters marked for ISO speeds and are used as a starting point for an exposure series. Therefore. the exposure latitude increases. snowy field. You can also use this side of the card outdoors by increasing the exposure 1/2 stop above the calculated exposure. As the luminance ratio (the range from black to white) decreases. For example. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Exposure Index area 4 The film Exposure Index (EI) is a measurement of film speed that can be used with an exposure meter to determine the aperture needed for specific lighting condifions. The use of this card and appropriate adjustments for aperture and exposure time is covered in Kodak Gray Cards. The two reflection meters are sometimes used with the Kodak Gray Card. Motion Picture Home Exposure Latitude Exposure latitude is the range between overexposure and underexposure within which a film will still produce usable images. The actual shutter speeds and f-numbers of a camera and those marked on it sometimes differ. Coatings on lenses affect the amount of light that strikes the emulsion. AR-21). on overcast days the range from darkest to lightest narrows. Explanations of each of these elements are explained on the following few pages. One side of the card has a neutral 18percent reflection which can be used indoors to aid in measuring the average reflection for a typical subject. Lighting Contrast Ratios. When it comes to measuring light. film. and meters are all different (lenses are often calibrated in T-stops). Kodak Publication No. Camera techniques can also affect exposure. All of these variables can combine to make a real difference between the recommended exposure and the optimum exposure for specific conditions and equipment. R -27. increases the apparent exposure latitude. The indexes reported on film data sheets for Eastman and Kodak Motion Picture Films are based on practical picture tests but make allowance for some normal variations in equipment and film that will be used for the production. Detailed directions for using all three are given in Kodak Pocket Photoguide. you should test several combinations of camera. Reciprocity Characteristics. Particular film emulsions have unique properties. Kodak Publication No. the exposure latitude decreases when the film is recording subjects with high-luminance ratios such as black trees against a sunlit. .

Most existing incident-light meter scales are still marked in footcandles. the ratio should seldom exceed 3 to 1. Then measure the intensity of the fill light alone. the . Note: Lux is the term used to describe the intensity of the exposing light in the current international standards for determining film speed. any film has its maximum sensitivity at a particular exposure (i. A footcandle is approximately equal to 1/10 metre -candle or lux." the amount of exposure (H) received by the film equals the illuminance (E) of the light striking the film multiplied by the exposure time (t). Except for dramatic or special effects. This sensitivity varies with the exposure time and illumination level. the ratio is 6 to 1. In practice. For example.KODAK: Exposure Information Illumination (Incident Light) Table area 5 When the illumination is very low or when you cannot make reflectedlight measurements conveniently. According to "The Reciprocity Law. use an incident-light meter can be used to read the illumination direcdy in footcandies (lux). if the combined main light and fill light on a scene produce a meter reading of 6000 footcandles at the highlight areas and 1000 footcandles in the shadow areas. is known as the lighting ratio. measured at the subjects.e. The ratio of the intensities of the combined key light and fill lights to the fill light alone. This variation is called "reciprocity effect. Page 2 of 4 Lighting Contrast Ratios area 6 When using artificial light sources to illuminate a subject. First. you can determine a ratio between the relative intensity of the key light and the fill lights. measure the intensity of light at the subject under both the key and fill lighting. Lighting contrast ratio 2:1 Lighting contrast ratio 5:1 Figure 1 Reciprocity Characteristics area 7 Reciprocity refers to the relationship between light intensity (illuminance) and exposure time with respect to the total amount of exposure received by the film. If duplicate prints of the camera film are needed.. The shadow areas should be illuminated to give a reading of at least 2000 and preferably 3000 footcandles to bring the lighting ratio within the permissible range. normal exposure at the film's rated exposure index). the generally accepted ratio for color photography is 2 to I or 3 to 1." Within a reasonable range of illumination levels and exposure times.

contrast changes cannot be compensated for or contrast mismatch can occur. and the spectral composition of the light falling on the subject. When the law does not hold. with the filter or filter pack in place. the spectral sensitivity of the film emulsion. Page 3 of 4 Filter Factors area 8 Since a filter absorbs part of the light that would otherwise fall on the film.5 3 + Stops +1/3 + 2/3 +1 +1 1/3 +1 2/3 Filter Factor 4 5 6 8 10 + Stops +2 +2 1/3 +2 2/3 +3 +3 1/3 Filter Factor 12 40 100 1000 + Stops +3 2/3 +5 1/3 +6 2/3 +10 - Published filter factors apply strictly to the specific lighting conditions under which the measurements were made. the effective sensitivity of the film is lowered. This factor depends principally upon the absorption characteristics of the filter. either visually or with a densitometer to find the filtered exposure that equals the unfiltered exposure in overall density. The filter factor is the multiple by which an exposure is increased for a specific filter with a particular film. Above and below these speeds. so it may be desirable. For color films. or a photographic gray scale in the scene to be photographed. especially for scientific and technical applications using reversal films. At extreme illumination levels or exposure times. you must increase the exposure when you use a filter. black-and-white films are subject to reciprocity failure but their wide exposure latitude usually compensates for the effective loss of film speed. shoot a series of exposures at 1/2-stop intervals ranging from 2 stops under to 2 stops over the exposure determined using the published filter factor.5 2 2. The Reciprocity Law usually applies quite well for exposure times of 1/5 second to 1/000 second for blackand-white films. Then. Compare the (neutral-gray) density of one frame in the unfiltered scene with the density of one frame in each one of the filter series. a Kodak Gray Card. the photographer must compensate for both film speed and color balance changes because the speed change may be different for each of the three emulsion layers. Filter Factor = Exposure with filter Exposure eithout filter . The filter factor is the ratio of the filtered exposure to the unfiltered exposure with equal densities. Conversion of Filter Factors to Exposure Increase in Stops Filter Factor 1. place a subject with a neutral-gray area. Shoot the scene without filtration. However.KODAK: Exposure Information film produces a good image.25 1. the symptoms are underexposure and change in contrast. This condition is called "Reciprocity Law Failure" because the Reciprocity Law fails to describe the film sensitivity at very fast and very slow exposures. to determine the appropriate filter factor under actual working conditions. so that predicted increases in exposure time to compensate for low illumination or increases in illumination to compensate for short exposure time fail to produce adequate exposure. To determine a filter factor.

while camera films are nominally balanced for 5500 K daylight. 3200 K tungsten. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. cool-white fluorescent. filtration over the carnera lens or over the light source is required. The use of the Laboratory Aim Density (LAD) control method is recommended for determining optimum printing exposure. These printer setups should be read for comparison purposes and used only as a starting point. Page 4 of 4 Printing Conditions area 10 A representative printer setup is described for each laboratory or print film. 3400 K tungsten. Camera film data sheets contain starting-point filter recommendations for the most common lighting sources: daylight.KODAK: Exposure Information Color Balance area 9 Color balance relates to the color of a light source that a color film is designed to record without additional filtration. deluxe cool-white fluorescent. 3200 K tungsten. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . When filming under light sources different from those recommended. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). and Mole -Richardson HI Arc lamps (both white-flame and yellow-flame carbons). . or 3400 K tungsten exposure. All laboratory and print films are balanced for the tungsten light sources used in printers.

The appearance and utility of a photographic record are closely associated with the sensitometric and image-structure characteristics of the film used to make that record. Indeed. processed. and viewed affect the degree to which the film's sensitometric and imagestructure potential is realized. . The age of unexposed film and the conditions under which it was stored also affect the sensitivity of the emulsion. they should have the laboratory test the film they have chosen under conditions that match as nearly as possible those expected in practice. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Still. the information on the data sheet provides a useful basis for comparing films. The ways in which a film is exposed. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . When cinematographers need a high degree of control over the outcome.KODAK: Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Sensitometric and Image-Structure Data l l l l l Understanding Sensitometric Information Characteristic Curves ¡ General Curve Regions ¡ Curve Values ¡ Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity ¡ Spectral-Dye-Density Curves Image Structure ¡ Modulation-Transfer Curve Graininess and Granularity ¡ Measuring RMS Granularity ¡ Factors That Affect Graininess ¡ Granularity and Color Materials ¡ Some Practical Effects of Graininess and Granularity Resolving Power Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Sensitometry is the science of measuring the response of photographic emulsions to light. measurements of film characteristics made by particular processors using particular equipment and those reported on data sheets may differ slightly. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). "Image-structure" refers to the properties that determine how well the film can faithfully record detail.

analogous to optical printing or . and that of yellow dye to blue light. the condition is called printing density. the density of she cyan dye represents its controlling power to red light. the density is called visual density. Transmission density may be mathematically defined as the common logarithm (Log base 10) of the ratio of the light incident on processed film (P o) to the light transmitted by the film (Pt).KODAK: Understanding Sensitometric Information Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Understanding Sensitometric Information Transmission density (D) is a rneasure of the light-controlling power of the silver or dye deposit in a film emulsion. transmission density is measured in two ways: Figure 2 l Totally diffuse density ( Figure 2) is determined by comparing all of the transmitted light with the incident light perpendicular to the film plane ("normal": incidence). When the spectral sensitivity of the receptor approximates that of the human eye. and the special sensitivity of the receptor. This setup is analogous to the contact printer except that the receptor in the printer is film. In color films. When it approximates that of a duplicating or print stock. D = log Po 10 Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Pt Motion Picture Home The measured value of the density depends on the spectral distribution of the exposing light. Figure 3 l Specular density ( Figure 3) is determined by comparing only the transmitted light that is perpendicular ("normal") to the film plane with the "normal" incident light. For practical purposes. that of magenta dye to green light. the spectral absorption of the film image. The receptor is placed so that all of the transmitted light is collected and evaluated equally.

totally diffuse density readings are routinely used when motion-picture films are to be contact printed onto positive print stock. unlike the effect of silver in black-and-white emulsions. However. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). totally diffuse density measurements are accepted in the trade for routine control in both contact and optical printing of color films. Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. . Totally diffuse density and specular density are almost equivalent for color films because the scattering effect of the dyes is slight. Specular density readings are appropriate when a film is to be optically printed or directly projected.KODAK: Understanding Sensitometric Information projection. To simulate actual conditions of film use.

is placed on the surface of the test strip to control the amount of exposure. When a particular application requires precise information about the reactions of an emulsion to unusual light-filming action in a parking lot illuminated by sodium vapor lights. The equivalent transmittance and opacity values are shown to the left of the density values. the graduated densities on die processed test strip are measured with a densitometer. In the following table. in which an object modulates the light over a wide range of illuminance. the D Log H (or E) curve. Status densitometry is used for this. Status densitometry refers to measurements . the exposure time being held constant. Typical Characteristic Curve Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home The characteristic curve for a test film exposed and processed as described in the table is an absolute or real characteristic curve of a particular film processed in a particular manner. The resulting range of densities in the test strip simulates most picture-taking situations. or the H&D (Hurter and Driffield) curve 2. you can filter the exposing light in the sensitometer can be filtered to simulate that to which the film will actually be exposed. After processing. This curve is also known as the sensitometric curve. the lux-sec values are shown below the log exposure values. T'he logarithms (base 10) of the exposure values (log H) are plotted on the horizontal scale of the graph and the corresponding densities are plotted on the vertical scale to produce the characteristic curve. for example. Sometimes it is necessary to establish that the values produced by one densitometer are comparable to those produced by another one. consisting of a strip of film or glass containing a graduated series of neutral densities differing by a conslant factor. causing a range of exposures (different densities) on the film.KODAK: Characteristic Curves Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Characteristic Curves area 11 A characteristic curve is a graph of the relationship between the amount of exposure given a film and its corresponding density after processing. A specially constructed step tablet. The density values that produce the curve are measured on a film test strip that is exposed in a sensitometer under carefully controlled conditions and processed under equally controlled conditions. The amount of exposure (measured in lux 1 ) received by each step on the test strip is multiplied by the exposure time (measured in seconds) to produce exposure values in units of luxseconds.

The graph shows where points of these brightness differences generally fall on a characteristic curve. contact the densitometer manufacturer. intermediate.05. (DAK Densitometer Filter Sets are purchased directly from the manufacturers of densitometers. the term Status A densitometry is used. which is the typical range for normal luminance range subjects. and reproduces as black. Point 1 is a specular highlight which photographs as if it were about 2 stops brighter than point 2. Response Functions for Color Densitometry. The density range from point 9 to point 2 is about 1. intemegative.) Page 2 of 4 Figure 4 These illustrations show the relationship between subject luminance. When a set of carefully matched filters is used with such a densitometer. duplicating. and reversal intermediate) are measured by Status M densitometry. The densities of color preprint films (color negative.10 above the base plus fog density (the density of the clear film base after developing). and the characteristic curve. negative density. and print) are measured by Status A densitometry. Point 9 is the tone to be reproduced just lighter than black. For further information. No. which develops to a density of about 0. Point 10 is about one stop darker than point 9. Representative characteristic curves are those that are typical of a product . When a different set of carefully matched filters is incorporated in the densitometer. the term Status M densitometry is used. Volume 17. There are 7 stops difference between points 2 and 9. Point 9 is exposed on the speed point of the film. PS&E Journal. There is one stop difference in luminance between each of the points 2 to 10. which is a diffuse highlight.KODAK: Characteristic Curves made on a densitometer that conforms to a specified unfiltered spectral response (Dawson and Voglesong. The densities of color positive materials (reversal. lowcontrast reversal original. 5 Sept/Oct 1973).

their characteristic curves are inverse to those of negative films (compare Figures 5 and 6). Relative characteristic curves are formed by plotting the densities of the test film against the densities of a specific uncalibrated sensitometric-step scale used to produce the test film.KODAK: Characteristic Curves and are made by averaging the results from a number of tests made on a number of production batches of film. the greenmodulating (magenta-colored ) dye layer. Black-and-white films usually have one characteristic curve (see Figures 5 and 6).colored) dye layer (see Figures 7 and 8). A color film. Typical Characteristic Curves Black and White Negative Film Black and White Reversal Film Page 3 of 4 Figure 5 Color Negative Film Figure 6 Color Reversal Film Figure 7 Figure 8 . one each for the red-modulating (cyan-colored) dye layer. has three characteristic curves. and the blue-modulating (yellow. The curves shown in the data sheets are representative curves. on the other hand. Because reversal films yield a positive image after processing. These are commonly used in laboratories as process control tools.

Fog caused by development may be increased with extended development time or increased developer temperatures. In a color film. For optimum results. The type of developing agent and the pH value of the developer can also affect the degree of fog.KODAK: General Curve Regions Page 1 of 5 WEDNESDA General Curve Regions Regardless of film type. Figure 11 . the straight-line portion. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home . as shown in Figure 9. the shoulder and Dmax. The net fog value for a given development time is obtained by subtracting the base density from the density of the unexposed but processed film. Fog refers to the net density produced during development of negativepositive films in areas that have had no exposure. This constant density area of a black-and-white film curve is called base plus fog. it is termed minimum density or D-min. the toe. The resulting density is that of the film base with any residual dyes. is the portion of the curve where the slope decreases. When such values are determined for a series of development times. all significant picture information is placed on the straight-line portion. Further changes in exposure (log H) will produce no increase in density because the maximum density (D-max) of the film has been reached. Net densities produced by exposure and development are measured from the base density. a timefog curve ( Figure 12) showing the rate of fog growth with development can be plotted. the density change for a given log-exposure change remains constant or linear. Figure 10. the analogous term of D-min describes the area receiving total exposure and complete processing. Base density is the density of fixed-out (all silver removed) negativepositive film that is unexposed and undeveloped. is the portion of the curve where the slope does not change. is the portion of the characteristic curve where the slope (or gradient) increases gradually with constant changes in exposure (log H). The shoulder (C to D). For reversal films. Exposures less than at A on negative film or greater than at A on reversal film will not be recorded as changes in density. The toe (A to B). all characteristic curves are composed of five regions: D -min. The straight-line (B to C).

KODAK: General Curve Regions Page 2 of 5 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Curve Values You can derive additional values from the characteristic curve that not only illustrate properties of the film but also aid in predicting results and solving problems that may occur during picture-taking or during the developing and printing processes. Contrast refers to the separation of lightness and darkness (called "tones") in a film or print and is broadly represented by the slope of the characteristic curve. the steeper the slope of . In general. The speed of a film is represented by a number derived from the film's characteristic curve. Adjectives such as flat or soft and contrasty or hard are often used to describe contrast. Speed describes the inherent sensitivity of an emulsion to light under specified conditions of exposure and development.

The terms gamma and average gradient refer to numerical means for indicating the contrast of the photographic image. such as shadow areas.KODAK: General Curve Regions the characteristic curve. The location of the two points includes portions of the curve beyond the straight-line portion. Gamma does not describe contrast characteristics of the toe or the shoulder. the higher the contrast. the average gradient can describe contrast characteristics in areas of the scene not rendered on the straight-line portion of the curve. In Figure 5. Curves for a Development-Time Series on a Typical Black and White Negative Film Page 3 of 5 Figure 12 Average Gradient Determination . on the top portion of the characteristic curve. Gamma is the slope of the straight-line portion of the characteristic curve or the tangent of the angle (a) formed by the straight line with the horizontal. Camera negative films record some parts of scenes. Gamma does not account for this aspect of contrast. Measurement of an average gradient extending beyond the straight-line portion is shown in Figure 13. Average gradient is the slope of the line connecting two points bordering a specified log-exposure interval on the characteristic curve. The resulting numerical value is referred to as gamma. the tangent of the angle (a) is obtained by dividing the density increase by the log exposure change. Thus.

the subject of the main exposure. If characteristic curves for a black-and-white negative or positive film are determined for a series of development times and the gamma or average gradient of each curve is plotted against the time of development. The required amount of exposure and the color of the exposing light depends on the effect desired. It is actually an intentional light fogging of the film. a flashing exposure just prior to processing is the preferred method. and the film processing. Black-and-white reversal and all color film processes are not controlled by using gamma values. It's used with some color films. You can use the time-gamma curve ( Figure 14) to find the optimum developing time to produce the control gamma values recommended in the data sheet (or any other gamma desired). . Because of potential latent image changes. either in a camera or in a printer. Suggested control gamma values are given on the data sheets for black-and-white negative and positive films. You can make the flashing exposure before or after the subject exposure. the point at which the flashing exposure is applied. Flashing camera films to lower contrast is a technique 3 that involves uniformly exposing film before processing to lower its overall contrast. a curve showing the change of gamma or average gradient with increase development is obtained.KODAK: General Curve Regions Page 4 of 5 Figure 13 The particular gamma or average gradient value to which a specific black-and-white film is developed differs according to the properties and uses of the film.

Some film productions use flashing (called "creative flashing") to alter the contrast of the original camera negative of a particular scene to create a specific effect-making pastels from more saturated colors. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . March 1973. The illustration has been simplified to show an ideal matching of the two films. The hypothetical characteristic curves in Figure 15 show what occurs when one film is flashed to approximately match another film's characteristic curve." American Cinematographer Magazine. In practice. results will depend on the tests run using the specific films intended for a production. and the like. . enhancing shadow detail. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.KODAK: General Curve Regions Page 5 of 5 Figure 14 Figure 15 This fairly common practice is often used to create a closer match of two films' contrast characteristics when they are intercut. Further discussion of this type of flashing is presented in "Creative Post-Flashing Technique for the The Long Goodbye. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).

sensitivity is limited at the short (ultraviolet) wavelength end to about 250 nanometers (nm) because the gelatin used in the photographic emulsion absorbs much ultraviolet radiation. See Figure 16. and the blue-sensitive (yellow-dye forming) emulsion layers. rarely are two films equally sensitive to all wavelengths. called orthochromatic. and Eastman Fine Grain Duplicating Positive Film. Spectral sensitivity describes the relative sensitivity of the emulsion to the spectrum within the film's sensitivity range. and into the near-infrared region of the spectrum (infrared-sensitive film).ray tubes.KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity area 12 Student Main The term color sensitivity is used on data sheets for some black-andwhite films to describe the portion of the visual spectrum to which the film is sensitive. are sensitive mainly to the blue-andgreen portions of Lhe visible spectrum. through the green and red regions (color and panchromatic black-and-white films). All black-and-white camera films are panchromatic (sensitive to the entire visible spectrum). One film is sensitive to blue light and ultraviolet radiation: Eastman Television Recording Film. the emulsion can be made sensitive through the green region (orthochromatic black-and-white films). such as X -rays. Some laboratory films are also panchromatic: Eastman Fine Grain Duplicating Panchromatic Negative Film. Some films. Eastman Reversal BW Print. Eastman Direct MP. and the sensitivity is expressed as the reciprocal of the exposure (ergs/cm2 ) required to produce a specified About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home . The photographic emulsion has inherently the sensitivity of photosensitive silver halide crystals. By this means. One curve is shown for black-and-white films. and Eastman High Contrast Panchromatic Film. Eastman High Contrast Positive Film. Films used exclusively to receive images from black-and-white materials are blue-sensitive: Eastman Fine Grain Release Positive Film. Eastman Panchromatic Separation Film. In conventional photographic emulsions. gamma rays. Itese crystals are sensitive to high-energy radiation. The extended sensitivity in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum permits the film to respond to the output of cathode. and Eastman Sound Recording II Films are all orthochromatic laboratory or print films.sensitive black-and-white films). ultraviolet radiation and bluelight wavelengths (blue. The sensitivity of an emulsion to the longer wavelengths can be extended by the addition of suitably chosen dyes. Three spectral sensitivity curves are shown for color films-one each for the red -sensitive (cyan-dye forming). While color films and panchromatic black-and-white films are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light. the green-sensitive (magenta-dye forming). The data are derived by exposing the film to calibrated bands of radiation 10 nanometers wide throughout the spectrum.

Because each emulsion layer of a color film has its own speed and contrast characteristics. Spectral-dye-density curves for reversal and print films represent dyes normalized to form a visual neutral density of 1.0 For negative films. the standard density used to specify spectral sensitivity is as follows: For reversal films. equivalent neutral density (END) is derived as a standard basis for comparison of densities represented by the spectralsensitivity curve.0 for a specified viewing and measuring illuminant. Color- . Spectral -Dye-Density Curves area 13 Proessing exposed color film produces cyan.0) of the combined layers measured at the same wavelengths. and print films. each of the density figures tells how dense a gray that component can form. Films which are generally viewed by projection are measured with light having a color temperature of 5400 K. and yellow dye images in the three separate layers of the film. as shown in Figure 17. The spectral-dye-density curves (illustrated in Figure 18) indicate the total absorption by each color dye measured at a particular wavelength of light and the visual neutral density (at 1. For color films. Page 2 of 4 Figure 16 Equivalent neutral density (END)-When the amounts of the components of an image are expressed in this unit. END= 1. The radiation expressed in nanometers is plotted on the horizontal axis. END = 1. direct duplicating. and the logarithm of sensitivity is plotted on the vertical axis to produce a spectral-sensitivity curve.KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity density. magenta.0 above D -min.

and the corresponding diffuse spectral densities are plotted on the vertical axis. These residual couplers provide automatic masking to compensate for the effects of unwanted dye absorption when the negative is printed. they require no printing mask. Since color reversal films and print films are usually designed for direct projection. the couplers are selected to produce dyes that will. which could prevent satisfactory color reproduction when the dyes are printed. expressed in nanometers (nm). The wavelengths of light. Ideally. is corrected in the film's manufacture. This unwanted absorption. All color dyes in use absorb some wavelengths in other regions of the spectrum. Page 3 of 4 Figure 17 . If these films are printed.KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity masked films have a curve that represents typical dye densities for a mid-scale neutral subject. This explains why negative color films look orange. In color negative films. absorb in only their respective regions in the spectrum. are plotted on the horizontal axis. a color dye should absorb only in its own region of the spectrum. the dye-forming couplers must be colorless. as closely as possible. some of the dye-forming couplers incorporated in the emulsion layers at the time of manufacture are colored and are evident in the D-min of the film after development. In this case.

1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).KODAK: Color Sensitivity and Spectral Sensitivity Page 4 of 4 Figure 18 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.

Figure 20 Image (b) of a sinusoidal test object (a) recorded on a photographic emulsion and a microdensitometer tracing (c) of the image. other evaluating methods. and both the high. because these values describe the maximum resolving power a photographic system or component is capable of. are often used. These losses in contrast are compared mathematically with the contrast of the portion of the image unaffected by detail size. The modulation-transfer curve describes a film's capacity to reproduce the complex spatial frequencies of detail in an object. RMS granularity. such as the modulation-transfer function and film granularity. First. the image (b) is scanned in a microdensitometer to produce trace (c). The resulting measurements show the degree of loss in image contrast at increasingly higher frequencies as the detail becomes finer. similar to that illustrated in (a) of Figure 19. For example.E min . resolving-power-test data gives a reasonably good indication of image quality. An examination of the modulation-transfer curve.KODAK: Image Structure Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Image Structure The sharpness of image detail that a particular film type can produce cannot be measured by a single test or expressed by one number. However. The rate of change or "modulation" (M) of each pattern can be expressed by this formula in which E represents exposure: M= E max . the measurements evaluate the effect on the image of light diffusion within the emulsion.and low-contrast resolving power listings will provide a good basis for comparison of the detailimaging qualities of different films. film is exposed under carefully controlled conditions to a series of special test pattems. After development. In physical terms. For more complete analyses of detail quality. they do not indicate the capacity of the system (or component) to reproduce detail at other levels. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Modulation-Transfer Curve area 14 Modulation transfer relates to the ability of a film to reproduce images of different sizes.

to analyze or predict the sharpness of the entire system. The spatial frequency of the patterns is plotted on the horizontal axis as cycles per millimeter. In practice. you can combine the modulation-transfer curve for a film with similar curves for an optical system to calculate the modulation-transfer characteristics of the entire system. most photographic modulationtransfer values are influenced by development adjacency effects and are not exactly equivalent to the true optical modulation-transfer curve of a particular photographic product. At lower magnifications. the test film represented by curve B appears sharper. the densities of the trace are interpreted in terms of exposure. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). etc. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .39-1977. printers. Page 2 of 2 Figure 20 All of the photographic modulation-transfer curves in the data sheets were determined using a method similar to that specified by ANSI Standard PH2. Modulation-transfer measurements can also be made for the non -film components in a photographic system such as cameras. with processing as indicated. at very high magnifications. The films were exposed with the specified illuminant to spatially varying sinusoidal test patterns having an aerialimage modulation of a nominal 35 percent at the image plane. the test film represented by curve A appears sharper than that represented by curve B. and the effective modulation of the image (Mi) is calculated. Figure 20 shows two such curves. This ratio is plotted on the vertical axis (logarithmic scale) as a percentage of response.KODAK: Image Structure E max + E min When the microdensitometer scans the test film. lenses. or Mi/Mo. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. By multiplying the responses for each ordinate of the individual curves. . The modulation-transfer factor is the ratio of the modulation of the developed image to the modulation of the exposing pattern (Mo).

This nonuniformity in the image structure can also be measured objectively with a rnicrodensitometer. Compare the distribution of silver particles in this photomicrograph with the undeveloped silver halide in Figure 21. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Figure 21 Grains of silver halide are randomly distributed in the emulsion when it is made. made up of discrete particles of silver. The crystals vary in size. where the silver is removed after development the dyes form dye clouds centered on the sites of the developed silver crystals. The two terms refer to two distinctly different ways of evaluating the image structure. the viewer experiences the visual sensation of graininess. Development usually does not change the position of a grain. some of the crystals will be made developable by exposure.002 mm down to about a tenth of that size. and generally are randomly distributed within the emulsion. shape. which range from about 0. Contrary to widely held opinion. Figure 22 Silver is developed or clouds of dye formed at the sites occupied by the exposed silver halide. others will not. The location of these crystals is also random. This objective evaluation measures film granularity. there is little migration or physical joining of individual grains. so the image of a uniformly exposed area is the result of a random distribution either of opaque silver particles (black. and sensitivity. Although the viewer sees a granular pattern. Motion picture films consist of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin (the emulsion) which is coated in thin layers on a support (the film base). it . separated by transparent gelatin (Figures 21 and 22). the eye is not necessarily seeing the individual silver particles. at some stage. which is.and-white film) or dye clouds (color film). In color processes. a subjective impression of nonuniformity in an image. Within an area of uniform exposure. T'he exposure and development of these crystals forms the photographic image. At magnifications where the eye cannot distinguish individual particles.KODAK: Graininess and Granularity Page 1 of 6 WEDNESDA Graininess and Granularity area 15 The terms graininess and granularity are often confused or even used as synonyms in discussions of silver or dye-deposit distributions in photographic emulsions. When a photographic image is viewed with sufficient magnification. This photomicrograph of a raw emulsion shows silver halide crystals.

but the amplitude (the difference in density between the darker and the lighter areas) decreases. If the particles were arranged in a regu. (c) When a segement of the negative is inspected at 60X. (b) At 20X. The apparent "clumping" of silver grains is actually caused by overlap of grains at different depths when viewed in two-dimensional projection.KODAK: Graininess and Granularity resolves random groupings of these particles into denser and less dense areas. Even though the dot pattern can be seen. Randomness is a necessary condition for the phenomenon. the discrete grains are easily seen. the eye does not perceive graininess because the pattern is regular.5X enlargement of a negative shows no apparent graininess. At still lower magnifications. the eye notices the pattern and does not group dots into new patterns. When a halftone is viewed at a magnification sufficient for the dots to be distinguished. not random (Figure 24). appears as a single opaque grain at low magnification. the observer progressively associates larger groups of spots as new units of graininess. (d) With 400X magnification. (e) The makeup of individual grains takes different forms. some graininess shows. At lower magnifications-at which the dots can no longer be resolved-the awareness of pattern ceases. the graininess disappears altogether because no granular structure can be seen ( Figure 23). The size of these compounded groups gets larger as the magnification decreases.ar pattern like the halftone dot pattem used in graphic arts. no sensation of graininess would be created. Page 2 of 6 Figure 23 (a) A 2. This filamentary silver. . and the image areas appear uniform. As magnification decreases. enlarged by an electron microscope. the individual silver grains strt to become distinguishable. Note that surface grains are in focus while grains deeper in the emulsion are out of focus.

in part. When you view a random pattem of small dots magnified enough to resolve the individual dots. Just as higher magnification increases the apparent graininess. The two major advantages of objective measurement are that instruments can be devised to make rapid and precise measurements and that these measurements can be manipulated readily by mathematical means. small variations in the number of particles measured will not affect the reading. a decrease in the aperture produces higher granularity values. When the aperture of the densitometer is considerably reduced. This happens because the dots are regularly spaced. Ordinary densitometers measure density over areas much larger than those of individual silver particles. the eye accepts the image as a smooth.KODAK: Graininess and Granularity Page 3 of 6 Figure 24 If the uniform dot pattern of a conventional halftone is used to reproduce a scene. These measurements are analyzed statstically to provide numerical values that correlate with the visual impression of graininess. to the random distribution of the individual elements which make up that image. When the magnification is decreased so the dots cannot be resolved. fewer particles are included and a small change in their number is recorded as a variation in density. when the halftone dots are distributed randomly in an area to reproduce a scene (b) the image looks "grainy. you do not perceive an orderly or intelligible pattem. they appear to blend together to form an image whose surface is nonuniform or grainy. continuous-tone rendition (a). Measuring RMS Granularity The attributes of the photographic image which cause the human eye to perceive graininess can also be measured (and simulated) by an electrooptical system in a microdensitometer." Graininess in the image is due. In practice. . an area of apparently uniform density is continuously scanned by the small aperture usually 48 nanometers in diameter (see Figure 25). Analysis of the magnitude of these variations gives a statistical measure of the granularity of a sample. Since there are so many particles in the aperture of an ordinary densitometer. The transmitted light registers on a photo-sensitive pickup. However.

Page 4 of 6 Figure 25 A large aperture "sees" a vast number of individual silver grains. The RMS granularity instrument used at Kodak is calibrated to measure American National Standard (PH2. Figure 26 The signal from a continuous density scan of a grainy emulsion appears the same as random electrical noise when displayed on an oscilloscope. The rms voltmeter gives a direct readout of "noise level. For ease of comparison. the term RMS granularity.000. this small decimal number is multiplied by a factor of 1. Small apertures (about one twentieth of the larger aperture diameter) detect random differences in grain distribution when they sample the large "uniform" area. yielding a small whole number. The ." Standard deviation describes the distribution of a group of values (in this case. variations in density) about their average. The square root (R) of the arithmetic mean (M) of the squares (S) of the density variations is calculated-hence.19-1976) diffuse visual density. small local fluctuations have practically no effect on the density it records. Therefore. typically between 5 and 50.KODAK: Graininess and Granularity and the current produced is then fed to a meter calibrated to read the standard deviation of the random-density fluctuations (see Figure 26 ).

6 to 0. . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. but can detect density differences only on the order of 0.02 in the average highlight density. therefore. This sensation is caused by the frame-to-frame changes of grain positions. Page 6 of 6 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. the contrast with which the graininess is reproduced is very lowdecreasing its visibility. The light tones of the print are on the toe of the characteristic curve where the slope is very much lower than unity. usually noticed only in static scenes.9). therefore. The eye easily detects density differences as low as 0.20 in the average shadow density. the viewer may be aware of grains "boiling" or "crawling" in uniform areas of the image. In the midtones. Graininess is most apparent in large areas with fairly uniform densities and is much less evident in areas full of fine detail or motion. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). It is difficult to predict the magnification at which projected print images will be viewed since both the projection magnification and the distance from the observer to the screen can very. which make graininess more noticeable in a motion picture than in a still photograph. Hence. and thus the graininess. the print material has its maximum contrast and the eye can more readily distinguish small density differences. Both factors affect the picture magnification. In dark tones. Another factor in perceiving graininess is the amount of detail in a scene. where the slope of the curve is constant. When a motion picture film is seen at great magnification (as from a front-row theater seat). Conversely. the moving image tends to distract the viewer's attention away from this sensation. the eye is less able to distinguish graininess. and graininess is.KODAK: Graininess and Granularity about 0. the granularity can be most easily detected by the eye as graininess.

D. 2 Zwick. Test exposures are usually made with both a highcontrast (luminance ratio 1000: 1) and a low-contrast (1. . pages 205-211. to a lesser extent. each group differing from the next smaller or next larger by a constant factor.or over-exposure is an important reason for observing the constraints of a particular film when making exposures. other external factors.6:1) target. such as camera movement. "The Meaning of Numbers to Photographic Parameters" Journal of the Society of Photo -Optical Instrumentation Engineers.KODAK: Resolving Power Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Resolving Power area 16 The resolving power of a film emulsion refers to its ability to record fine detail. the contrast of the test target. the contrast of the target. The resolving power reported is based on film exposed and processed as recommended. Volume 4 (1966). and the processed image is viewed through a microscope. hence. the loss in resolution that accompanies under. also decrease the resolution from the possible maximum. PH2. The targets are photographed at a great reduction in size. The parallel lines on resolution charts are separated from each other by spaces the same width as the lines. Obviously." are given on the data sheets.and low-exposure values. etc. The formula often used to predict the resolution of a camera original is 1 1 1 = + RS 2 RF 2 RL 2 RS = Resolution of the system (lens + film) RF = Resolution of the film RL = Resolution of the lens In practice. The chart contains a series of graduated parallel-line groups. The maximum resolution obtainable in practical photographic work is limited both by the camera lens and by the film. aerial haze. The measured resolving power depends on the exposure. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home 1 One lux is the illumination produced by one standard candle from a distance of 1 meter. focus. it receives 1 luxsec of exposure. The resolving power of a film is greatest at an intermediate exposure value. A film resolves finer detail when the image contrast is higher. When a film is exposed for 1 second to a standard candle 1 meter distant.33-1969 1R1976). Both highand low-contrast resolving-power values are determined according to a method sirnilar to the one described in ANSI No.. and. It is measured by photographing resolution charts or targets under exacting test conditions. the development of the film. falling off greatly at high. The resolution is measured by a visual estimate of the number of lines per millimeter that can be recognized as separate lines. "Method for Determining the Resolving Power of Photographic Materials. Resolution also depends on the contrast of the image.

1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.KODAK: Physical Characteristics Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Physical Characteristics l l l l l Film Base Antihalation Backing Edge Numbers Dimensional Change Characteristics ¡ Temporary Size Change n Moisture n Temperature n Rates of Temporary Change n Swell During Processing ¡ Permanent Size Change n Raw Stock Shrinkage n Processing Shrinkage n Aging Shrinkage Other Physical Characteristics ¡ Curl ¡ Buckling and Fluting Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .

toughness. Three methods of minimizing halation are commonly used: Rem Jet: A black-pigmented. flexibility. A dark layer coated on or in the film base will absorb and minimize this reflection. Mechanical strength. and resistance to moisture and processing chemicals. See Figure 27. dimensional stability. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Antihalation Backing Light penetrating the emulsion of a film can be reflected from the baseemulsion interface back into the emulsion. chemical stability. is used for some Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films (mostly intermediate and print films) because of its high strength. around images of bright objects. Requirements for a suitable film base include optical transparency. An antistatic and/or anticurl layer may be coated on the back of the film base when this type of antihalation layer is used. tear resistance. Antihalation undercoating: A silver or dyed gelatin layer directly beneath the emulsion is used on some thin emulsion films. printing. chemical stability. ESTAR Base films and other polyester base films. ESTAR Base. Most current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films are coated on a cellulose triacetate base. nongelatin layer on the back of the film base serves as an antihalation and antistatic layer. resistance to tearing. cannot be successfully spliced with readily available commercial film cements. The greater strength of ESTAR Base permits the manufacture of thinner films that require less room for storage. freedom from optical imperfections. and dimensional stability.KODAK: Film Base Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Film Base area 17 The film base is the plastic support that carries the light-sensitive emulsion. hence it is called an antihalation layer. . there is a secondary exposure causing an undesirable reduction in the sharpness of the image and some light scattering. flexibility. Any color in this layer is removed during processing. You can splice these films with a tape splicer or with a splicer that uses an ultrasonic or an inductive beating current to melt and fuse the film ends. This type of layer is particularly effective in preventing halation for high-resolution emulsions. and freedom from physical distortion are also important factors in processing. Cellulose triacetate film base is made by combining the cellulose triacetate with suitable solvents and a plasticizer. Two general types of film base are currently used -cellulose triacetate esters and a synthetic polyester polymer known as ESTAR Base. photographic inertness. called halation. and projection. This layer is removed during photographic processing. As a result. a polyethylene terephthalate polyester.

This light can travel inside the base and fog the emulsion (Figure 27 ). It has. because it. a negligible effect on picture quality. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. the gray dye does not reduce the density range of an image. like a neutral.2. Unlike fog. . adds the same density to all areas. The higher level is used primarily for halation protection in black-and-white negative films on cellulosic bases. A neutral-density dye is incorporated in some film bases and serves to both reduce halation and prevent light piping.KODAK: Film Base Figure 27 Light Piping Page 2 of 2 Dyed film base : Film bases. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. This dye density may vary from a just detectable level to approximately 0. therefore. can also transmit or pipe light that strikes the edge of the film. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). especially polyester.density filter.

edge numbers on 16 mm films are located every 40 frames (12 inches). Visible Ink Image: During manufacturing. usually occurring every 16 frames (every 12 inches) on 35 mm film and every 20 frames (every 6 inches) on 16 mm film. All Kodak camera film is edge numbered at the time of manufacture in one of two ways: Latent Image: The film edge is exposed by a printer mounted at the perforator to produce an image visible only on processed film. both the film and the magnetic tape are often edge numbered by the lab for ease of editing. this process is performed at the perforators. The numbers are printed along one edge outside the perforations on 35 mm film and between the perforations on 35 mm film and between the perforations on 16 mm film. Normally. In a few instances. This numbering does not interfere with the manufacturer's edge numbers because the lab numbers are ordinarily printed on the opposite edge of the film. With double-system sound. generally with yellow ink. All 35 mm Kodak blackand-white motion picture camera films have ink edge numbers. Again. The ink. both the original camera film and the workprint are edge numbered identically for later ease in matching the two. and the equipment used to produce the product. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Figure 28 Latent image edge numbering Figure 30 is a sample of Eastman EKTACHROME Video News Film 7240 (Tungsten). The cluster of numbers and letters to the left of the sequential numbers are a manufacturer's code for the type of product.KODAK: Edge Numbers Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Edge Numbers Edge numbers (also called key numbers or footage numbers) are placed at regular intervals along the film edge for convenience in frame-forframe matching of the camera film to the workprint. The letter "C" is a manufacturer's product identification. In Figure 29. is printed on the emulsion surface of the film. edge numbered by a laboratory in New York City. the filrn stock is numbered with a visible ink. The numbers are visible on both the raw stock and the processed film. The five or seven digits are sequential and will change every 16 (35 mm) or 20 (16 mm) frames. the perforator. A third method of applying edge numbering is very often used by commercial motion picture labs. There the film is numbered on the base side. The numbers are sequential. unaffected by photographic chemicals. . All Kodak 16 mm and 35 mm camera color film is latent-image edge numbered ( Figure 28). the visible ink edge numbering will be more visible after processing.

but in a bar code.KODAK: Edge Numbers Page 2 of 2 Figure 29 Visible ink edge numbering Figure 30 Laboratory applied edge numbering In 1990. The KEYKODE TM . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14-Sep-2001). See Figures 31 and 32. but are easier to read. Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new edge-numbering system that will eventually be included on all Eastman camera negative films. Eastman 16 mm Edgeprint Format Featuring KEYKODE TM Numbers . number incorporates the same human-readable number. 64 perforation interval. . both black-and-white and color. the key number consists of 12 highly legible characters printed at the familiar one-foot. 32 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . numbers which are machine readable in bar code. In this improved format. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.Figure 31. The human-readable key numbers are similar to previous edge numbers. The new system incorporates Eastman KEYKODE TM . A variety of scanners can read this bar code in the same way that the bar code on most products in supermarkets is read by a scanner in the checkout line.

The film swells during processing. ESTAR Base has no residual solvent or plasticizer and absorbs less moisture than cellulose triacetate. and aging of processed film.0035 0. to a slight extent.0035 0.003 0.003 0. color negative. consequently.05 0.03 0.001 0. it also has a marked influence on dimensional variations caused by humidity. Triacetate variable-density sound recording and Eastman Color Print Eastman Color Print and Eastman Color Reversal Intermediate Thermal Coefficient of Expansion % per 1ºF (b) Width Processing Shrinkage % (c) Potential Aging Shrinkage % (d) Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Film Base Width Length Length Width Length Width 0.007 0.05 0. duplicating positive.0025 0.03 0.04 (a) Measured between 15% and 50% RH at 21 ºC (70 ºF) (b) Measured between 49ºC (12 ºF) and 21ºC (70 ºF) at 20% RH (c) Tray processing measured at 21ºC (70ºF) and 50% RH after preconditioning at low relative humidity .04 0.006 0.02 0. color intermediate and EKTACHROME Camera Films Black-and-white release positive. the gradual elimination of strains introduced during manufacture or processing.008 0. and continues to shrink at a decreasing rate throughout its life. Temporary size changes are caused by a modification in the moisture content or the temperature of the film.001 0. Permanent shrinkage of film on cellulose triacetate support is due to loss of residual solvents or plasticizer. color Triacetate internegative.005 0. The extent of both temporary and permanent size alterations is largely dependent upon the film support. shrinks during drying. and. duplicating negative. its size changes are considerably less.5 ESTAR 0. These dimensional changes in film are either temporary (reversible) or permanent (irreversible).KODAK: Dimensional Change Characteristics Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Dimensional Change Characteristics Motion picture film dimensions are influenced by variations in environmental conditions. However.02 0. Some permanent shrinkage occurs in aging of raw stock processing. Approximate Dimensional Change Characteristics of Current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films Humidity Coefficient of Expansion % per 1% RH (a) Length Black-and-white camera negative.0025 0. Values for the dimensions change characteristics of current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films are given in the table below.2 0.4 0. since the emulsion is considerably more hygroscopic than the base.25 0.

and negative films swell more than print films. this coefficient is larger at lower humidity ranges. If the film is in a roll.8 0. and smaller at higher humidity ranges.to 50-percent RH. time.Black-and-White and Color Reversal-Color Positive-Color Base Triacetate Triacetate AcetatePropionate ESTAR Length Width 0. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Swell % Film Type Negative Positive .6 0.05 0. All motion picture films swell during photographic processing and shrink during drying. For camera films. The change for ESTAR Base films is much smaller. thus governing the temporary expansion or contraction of the film (assuming constant temperature). When a given relative humidity level is approached from above.6 0. this time will be extended to several weeks because the moisture must follow a longer path. The effects of drying upon the final dimensions are discussed in the section on permanent size change. will change almost instantly. In the case of temperature variations. Acetate films swell more in the widthwise than in the lengthwise direction. requires several hours to alter size.5 0. for example. and film tension. Rates of Temporary Change.05 Swell During Processing .4 0. the humidity coefficients are slightly higher than for positive print films.KODAK: Temporary Size Change Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Temporary Size Change Moisture. For ESTAR Base films. which will be slightly larger when the film is previously conditioned to a lower humidity than it would be if conditioned to a higher humidity. where the relationship between film size and relative humidity is approximately linear. on the other hand. Following a shift in the relative humidity of the air surrounding a single strand of film. The coefficients given in the table above are averages for the range of 15. The opposite is true for ESTAR Base films. Temperature. the exact dimensions of a piece of film on cellulose triacetate support may be slightly larger than when the level is approached from below. a single strand of film coming in contact with a hot metal surface. humidity size alterations occur rapidly in the first 10 minutes and continue for about an hour.3 0. The thermal coefficients for current Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Films are listed in the previous table. Swell during Processing. Photographic film expands with heat and contracts with cold in direct relationship to the film's thermal coefficient. A roll of film. Relative Humidity (RH) of the air is the major factor affecting the moisture content of the film. The swell of triacetate films is initially rapid and depends upon the temperature of the processing solutions.

This very small net change is a considerable improvement over the shrinkage characteristics of negative materials available before 1954 and permits good printing even after long periods of keeping. in the case of triacetate films. Because of its greater strength and resistance to moisture. Processing Shrinkage. the potential lengthwise shrinkage of about 0. Raw Stock Shrinkage. In the case of processed negatives made on stock manufactured since June 1954. The lengthwise shrinkage will rarely exceed 0. Some commercial processing machines have sufficiently high tension to stretch the wet film (particularly 16 mm film).2 percent is generally reached within the first two years and almost no further shrinkage occurs thereafter. the overall size change of ESTAR Base films is much less.KODAK: Temporary Size Change Page 2 of 3 Permanent Size Change Permanent size change is the summation of the shrinkage of the raw film. The net effect of processing triacetate base film is normally slight shrinkage (see table ) unless the film has been stretched. The potential aging shrinkage of current motion-picture films is given in this table. The rate at which aging shrinkage occurs depends upon the conditions of storage and use. Aging shrinkage. internegatives. and the shrinkage of the processed film. The lengthwise shrinkage of release prints made on triacetate supports is . consequently.5 percent during the first 6 months in a 1000-foot can of 35 mm film. It is important that motion picture negatives. With motion picture positive film intended for projection only. solvent loss from triacetate film is extremely low. Immediately after slitting and processing. Until the film is removed from the can. the unexposed motion-picture film is placed in cans that are sealed with tape. by high relative humidity which aids the diffusion of solvents from the film base. and color originals have low aging shrinkage so that you can make satisfactory prints or duplicates even after many years of storage.2 percent while in a taped can. a lower net processing shrinkage or even a slight permanent stretch may result. shrinkage is not especially critical because it has little effect on projection. ESTAR Base films will not shrink more than 0. Shrinkage is hastened by high temperature and. the size change due to processing.

the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Shrinkage of films on ESTAR Base is unlikely to exceed 0. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). humidity and thermal size changes can either increase or decrease the observed size change.1 to 0.4 percent for 16 mm film during the first two years. Higher shrinkage can occur over a longer period. .04 percent. as indicated in this table. Page 3 of 3 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak.3 percent for 35 mm film and 0. Although aging shrinking of motion picture films is a permanent size change.1 to 0.KODAK: Temporary Size Change about 0.

M. When a strip of this curled film is pulled into a flat configuration. and the winding configuration.. Buckling. do not expose the film rolls to extreme fluctuations in relative humidity. C. Z. processing and drying temperatures. and West. Z. the emulsion layer contracts more than the base generally producing positive curl. P. the opposite effect. and Calhoun. . J. is caused by the differential swelling of the outside edges of the film. As the relative humidity increases..KODAK: Other Physical Characteristics Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Other Physical Characteristics Aside from image quality considerations. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Curl Photographic-film curl is defined as the departure from flatness of photographic film. L. 69:157-63. it is influenced by the relative humidity during use or storage. Adelstein. Buckling and Fluting Very high or low relative humidity can also cause abnormal distortions of film in rolls. To avoid these changes. November 1970. "Interpretation of Dimensional Changes in Cellulose Ester Base Motion Picture Films. P." Journal of the SMPTE . the contractive force of the emulsion layer decreases and the inherent curl of the support becomes dominant." Adelstein. Fluting. Film wound in rolls tends to assume the lengthwise curl conforming to the curve of the roll. Aditional reading on "Physical Characteristics of film. it occurs if the roll of film is kept in a very moist atmosphere.. Graham. Curl toward the emulsion is called positive while curl away from the emulsion is termed negative. Motion Picture Home Figure 33 At low relative humidities. E. L. the lengthwise curl is transformed into a widthwise curl. "Preservation of Motion Picture Color Films Having Permanent Value. other factors can affect the satisfactory performance of motion picture film. 79:1011 -1018. March 1960. occurs if a tightly wound roll of film is kept in a very dry atmosphere." Journal of the SMPTE . Although the curl level is established during manufacture. caused by the differential shrinkage of the outside edges of the film.

R. E. October 1948. B. October 1944. Miller." Journal of the SMPTE. 1962 Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. J. D. Fordyce. 64:62 -66. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).. C. A. J. C. R. M. February 1955. J.... A. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. C. Neblette. "Improved Safety Motion Picture Film Support. 51:331 -50. C.. 43:227-66." Journal of the SMPTE . M "The Physical Properties and Dimensional Behavior of Modon Picture Films." Journal of the SMPTE ." Journal of the SMPTE . and Robertson. 74:3-1 1.. Inc. E.KODAK: Other Physical Characteristics Calhoun. VanNostrand Co.. January 1965. "Photography-Its Materials and Process. and Moyer. "Motion Picture Film-Its Size and Dimensional Characteristics. Calhoun. Fordyce. . "Shrinkage Behavior of Motion Picture Film.." Chapter 11.

useful film life. IMPORTANT: After removing a package of raw stock from cold storage. Type of Warm -Up Times (Hours) Kodak Film For 14ºC For 55 ºC .5ºF) before opening the can. thus the color balance of the material can also change.KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Storage of Raw and Exposed Film l l Raw Stock in Original Package ¡ Temperature ¡ Radiation ¡ Gases and Vapors ¡ Relative Humidity ¡ Handling Unprocessed Film before and after Exposure ¡ General Concerns ¡ Temperature ¡ Gases and Radiation ¡ Relative Humidity ¡ Handling Student Main Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Member News & Events About the Progra Motion Picture Ho Storage of Raw and Exposed Film (18) The sensitometric characteristics of virtually all unprocessed photographic materials gradually change with time. Sensitometric change cannot be prevented by such storage. Raw Stock in Original Package Temperature In general. This chart summarizes optimum storage conditions. the rates at which the various color-sensitive layers respond are not necessarily the same. Scrupulous control of temperature and humidity. thorough protection from harmful radiation and gases. a change in contrast. a growth in fog level. This will prevent telescoping of the roll during handling because of cold-induced looseness between the layers and will prevent moisture condensation and spotting of the film. or possibly all three. the lower the temperature at which a film is stored. This section explains how to store raw film stock and exposed but unprocessed film. and careful handling are important to long. Improper storage usually causes much larger changes in color quality and film speed than do variations in manufacturing. allow it to warm up to room temperature (70ºF +/. motion picture raw stock should be stored at a temperature of 13ºC (55ºF) or lower during the entire storage period if optimum film properties are to be retained. causing loss in sensitivity. In color films. For periods up to six months. Raw stock should be stored at -18º to -23ºC (0º to -IOºF) if it must be kept longer than six months or if the film is intended for a critical use that requires uniforrn results. the slower will be its rate of sensitometric change during aging. but it will be minimized.

Some scanning devices used by postal authorities and airlines may fog raw stock. or sewers cannot damage the product. keep sealed (in original cans) until temperature is above the dew point of outside air. that determines the moisture content of film. ammonia. turpentine. NOTE: It is the relative humidity. and mercury) can change the sensitivity of photographic emulsions.) * Exposed film should be processed as soon as possible after exposure. sulfur dioxide. .)off the floor. Label packages of unprocessed films that must be mailed across international borders: "Contents: Unprocessed photographic film. a humidity indicator. industrial plants. Please do not X-ray. not the absolute humidity. Take special storage precautions in hospitals. The cans in which motion picture film is packaged provide protection against some gases. give motion picture films additional water-vapor protection if they are to be kept longer than a month in an area having high relative humidity (70 percent or higher). but others can slowly penetrate the adhesive tape seal. such as those sold for home use. such as home refrigerators or damp basements. Relative Humidity Since a small amount of vapor leakage through the closure of a taped can is unavoidable." Short-Term (less than 6 months) Long-Term (more than 6 months) % % Temperature Relative Temperature Relative Humidity Humidity Raw Stock (in original sealed cans) Exposed Unprocessed 13ºC (55ºF) -18º to -23ºC (0º 10ºF)* below 70 -18º to -23ºC (0º 10ºF) - - Not Recommended (see text below) After removal from storage. is satisfactory. Relative humidity is best measured with a sling psychrometer. mildew and fungus preventives.KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film Package (25ºF) Rise (100ºF) Rise 8 mm super 8 16 mm 35 mm 1 1 1 3 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 5 Page 2 of 3 Radiation Do not store or ship raw stock near X-ray sources or other radioactive materials. hydrogen sulfide. desensitization of the silver halide grains or chemical fogging can occur. water pipes. Protect unopened rolls by tightly sealing them in a second plastic container or can. cleaners. In a small storage chamber. mothballs. Handling Storage rooms for motion-picture raw stock should be designed so that accidental flooding from storms. engine exhaust) and vapors (from solvents. Store all film at least 15 cm(6in. illuminating gas. Keep film away from any such contaminationfor example. Gases and Vapors Gases (such as formaldehyde. and laboratories where radioactive materials are in use. (See table of warm up times. closets or drawers that contain mothballs-otherwise.

Exposed footage is even more vulnerable to the effects of humidity and temperature. return the film to its can and retape it to prevent any increase in moisture content over that picked up during actual exposure. The temperatures in closed automobiles. Temperature Protect film in original packages or loaded in cameras. This prevents any absorption of moisture by the film during the holding period. Gases and Radiation Keep films away from the harmful gases and radiation mentioned earlier. magazines. store exposed films at -18ºC (OºF). seal as many rolls as possible in a second moisture. roll to roll. . it is much easier to prevent excessive moisture take-up than it is to remove it. remove the magazine containing partially used film from the camera and place it in a moisture-tight dry chamber. Kodak Publication No. the film is no longer protected from high relative humidities that can cause undesirable changes. Therefore. on reels. cartridges. H-23. Keep the surfaces that the film travels over clean to prevent scratching of the film's base or emulsion. A more detailed discussion of long-term storage may be found in The Book of Film Care. Moisture leakage into a taped can is more serious when the can contains only a small quantity of film. Immediately after exposure. regardless of whether the room is cool or not. Relative Humidity When handling motion-picture film in high relative humidities. When these circumstances exist. install sprinklers. process film as soon as possible after exposure. If processing facilities are not immediately available. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). If the building itself is not fireproof. or the holds of ships. If there are delays of a day or more in shooting. parked airplanes.resistant container. and in carrying cases from direct sunlight and never leave film in closed spaces that may trap heat. control of relative humidity below 70 percent is not critical as long as the film cans remain sealed. either before or afer exposure. Maintain the temperature as uniform as possible throughout the storage room by means of adequate air circulation so that sensitometric properties remain consistent. As indicated. for example. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Page 3 of 3 Unprocessed Film before and after Exposure General Concerns Once you open the original package. Do not store film near heating pipes or in the line of sunlight coming through a window. A few hours under these conditions. can severely affect the quality of the film. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. Handling Handle the film strand only by the edges to avoid localized changes in film sensitivity caused by fingerprints. Folding and crimping the film also introduces local changes in sensitivity.KODAK: Storage of Raw and Exposed Film Construct and insulate rooms that are artificially cooled so that moisture does not condense on the walls. can easily reach 60ºC (140ºF) or more.

the strips are perforated and cut to the designated lengths. This code does not generally refer to the film length. NY 146500532. Kodak and Eastman Motion Picture Camera Films are then wound on cores or spools. Format (applicable only to films available in multi rank). and the wound film is wrapped in black. plastic bags before being packaged in taped metal cans or box bins. in the example above) and a three-digit specification number (718. and Perforation Type-provide the film length and the information abstracted from the specification number. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). The plastic bags protect the film from exposure to light. in this case). Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. A description of the identifying codes on tape. .KODAK: How do I know I'm ordering the right film? Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA How do I know I'm ordering the right film? How to identify the film's format. type of core. This tape is designed to resist the flow of air and moisture so that the newly manufactured film retains its original moisture content. provide a high degree of cleanliness. one row of perfs (1866 pitch). and film appears under Film Identification. The "rolls available" block on the data sheet describes forms in which a particular film type is available. and make the film fit snugly inside the can. The tape used on the outside of a film can serves as a seal between the cover and body of the can. or magazine. spool. a combination of a three-letter film emulsion designation (ECN. Each master roll is assigned a number. and winding. For example. CAT No. The second column gives the film identification number. The last two or three columns-Description.). can label. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. A single free copy of any film data sheet is available from this website or write: Eastman Kodak Company. emulsion. 412-L. The catalog number identifies a particular kind of emulsion. The first column gives the catalog number (CAT No. The number designates film width. perhaps the most important piece of information to know when ordering film from Kodak. The tape and can are both marked to identify the contents. with a film identification number of ECN718. 124 6636 describes only one film package: 100 feet of Eastman Color Negative Film 5247 (35 mm). film format. and length to our Customer Relations Representatives. Dept. EI Winding. After slitting. perforation type and format. Rochester. and winding Motion picture film emulsions are coated on a 54-inch-wide continuous web of film base. length. and each strip also has a reference number. the ends are taped. These 54-inch rolls constitute the master stock rolls that are slit into strips during the finishing process.

Thus. and television recording films. A plastic core with a 3 -inch (76 mm) outside diameter. When the film is wound on the core. in one of the following ways: (1) wound on the core indicates the film is initially started by tightly lapping several convolutions of film around the core.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. See Figure 36. (2) core inserted indicates that the film is initially wound on a collapsible mandrel that is later removed and the core inserted in the cavity of the roll. Figure 34 illustrates a plastic core with a 2-inch (51 mm) outside diameter and a 1-inch (25. A plastic core with a 3 -inch (76 mm) outside diameter. and positive films that are used in title cameras. Supplied in a variety of lengths. sound. See Figure 35. The standard core and spool types for KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are shown and described below: Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Figure 34 Type T Core -16 mm. Customarily used with camera negative.KODAK: Cores and Spools Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Cores and Spools KODAK and EASTMAN Motion Picture Films are available on several types of cores and spools. except 100 -foot (30. Used with camera and print films in roll sizes longer than 400 feet (122 m). Figure 37 Type K Core -35 mm. the film is not attached to the core. A plastic core with a 2 -inch (51 mm) outside diameter. print. each appropriate to the design of the equipment in which the films are to be exposed.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. Contains a 1 -inch (25. Figure 35 Type Z Core -16 mm. or spool. Figure 36 Type U Core-35 mm.4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and film slot. Normally used with 16 mm films up to 400 feet (122 m) in length. Contains a . The films are connected to the core. which generally come on camera spools with integral leaders and trailers for loading under subdued light. the core cannot be removed from the film except by unwinding the film.5 m) and 200-foot (61 m) lengths of camera negative and reversal materials. Contains a 1-inch (25.

4 mm) diameter center hole with keyway and a film slot. The standard sales lengths for this spool are 100 feet (30. Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. Square hole with single keyway. See Figure 38. Intended for 100 feet (30. A metal camera spool with a 3. Page 2 of 2 Figure 38 Type Y Core-35 mm. two offset round drive holes.KODAK: Cores and Spools 1-inch (25. and some 1000-foot (305 m) lengths of negative. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . A plastic core with the same dimensions as the Type K Core but made of a stronger material to hold 6000-foot (1829 m) rolls of color print film. A metal camera spool with a 4. Side 1 and Side 2 markings. Square holes with single keyway in both flanges. See Figure 37. and television recording films.657 -inch (93 mm) flange diameter and a 31/32 -inch (25 mm) core diameter. . Used with camera negative materials. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). Used in cameras such as the Canon and Elmo for double super 8 film and in 16 mm spool-loading cameras. See Figure 40. See Figure 39. 3000-foot (914 m).5 m) of acetate base film. See Figure 41. A metal camera spool with a 3. Square hole with single keyway in both flanges.5 m) of acetate base film. Figure 40 R-190 Spool-16 mm. Figure 41 S-83 Spool-35 mm. 4000-foot (1219 m). print. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.615-inch (92 mm) flange diameter and a 1 1/4 -inch (32 mm) core diameter. Used with 2000-foot (610 m). Will accept 200 feet (61 m) of acetate base film. Figure 39 R-90 Spool -16 mm.940-inch (125 mm) flange diameter and a 1 1/4 -inch (32 mm) core diameter. Center hole configuration is aligned on both flanges. and one elliptical hole in both flanges. sound.

. on spools. . perforated along one edge. a different hole or keyway on either side). and on bidirectional printers. as shown in Figure below.e. It is also furnished in Winding B on 400-foot (122 m) Type T cores and. is held so that the end of the film leaves the roll at the top and to the right. Winding B if the perforations are away from the observer. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . to make optical prints. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Winding A films are used to make contact prints and are not intended for use in the camera.5 m) and 200 -foot (61 m) spools. it is designated Winding A if the perforations are toward the observer. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). Winding B is used for camera film. NOTE: When requesting single-perforated film on a spool or core that has nonsymmetrical flanges (i.KODAK: Winding Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Winding When a 16 mm roll of raw stock. occasionally. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Winding A Emulsion Side in Winding B Emulsion Side in Film for use in 16 mm single -system sound cameras is regularlyg furnished in Winding B on 100-foot (30. you must indicate the hole or keyway closest to the perforations and specify whether the emulsion should be wound in or out.

the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.KODAK: Perforations Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Perforations l l l l Sizes and Shapes Perforation Types ¡ 35 mm and 60 mm End Use ¡ 16 mm End Use Optimum Pitch for Printing Projection Print Aspect Ratios Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).

This perforation. 35 mm professional motion picture cameras and optical printers were designed with registration pins that conformed to negative (BH) perforation and are still so designed to this day. was introduced. the shape was changed to that now known as the Bell & Howell (BH) or 'negative' perforation. a new perforation was designed with increased height and rounded corners to provide added strength. film perforations were round.type perforations with a pitch dimension of O. the introduction of CinemaScope produced a fourth type of perforation. a third design. Because shrinkage in current films is low. During the period when the production of color prints involved the multiple printing of separation negatives onto a common print film. The high shrinkage of older films on nitrate base made the negative perforation a problem on projection films because of the excessive wear and noise during projection as the sprocket teeth ticked the hold-back side of the perforations as they left the sprocket. commonly known as the KS or "positive" perforation. The designation BH 1866. this perforation is still available on 35 mm Eastman Color Print Film. camera films and many laboratory films use the negative (BH) perforations. This modification improved positioning accuracy and was the standard for many years. During this time. which are used on most positive sound recording films and color print films The letters CS designate the smaller perforations used for projection prints on which additional space must be provided for multiple sound tracks in the CinemaScope process.KODAK: Sizes and Shapes Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Sizes and Shapes In the early days of 35 mm motion pictures. perforation dimensions on 16 mm and 8 mm films have remained unchanged since their introduction. In 1953. indicates a film having negative . This wide-screen projection system incorporated 35 mm film with perforations that were nearly square and smaller than the positive (KS) perforation.1866 inch (4. known as the Dubray-Howell perforation. The design provided space on the film to carry four magnetic-sound stripes for stereophonic and surround sound. Camera films may be perforated along both edges (double perforated) or Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out News & Events Program Membership Motion Picture Home . Except for early experimentation. for example). Although not widely used now. the shorter perforation height poses no projection wear problems. See Figure 43.740 mm). Because these perforations were more subject to wear. Thus. and on films used in special-effect processes. Each type of perforation is referred to by a letter identifying its shape and by a number indicating the perforation pitch dimension. The letters BH indicate negative perforations. It had the same height as the negative (BH) perforation to maintain the necessary registration but had rounded corners to improve projection life. for example. on intermediate films. which are generally used on camera films. has since become the world standard for 35 mm projection print films. This perforation is still available for special applications and on certain films (Eastman Color Intermediate II Film 5243. To compensate for this. Perforation pitch is the distance from the bottom edge of one perforation to the bottom edge of the next perforation. The letters KS indicate positive perforations. The sharp corners also were weak points and projection life of the film was shortened.

All 35 mm camera films are double perforated.981 16 Inches mm Tolerance +/ Inches mm 0.KODAK: Sizes and Shapes along only one edge (single perforated).).1100 0.854 2.0730 0.270 0.25 0.51 0. 2R-two rows.010 C D H* R 0. Films used in laboratories for intermediate and release prints are supplied in a variety of perforation formats.010 0. Single-perforated 16 mm films are often magnetically striped for single-system sound or post process sound addition.0820 0.0004 * Dimension H is a calculated value .08 0.0004 0. etc. The letter R preceded by a number designates the number of rows of perforations in a strip (1R-one row. Double -perforated super 8 and regular 8 film is always suppled in 16 mm width to allow two-pass camera operation.perforated film in equipment designed for double-perforated film.) Page 2 of 3 Figure 43 Perforation Type Bell & Howell Kodak Standard Dimensions Inches mm 2.0780 mm 2. you can duplicate or print footage exposed on double-perforated film on single-perforation stock if a photographic (optical) or magnetic sound track is to be added to the film. You can use double -perforated film in cameras having a single pull-down claw.020 0. Films for single-pass 16 mm and 8 mm camera use may be single or double perforated.010 0.or single-perforated film. Also.1100 0.001 0.794 1.794 1.03 Inches 0.829 0. (NOTE: Do not use single.0500 1. Some flexibility is possible in selecting double.0720 1.

.66 0.999 0.00 * This dimension also represents the unperforated width.628 mm 15.109) Dimensions Inches A* B E F G (max) L** 29.001 29.0355 10.377 0.94 760.70 mm 34.079 0.5 30.0005 0.03 474.3000 (PH22.03 474.002 0.628 mm 15.001 18.999 0.975 4.1870 0.66 mm 34.01 25.34) Inches 1.0005 0.740 2.12) Inches 0.95 7.38 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .01 25.079 0.37 0.999 0.001 0.36) Inches 1.079 0.1866 0.001 18.975 4.413 0.KODAK: Sizes and Shapes Page 3 of 3 Figure 44 Perforation Type and ANSI Number 1R -2994 (PH22.03 474.605 0.01 25.0355 0.2994 7.605 0.413 0.377 0.03 mm 0.03 762.3000 0.3000 7. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.013 0.139) Inches 1.98 Tolerance +/Inches 0.0355 0.37 0.975 4.0 Tolerance +/ Inches 0.5 0.37 0.49 0.620 0.95 1R.2994 7.377 0. ** This dimension represents the length of any 100 consecutive perforation intervals Figure 45 Perforation Type and ANSI Number BH-1866 (PH22.750 2.00 KS -1870 (PH22.001 mm 0.49 0.110) Inches 0.98 KS -1866 (PH22.001 18.975 4.8 0.00 762.002 0.0 0.902 0.0355 0.95 2R -3000 (PH22.03 0.74 2.628 mm 15.001 30.999 0.051 0.628 mm 15.05 0.05 0.1866 0.025 A* B E F G (max) L** 1.94 10.00 BH-1870 (PH22.0355 0.37 0.95 2R -2994 (PH22.03 474.75 2.377 0.001 0.079 0.902 0. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).1870 0.70 mm 34.93) Dimensions Inches mm 34.902 0.01 25.013 0.03 760.03 0.0020 0.015 0.620 0.5) Inches 0.001 18.

102-1980 6. with the raw stock on the outside. ANSI PH22.1870" (long pitch). PH22. the substantially lower shrinkage of present safety films makes such a natural adjustment impossible. However. is such that the pitch of the original must be 0.1870" (long pitch). KS-1870-35 mm and 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive perforations with a pitch measurement of 0.11 except with a perforation pitch of 0.119-1981 Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home 16 mm End Use 8. 2R-3000-16 mm film perforated two edges with a perforation pitch of 0.171-1980 Optimum Pitch for Printing Confinuous printers used for motion-picture film are designed so that the original film and the print raw stock are in contact (emulsion-toemulsion) with each other as they pass around the printing sprocket.3000" (long pitch). For 35 mm film.3000" (long pitch) ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. DH-1870-35mm Dubray-Howell perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. 0. KS-1866-35 mm and 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. IR-3000-Same as No. KS-1870-70 mm film perforated 65 mm Kodak Standard Positive perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. With nitrate film and early safety film. ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. CS-1870-35 mm CinemaScope perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. ANSI PH22. the diameter of the printing sprocket.1870" (long pitch).2 to 0.1870" (long pitch).3 percent) shorter than that of the print stock.171-1980 13.145-1981 5.171-1980 12.1866" (short pitch). IR-2994-Same as No.4 percent (theoretically. PH22. 8 except perforated one edge. In most continuous printers.145-1981 4.109-1980 11. 3R-3000-Same as No. To prevent slippage between the two films during printing (which would produce an unsharp or unsteady image on the screen). Figure 46. film used as printing originals is now manufactured with the pitch slightly shorter than the pitch of the print film.KODAK: Perforation Types Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Perforation Types 35 mm and 65 mm End Use 1.2994" (short pitch).1866" (short pitch).110-1980 9.3000" (long pitch). the pitch dimensions are . ANSI PH22. BH-1866-35 mm Bell-Howell negative perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. 3R-2994-35mm film perforated 16 mm with perforation pitch of 0.102-1980 7.110-1980 10.1391980. 11 except with a perforation pitch of 0.l870" (long pitch).93-1980 3.139-1980.93-1980 2. the original film must be slightly shorter in pitch than the print stock.1870-35 mm Bell -Howell negative perforations with a pitch measurement of 0. ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. therefore. ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. ANSI PH22. 2R-2994-16 mm film perforated two edges with a perforation pitch of 0. BH. this condition was achieved by natural shrinkage of the original during processing and early aging.2994" (short pitch).

KODAK: Perforation Types
0.1870 inch (4.750 mm) on print film and 0.1866 inch (4.740 mm) on original film; for 16 mm film, they are 0.3000 inch (7.620 mm) on print film, 0.2994 inch (7.605 mm) on original film. For intermediate and print films used to make super 8 prints, the pitch dimensions are 0.1667 inch (4.234 mm) on print film, 0.1664 inch (4.227 mm) on intermediate film. This difference in pitch accounts for about 0.2 percent of the theoretical 0.3 percent; processing and aging shrinkage of the original film before printing usually provides the balance. See the first perforation type reference for additional information.

Page 2 of 3

Figure 46
A printing sprocket

Projection Print Aspect Ratios
The aspect ratio is the relationship between the width and height of an image. While the image dimensions may vary in size according to projection requirements, the aspect ratio should comply with the cinematographic intent. The industry standard for theatrical motion pictures remained a constant 1.37:1 between the introduction of sound and the introduction of CinemaScope in 1953 when wide screen presentations were developed. While the original stereophonic (four -track magnetic) CinemaScope presentation had an aspect ratio of 2.55: 1, the flat, or nonanamorphic systems, designed to simulate wide screen images, provided several aspect ratios from 1.66:1 all the way up to and including 2:1. During this uncertain period, release prints were often printed with wider frame lines to emphasize that increased ratios were intended. During printing, the frame lines could be varied by printing the lines in to cover some of the original film image. At the same time, television's demands for feature films Figure 47 increased. However, because the typical Potential image lossed when television display provides a fixed ratio of changing aspect ratios 1.33:1, many of the films shown on television, after adjustment to fill the video screen height, lost a substantial part of the image at the edges. See Figure 47. Several approaches to rectifying this incompatibility were tried with various levels of success until the industry came to the current "consensus" that 1.85:1 would be the "normal" theatrical projection ratio but that the print would have an image of greater height so that it could fill a television screen without creating

KODAK: Perforation Types
borders. Today, the usual procedure when filming productions for theatrical release and eventual TV showing is to "matte" the camera viewfinder to clearly indicate 1:85:1 and to keep all pertinent action within this area. Nevertheless, the entire 1.37:1 frame is exposed. The cinematographer must make certain no scene rigging, mike books, cables, or lighls are included in the expanded area. Subsequent release prints, therefore, contain a sufficient frame height to provide normal telecine transmission. In the theater, the projectionist must use a 1:85:1 aperture plate and exercise some judgment in adjusting the projector framing. This can be done conveniently during the showing of the titles.

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KODAK: Film Identification

Page 1 of 1

WEDNESDA

Film Identification
l l l l

Unprocessed Film How to Read a Film Can Label Processed Film Know Your Films ¡ Test Exposures ¡ To Provide a Reference Point ¡ For Locations with Unfamiliar Lighting ¡ To Establish a Reference with You and Your Laboratory ¡ To Evaluate Specific End-Use Appearance ¡ To Determine the "Look" of the Finished Job ¡ To Check Specific Color Reproduction

Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events

Motion Picture Home

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spool. The film-strip reference number identifies the location of a particular strip of film cut from the master roll. This number (1 through 38 for 35 mm and 1 through 83 for 16 mm) appears on a sticker affixed to most cans holding 400 or more feet of film. and the number of the roll (4567) from which this strip of Eastman Color Negative Film was cut. winding. and emulsion position and winding type are identified on the label. and type of core. The film width. perforation pitch.KODAK: Unprocessed Film Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Unprocessed Film The eleven-digit code on the label in Figure 49 (5247-123-4567) identifies the film type (5247). or magazine. Figure 48 shows such a sticker. a code describing width. the emulsion batch number (123). The Film Identification code (ECN 718 in this case) gives the emulsion type (ECN or Eastman Color Negative Film) and film specification number (718). Student Main Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out News & Events About the Progra Program Membe Motion Picture H Figure 48 How to read a film can label . perforation type and format. The emulsion batch number and roll number also appear on the tape sealing the can.

It is visible on the processed film between "Eastman" and "SAFETY FILM" on the edge print. film base data. the uppercase letter of the manufacturer's code will be listed. and edge-print medium (ink or latent image) are helpful in identifying processed film. a lowercase letter or letters (a. etc) appear between "SAFETY" and "FILM" to identify the perforation format of the parent strip and the location of the sub strip within it. c.KODAK: Unprocessed Film Page 2 of 3 Film Sizes Figure 49 Processed Film The film strip reference number affixed to the can of raw stock film also appears as a latent image on the film itself. The combinations of manufacturer's code (an uppercase letter for 35 mm or a trailer-end marking for 16 mm). b. . If a film data sheet carries a "Film Identification" heading. On 35 mm films having multiple -row perforations (used only by processing laboratories to print multiple copies of a film simultaneously).

shutters. Testing is one aspect of professional work too often overlooked in practice. Will a filter correct the situation? Can you change the lighting? Will another film stock work better for those scenes? Our second topic. The third section covers the process by which the sound you recorded is combined with your images in the final print. actual shooting. listed in the order of the time they may occur. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Test Exposures Every production presents a unique set of conditions and demands. Testing reduces any remaining uncertainties and establishes the reaction of a particular film to a unique situation. are the principle causes of real or apparent changes in speed in all films. filtration. and storage conditions all influence film performance and selection. manufacture. The last two sections explain how to care for the finished films you have carefully created. First we'll discuss why an on-site test is a good idea. exposure meters. covers the wide range of uses for filters to fill the needs of your unique circumstances. and contrast and color balance in color films. etc) Adverse storage conditions between film exposure and processing Nonstandard processing conditions Nonstandard viewing conditions Differences in personal judgment All except the first are beyond the scope of manufacturing control and cannot be predicted accurately from the data sheets. Furthermore. A full understanding of the job at hand and careful evaluation of the information in the data sheets should give the filmmaker a good idea of how a chosen film stock will respond to most filming situations. Failure to understand these causes can lead to misunderstanding or misinterpretation of photographic results: l l l l l l l l l Slight manufacturing variations among different emulsion batches Adverse storage conditions before exposure Scene illumination of incorrect or mixed color quality Differences in film sensitivity with changes in illumination level and exposure time Variations in equipment (lenses. Tle variations that make test exposures worthwhile and the technique of interpreting such exposures are the subjects of this section. filmmakers should run tests to provide reference points during production and to confirm choices based on previous experience and data sheet information. When seeking the best possible results.KODAK: Know Your Films Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Know Your Films Design. the variations encountered in practical use are apt to be a great deal larger . Here. projection. Suppose your test shows that the film stock being considered produces unattractive results under the lights you plan to use to illuminate a few scenes.

and sometimes more. any larger variation would by itself use up the entire color-balance tolerance available. Often the effects are additive. Physical characteristics such as curl. fog. In any case. These are the basic reasons why you should make a test exposure whenever speed and color-balance are important. either before or after exposure. None should ever be overlooked when choosing a film or attempting to explain an unexpected result. Tests have shown that the thickness of each emulsion layer must be controlled within 4 or 5 percent. Only film produced within narrow tolerances of the production aim point is shipped from the manufacturing plant. and minor single variations will. flexible base in the dark! Every effort is made to achieve the greatest possible uniformity in the manufacture of Kodak films. Page 2 of 3 To Provide a Reference Point A speed variation of 1/3 stop. color-contrast match. a much smaller variation in the relative speed of any one layer is evident to the user. Most professionals realize the perishable nature of sensitized materials and are careful to avoid subjecting films (especially color) to extreme heat and humidity. perforation pitch. produce noticeable results unless proper compensation is made in advance. Since a typical color emulsion is only 3 ten thousandths of an inch thick. And this kind of accuracy is maintained in making successive coatings on a thin. test data obtained under actual production conditions is recommended to supplement the manufacturer's data. They are exposed at times considered representative of the major applications for the films. but within such close tolerances minor variations are unavoidable. Production tests are made at normal room temperature with illuminants equivalent in color quality to tungsten (3200 or 3400 K) lamps for tungsten films and to average sunlight plus skylight (5500 K) for daylight films. however. . The other factors listed are equally important. variations are smallest among films of the same emulsion number. Two or more causes of variation may influence results at the same time. In all cases. even if not equally familiar. and maximum density. Of course. Only a test exposure under the practical conditions of use will furnish this information.KODAK: Know Your Films than those permitted by manufacturing tolerances. The actual sensitometric tolerances tested include speed. the standardization of manufacturing operations is supplemented by an extensive testing and quality-control program. where the performance of each emulsion layer is evaluated in terms of the other two. Test exposures are necessary for reversal materials that will be projected directly after processing more so than for negative or printed reversal materials because density and color-balance adjustments cannot be made during printing. films are processed in accordance with process specifications. so only 15 millionths of an inch variation is allowable. In a color film. when combined. usually passes unnoticed when black-and-white film is projected. At Kodak. contrast. Coating thickness is a manufacturing variable that provides an excellent illustration of the technical accuracy maintained in making color films.

The careful cinematographer should make practical picture tests on new film batches with the exposure and filtration to be used for the rest of the production. .. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. the color quality of tungsten and fluorescent lamps can change with age and voltage fluctuations. Discolored or dirty reflectors and camera lenses with a color tint can change color quality. Even the "correct" light may be changed appreciably in color quality as it passes from source to subject to film. With Eastman and Kodak EKTACHROME Films. etc. fall approximately within the range correctable by a CC10 filter in the camera exposure. you must make compensation if the light source differs in color quality from that for which the film is balanced. Page 3 of 3 For Locations with Unfamiliar Lighting Filmmakers are well aware that color films are balanced in manufacture for exposure to light of a certain color quality. are also carefully controlled. However. Lighting from mixed sources will also change color renderings. Color negative film offers considerable latitude because some adjustments for color balance you can make during printing. tensile strength. Even reversal materials that will be printed offer some latitude because of the printing step. freedom from scratches. the permitted colorbalance variations. normal color-balance variations fall within a range for which adjustment can easily be made in the printing process. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . In the case of negative films. These tests will help to determine if any additional filtration and exposure adjustments are needed. tested under normal recommended use. Furthermore. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).KODAK: Know Your Films weave. when a reversal material isn't going to be printed.

and from time to time variations can be noted at a single laboratory. the viewer. stored. and processing conditions should also be identical with those planned for the final work. the conditions that produce these effects are not common. Tests processed by your chosen laboratory serve as a base in all future discussions with the laboratory. The exposure time. To Check Specific Color Reproduction With only three dyes. exposed. Fortunately. . color films are. producer. though. a projected image can never be "perfect" in any simple sense. or laboratory may prefer a color balance different from one judged desirable by the manufacturer. Motion Picture Home To Determine the "Look" of the Finished Job Because the viewers' reactions to a projected image involve their psychological responses. and processed correctly. if possible. and the screen can affect the image quality dramatically. Because the manufacturer can never judge color balance appropriately for all tastes and all extremes of working conditions. Occasionally. Kodak color films exhibit small color differences between the image and the subject itself when they are critically compared. but cinematographers have to judge whether the "look" of the film is consistent with their intentions and with the nature of the subject. Usually these differences are insignificant. on the actual subject. it is obvious that an individual cinematographer. critical work should be preceded by tests made as closely as possible to the conditions of final use. able to produce a pleasing rendering of most colors.KODAK: Film Identification Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Film Identification To Establish a Reference with You and Your Laboratory Different laboratories can produce noticeable variations in image quality and effective film speed. some colors present special difficulties in accurate reproduction. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events To Evaluate Specific End-Use Appearance The conditions under which film is viewed have a marked effect on the apparent color quality of the picture. The locations of the projector. For critical applications. light source. You should always make the test on film of the same emulsion number as that to be used for the final exposure and kept under similar conditions before and after exposure. Like all photographic and electronic imaging systems. even though the film has been manufactured. Since the manufacturer's evaluation of color balance is determined from picture tests judged by a number of observers. Typical processing can result in speed variations of plus or minus 1/2-stop and color-balance variations on the order of +/CC10 filter. test film should be projected and evaluated under the specific conditions in which it will be used.

With other colors. etc. some other colors such as shades of chartreuse. In this case. grays. While the high reflectance of these dyes in the far red and infrared can be found in all colors. Sometimes. but many white fabrics contain brighteners introduced during manufacture or laundering to give them a whiter appearance. Some fabrics absorb ultraviolet radiation and remit it in the near-blue (shortest wavelength) portion of the visible spectrum. its effect is most noticeable in medium to dark green fabrics. a substance reflecting ultraviolet energy will reproduce bluer on film than it looks to the eye. An ultraviolet absorbing filter. 2B. They arise from high reflectance at the far red and infrared end of the spectrum. Under an ultraviolet lamp. etc.KODAK: Film Identification Since a large majority of all photographs include people. These dyes are currently very popular with fabric manufacturers because they are relatively inexpensive and work well with synthetic materials. (It is possible to design a film that would improve the reproduction of these other colors. Among artificial materials. If it is blue to begin with. An analogous visual effect is created by black light which makes special paints. an ultraviolet absorber over the light source may prove helpful. Because films are designed to reproduce these colors properly under a variety of conditions. some fabrics. and orange-may reproduce less well. Closely related is the effect of ultraviolet fluorescence. such as blue sky. the reproduction of flesh tones is a primary consideration in the design of a color film. Since color films are sensitive to ultraviolet radiation. Examination of any suspect fabrics under an ultraviolet source will generally indicate whether there will be a fluorescence problem. however. sky. such as a Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. a black tuxedo made of synthetic material may appear blue. Page 2 of 3 . Since the eye is not very sensitive in this part of the spectrum. the differences between film sensitivity and visual sensitivity produce unwelcome results.) More noticeable difficulties can be encountered because color films do not have exactly the same color sensitivities as the human eye. though. this effect is of little or no consequence. glow in the dark. however. For example. the three lightsensitive layers of the film do not have to "see" the subject exactly the same way the human eye does. green grass. The heavenly blue moming glory and ageratum flowers are examples of colors occurring in nature that reproduce poorly because color films are much more sensitive to the far red than the eye. A photographic test is the best way to determine whether problems with reproduction in the ultraviolet range should be anticipated. Perhaps most troublesome are the color reproduction problems sometimes called anomalous reflectance. the additional blueness may neutralize the original color or even make it appear blue. Also important are the reproduction of neutrals (whites. For most subjects. any fabric containing brighteners will fluoresce. but only at the expense of generally more important flesh tones. etc. pink. the effect may not be readily apparent until a photograph of the subject is viewed. some classes of organic dye are notable examples of high reflectance in the far red. grass. the differences are scarcely noticeable. a filter over the lens does not help. lime. Neutral and near-neutral colors are more apt to be affected by such a shift. because their saturation is low. over the lens or over the light source when practical can reduce this effect. In most cases. where the eye has little or no sensitivity. and blacks) and the reproduction of common "memory" colors.

70. If the materials are examined under a tungsten light. You can identify high reflectance at the far end of the spectrum can be identified by use of a deep red filter such as a Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filter No. If the test fabric appears distinctly light in a side-by-side comparison through the No. a sample of a green fabric known to reproduce well should be compared with the test fabric under the filter. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Because the judgment is quantitative. confirmation by means of a photographic test under actual working conditions is advisable if circumstances permit. making it appear browner. .KODAK: Film Identification where the photographic effect of the far red reflectance is to neutralize the green. you should expect a reproduction problern. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). 70 filter. Page 3 of 3 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . Even then. a green natural-fiber material will appear black. whereas a synthetic material with high reflectance in the far red will appear much lighter.

16mm .KODAK Gives You The Edge That Counts.

. (20 perforations). . . M. . . . K. . 7249 T . . . . Strip Number Tails Base Up . . L. Key Number: Prefix — Six digits that identify film roll. .. . . . . J. C. . . . . S. (barcode detail next page) Current Films D. . and offset in perforations. . . film type. U. 7243 7297 7296 7292 O . Z. . . . V. R.. H. 7298 W. Includes the 10-digit key number. 7234 7222 7231 7246 7245 7293 7248 Q. . . 7277 7289 7272 7279 7244 7620 7274 Discontinued Films A. . . K=Eastman Kodak Company. . E. 7287 Zero-Frame Reference Mark Dot which identifies the frame directly below as the zero-frame specified by both the human-readable key number and the machinereadable bar code. . . . Y. . . Count — Four digits that increment every six inches Manufacturer Identification Code (Below the Zero-Frame Reference Mark) Letter which identifies film manufacturer. N. . .EASTMAN 16 mm KEYKODE™ Numbers USERS’GUIDE Film Identification Code Letter which identifies film type: EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Kodak's machine-readable key numbers. I. . . manufacturer identification code.

verify that the same symbols are located in the same position on both the workprint and the negative. Density Patch Repeats every ten feet (400 perforations). To Use: After matching key number and checking picture. Heads . Repeats every two feet (80 perforations).EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Information Encoded in USS-128 Barcode Start Character is toward head of film Manufacturer’ Information s Matching Check Symbols Four randomly selected and placed symbols designed as an extra matching check.

35mm .KODAK Gives You The Edge That Counts.

Includes the 10-digit key number. (barcode detail next page) Zero-Frame Reference Mark Key Number: Count — Four digits that increment once per foot (64 perforations).Heads EASTMAN 35 mm KEYKODE™ Numbers USERS’GUIDE Base Up Strip Number Manufacturer’ Information s Manufacturer Identification Code Letter which identifies film manufacturer. and offset in perforations. Prefix — Six digits that identify film roll. film type. EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Kodak's machine-readable key numbers. manufacturer identification code. . K=Eastman Kodak Company. Dot which identifies the frame directly above as the zero-frame specified by both the humanreadable key number and the machine-readable bar code.

5296 5249 5600 5287 Encoded in USS-128 Barcode . . . K. Film Identification Code Letter which identifies film type: Current Films EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Information D. these midfoot numbers identify short scenes that may not include a main key or Keykode number. . Note: The solid squares also serve as density patches. . 5243 5247 5297 5295 5294 J. P. S. . Note: The frame-index marker is not printed when it interferes with any other edgeprint information. . . . . . .. G. . . . . H. Use this offset for frame-line reference. . . . . C. . . Frame-Index Marker A hyphen every four perforations helps locate the frame lines for dark scenes. . . Mid-foot key numbers are printed in smaller type to distinguish them from the main key numbers. .. . E. . . . . or +3 perforations). verify that the same symbols are located in the same position on both the workprint and the negative. . F. Mid-Foot Key Number Positioned halfway (+32 perforations) between each main key and Keykode number. To Use: After matching key numbers and picture. W. . 5289 5272 5298 5279 5244 2244 X. . . . M. O. . I.. 5274 Discontinued Films A.. 5234 5222 5231 5246 5245 5293 5248 5277 R. L.. Determine its offset from index marker (0. Q. V. .. . B.Tails Matching Check Symbols Two randomly selected and placed symbols designed as an extra matching check. +1.. 5620 Z. . .. SFX 200T Y. . . T. . +2. U. To Use: Locate one frame line.

KODAK Gives You The Edge That Counts. 65mm .

Key Number Count — Four digits that increment every 120 perforations. V. . manufacturer identification code. 5243 B. U. . . 5247 C. 5287 Manufacturer Identification Code Letter which identifies film manufacturer. Q. . Prefix — Six digits that identify film roll. . . Includes the 10-digit key number. . . 5296 W. . . L. . K.. . 5246 5245 5293 5248 5277 R. . . . . Z. 5289 5298 5279 5244 5274 Film Identification Code Letter which identifies film type: Discontinued Films A. Current Films I. and offset in perforations. M. . . . . . . 5297 J .Heads Base Up Manufacturer’ Information s EASTMAN KEYKODE Numbers Kodak's machine-readable key numbers. (barcode detail next page) Zero-Frame Reference Mark Dot which identifies the frame directly above as the zero-frame specified by both the humanreadable key number and the machine-readable bar code. . . T. . . K= Eastman Kodak Company. film type. . . ..

EASTMAN 65 mm KEYKODE™ Numbers USERS’GUIDE

One-third Key Number The key number +40, with bar code and frame-reference dot, is offset 40 perforations from the main key number. Use to identify short scenes which may not include the main key number.

Matching Check Symbols Two randomly selected symbols for additional matching checks. To Use: After matching key numbers and checking picture, verify that same symbols are located in same position on both the workprint and the negative. Check symbols are another aid in matching very short scenes. The solid squares also serve as density patches to evaluate edgeprint exposure.

EASTMAN KODAK Numbers Information

Encoded in USS - 128 Barcode

This edgeprint format pertains to all Eastman 65mm negative and intermediate films.

Tails

Two-thirds Key Number Like the one-third key number, but +80 perforations following the main key number.

Frame-Reference Markers A Dash, Key and Plus are printed at regular intervals to help locate frame lines, especially for scenes shot in low light. – Dash: Frame reference mark for 5- and 10-perf formats. Key: Frame reference mark for 8-perf format. + Plus: Frame reference mark for 15-perf format. (Every third dash is a plus) To Use: Locate one frame line and nearest reference marker for the given film format. Count the number of perforations between the frame line and the marker. Use this perf offset to identify the location of frame lines throughout the scene. Note: Frame-reference markers are not printed when they interfere with other edgeprint information.

Improved Edgeprint Format for KODAK 65mm Film

Interval between main Keykode numbers increased from 80- to 120-perforations
Facilitates the development of software programs for accurate electronic editing in all 65mm formats.

Two intermediate Keykode numbers offset 40- and 80perforations from the main Keykode number
An aid in matching short scenes which may not include the main key number.

Larger (full-size) human-readable intermediate key numbers
Easier to read on original and intermediate films. More legible on 35mm printdown workprint. Along with +40 and +80 perf designators, the two alpha-characters preceding the key number are half size to further indicate these are intermediate key numbers.

Frame-reference marker (key) added for 8-perf format
A new reference symbol for quickly locating the frame lines of dark scenes shot in the 8-perf format. (An addition to the dash and plus symbols currently used to reference frame lines on 5-, 10- and 15- perf formats.)

New manufacturer identification code-22
Allows readers and software to automatically recognize the new edgeprint format and accurately record Kodak Keykode numbers from the new and previous formats, even when intercut. Note: The identification code was 02 for the previous 65mm format.

New printer number sequence -91 and -92
Printer numbers (first two digits of the key number) are 91 or 92. Printer numbers for previous Kodak 65mm films were 01 or 02. On a negative cut list, the different numbers quickly identify the edgeprint format of the film.

Strip number added to the manufacturer's information
Provides further identification for any roll of 65mm film.

if green and red are subtracted. Filtration with color films can change the color quality of the light source to produce proper color rendition or to create special effects. we see blue. Colors as Seen in White Light Red Blue Green Yellow (red-green) Magenta (red-blue) Cyan (blue-green) Black White Gray Colors of Light Absorbed Blue and green Red and green Red and blue Blue Green Red Red. and blue None Equal portions of red. For example. Different films also see colors differently due to differences in spectral sensitivity. Filtration used with black-and-white films can control the shades of gray to obtain a technically correct rendition or to exaggerate or suppress the tonal differences for visibility. see many more colors in nature than these three because absorption and reflection of the primaries are rarely complete. emphasis. and any personal defects in our color vision. We. or other effects. Our perception of a color is influenced by the surrounding colors and brightness level. For practical purposes. and blue. and blue . we can consider white light as composed of equal amounts of three primary light colors-red. the surface gloss of an object. green. black is the absence of all these colors. green. green.KODAK: Filtration Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Filtration l l l l l l l l l Filters Useful with All Camera Films ¡ Polarizing Filters ¡ Neutral Density Filters ¡ Filters for Black-and-White Films ¡ Correction Filters ¡ Contrast Filters ¡ Haze Filters Filters for Color Films Selecting Filters for Correcting Color Temperature Light Source Conversion with Filters Light Balancing Filters Conversion Filters Limits to Color Temperature Measurement Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters Color Compensating Filters for Color Correction ¡ Combining Color Compensating Filters ¡ Exposure Allowance for Filters ¡ Filters for Color Printing Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home White light is the sum of all the colors of the rainbow.

a yellow filter is one that absorbs blue light. . A yellow sunflower absorbs blue light and reflects the other parts of white light-red and green. which we see as yellow (lack of blue). Similarly.KODAK: Filtration Filters always subtract some of the light reflected from a scene before it reaches the film plane in the camera. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). A red filter then is not "red" but rather a filter that absorbs blue and green. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .

When you begin making exposures with a polarizing filter. (3) Other filters can be used with a polarizing filter to control the color rendering of objects in the foreground. By reducing glare. For example. . is less affected by a filter. The amount of polarized light from a particular area of the sky varies according to the position of the area with respect to the sun. you must make any exposure increases required by the nature of the lighting. or by looking through the filter when it is held at the same angle as used on the camera. Using a polarizing filter to control the brightness of the sky has several advantages over color filters: (1) The color rendering of foreground objects is not altered. and polished wood. the effect of the filter at the horizon is small. reflections often make objects look brighter than they really are. The sky is frequently almost white at the horizon and shades to a more intense blue at the zenith. Give an additional 1/2-stop exposure when you use a polarizing filter to eliminate reflections from subjects. but it becomes greater as you aim the camera upward. and for controlling the brightness of the sky. See Figure 50. while the polarizer independently controls the brightness of the sky. therefore. polarizing filters also increase color saturation.KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Filters Useful with All Camera Films Polarizing Filters Polarizing filters (also called polarizing screens) are used to subdue reflections from surfaces such as glass. be sure to remember that this filter has a minimum filter factor of 2. Therefore. This factor applies regardless of how the polarizing screen is rotated. for the dark-sky effect. the maximum occurring at an angle of 90º from the sun. In addition to this exposure increase. Panning the camera. therefore. water. The sky near the sun is less blue than the surrounding sky and. You can't darken an overcast sky by using a polarizing filter.5 (increase exposure by 1 1/3 stops). The sky may appear lighter than you would expect for these reasons: l Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home l l A misty sky does not photograph as dark as a clear blue sky.stop increase required by the polarizing filter factor. the scene must be sidelighted or toplighted. so it will be necessary to add approximately 1/2-stop exposure to the 1 1/3. (2) It is easy to determine the effect produced by the polarizing filter by checking the appearance of the image in the viewfinder (for cameras equipped with reflex-type viewfinders). should be avoided with a polarizing because the sky will become darker or lighter as the camera position changes.

Neutral Density Filters Neutral density filters.01 Filter Factor 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 100 1. In black-and-white motion picture photography. 96.3 and 0. obtain neutral densities of 0.1 0.0 4.8 0. 96 Neutral Percent Density Transmittance 0. Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. 85BN3 and 85BN6. such as the Kodak WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. one and two stops of additional exposure.0 3. 8. reduce the intensity of light reaching the film without affecting the tonal rendition of colors in the scene. Kodak WRATTEN Neutral Density Filter No. these filters require. Neutral density filters make it possible to film in bright sunlight using high-speed films without having to use very small lens openings.4 0. such as Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No.6 0. respectively.6. you can use combination filters. and at the same time.7 0. 3 and No. 03N5 and 8N5 permit the use of a larger lens opening for depth-of-field reduction.5 with the blue and ultraviolet correction capability of WRATTEN Gelatin Filters No. These filters combine a neutral density of 0.KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films Page 2 of 4 Figure 50 A polarizer can eliminate reflections on non-metallic surfaces.3ND filter causes a one-stop reduction in exposure. respectively.2 0.3 0. to convert the color temperature from 5500 K (daylight) to 3200 K (professional tungsten lighting). Since a 0.9 1.0 2.1 0.5 0.0 80 63 50 40 32 25 20 16 13 10 1 0.000 10. In color motion picture photography.000 Increase in Exposure (Stops) 1/3 2/3 1 1 1/3 1 2/3 2 2 1/3 2 2/3 3 3 1/3 6 2/3 10 13 1/3 .

reduce the brightness of blue sky and water. use a filter that will absorb that color. tends to distort the rendering of red subject matter. By using a yellow or yellow-green filter to absorb some of the unwanted blue and red light.white print. blue or violet subjects are often overexposed and rendered too light on the final print. so how does the filter make foliage lighter? Actually. To make a color darker. the filter darkens the rendering on the print of the color it absorbs. For example in location work. The filters used in black-and-white work fall into three main types: (1) Correction filters change the color quality of the exposing light so that the film records all colors at approximately the relative brightness values seen by the eye. The following guideline will help you choose contrast filters: A filter transmits its own color. use orange and red filters. which absorbs the red of the geraniums and transmits the green of the grass. which transmits the red of the geranium blossoms and absorbs the green of the grass. 58 green filter. Since you probably think of the flowers as being brighter than the grass. you'll get the opposite result: dark flowers and light grass. (2) Contrast filters change the relative brightness values so that two colors that would otherwise record as nearly the same shade of gray will have decidedly different brightness in the picture. Foliage looks slightly darker than we expect when it is photographed on black-and-white film without a filter. If you use a No. making that color lighter in a black-and. Page 3 of 4 Correction Filters Most panchromatic emulsions have a high sensitivity to both ultraviolet and blue radiation. (3) Haze filters reduce the effects of aerial haze. correction filters are often used to overcome an apparent lack of contrast between blue sky and white clouds.KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films Filters for Black-and-White Films Kodak WRATTEN Gelatin Filters are used with a wide range of black-andwhite films for many purposes. penetrate haze in distant landscapes. the geraniums will be light and the grass dark in your print. Deliberate overcorrection is sometimes done to achieve special effects. Contrast Filters Used with black-and-white films contrast filters change the relative contrasts between two objects that would normally photograph as nearly the same shade of gray. this print may look natural to you. thus making the colors it transmits lighter by comparison. Because this sensitivity is dissimilar to the spectral sensitivity of the eye. there will be less density on the negative and the print will be darker. This may seem to imply a contradiction: If a filter subtracts light. 25 red filter. At the red end of the spectrum. increase tonal contrast between colored objects. But if you use a No. They can emphasize clouds. unless compensated for. You can also underexpose the film when using a contrast filter to simulate a night effect under daylight conditions. such as . you can record foliage in its proper gray tone. and produce special effects such as simulated night scenes. This becomes apparent when the negative is correctly printed. certain higher speed panchromatic films possess a marked red sensitivity that.

.KODAK: Filters Useful with All Camera Films Kodak WRATTEN Filter Nos. which lightens the gray-tone rendering of green. for example. and 15. For further darkening of the sky and increased haze penetration. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). are Kodak WRATTEN Filters No. such as filters No. Yellow filters. Page 4 of 4 Haze Filters The effects of haze can be reduced by filtering out some of the blue and ultraviolet lighy. Figure 51 Note: If conditions require long time exposures. 3. 21. 23A. * For a gray-tone rendering of colors approximating their visual brightness. and red. in order of increasing absorption. or 72B. 58 filter is green. These filters absorb varying degrees of blue light and green light. and blue-green. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. 25. The No. 8. The filter factors given are often different for tungsten and for daylight because tungsten light contains relatively more red light while daylight contains more blue. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . corrections for reciprocity effect in addition to the corrections for the filter factor may be necessary. commonly used for haze peneration and darkening of the sky. 23A. 12. yellow. will help you decide what filters to use to lighten or darken the gray-tone rendering of most colors. Figure 51 . magenta. The color filter circle. and darkens the rendering of orange. 25 and 29. use filters ranging from light orange to deep red. 29.

provide the user an excellent means of finding the actual spectral distribution. or nearly the same. whole correcting with light balancing and conversion filters requires two at the most. Because the addition of many filters over a camera lens increase flare and decreases sharpness. color temperature (red. haze. When the visual color of the illuminant is the same. Some meters give a choice of correcting the balance either wilh color balancing and conversion filters or with color compensating filters. Outdoors. clouds. which is expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). When the actual light is different from that specified for a particular film. voltage. NOTE: Do not confuse sunlight with daylight.type of reflectors and diffusers -all of which can influence the actual color temperature of the light. aging of lamps. But this is true only . or color contribution of diffusers. The values given are approximate because many factors affect color temperature. and are adequate to indicate the spectral distribution of light sources having a continuous energy distribution across the spectrum (such as an incandescent light). making the main correction with color compensating filters requires many filters. In most instances. They are not satisfactory for sources (such as fluorescent lights) having a skewed or discontinuous distribution. Indoors. tungsten bulbs are affected by age (and blackening). Usually. that is. Two-color meters (much less costly) show the balance between the red and blue light. Daylight and artificial light differ from one another in spectral quality and are individually subject to considerable variation. correction filters can adjust the color quality of the illumination to that for which the film is balanced. as that of the ideal radiator at a given temperature. a change of 1 volt equals 10K. Sunlight is the light of the sun only. a black body heated to incandescence. they cannot cover all such variables as high or low voltage.blue) correction is best made with light balancing and conversion filters and green-magenta adjustment is best made with color conipensating filters. while costly. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Selecting Filters for Correcting Color Temperature The color quality of some illuminants can be expressed in terms of color temperature-a measure of the light irradiated by an idea-radiator. Data sheet tables are usually a reliable guide to the right filters for obtaining optimum color balance and are especially useful as a starting point from which to run tests. or dust particles will raise or lower the color temperature.KODAK: Filters for Color Films Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Filters for Color Films In exposing color films and in making prints and intermediates. Daylight is a combination of sunlight plus skylight. the illuminant color is described in terms of the corresponding temperature of the ideal radiator. the sun angle and the conditions of sky. Color-temperature meters measuring the three primary colors provide an accurate method of determining the spectral-energy distribution of light sources as they relate to the sensitivities of the three layers in color films. there are a number of conditions under which you can obtain good color rendition through the use of correcting filters. Such meters as the Spectral-tricolor meter and the Minolta 3 color meter. However.

400 5.P.350 3.000 6.980 2.000 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak.000 5.800 6. DC) Direct Midsummer Sunlight Overcast sky Average Summer Sunlight (plus blue skylight) Light Summer Shade Average Summer Shade Summer Skylight Will Vary from Degrees Kelvin 2. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).800 5. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.500 7.500 4.300 4.420 Daylight Source Sunlight: Sunrise or Sunset Sunlight: 1 Hour after Sunrise Sunlight: Early Morning Sunlight: Late Afternoon Average Summer Sunlight at Noon (Washington.820 2.300 5.100 8.650 2.900 2. .350 3.500 6.000 3.990 3." (Color Photography) Studio Tungsten Lamp Photoflood and Reflector Flood Lamp Daylight Blue Photoflood Lamp White Flame Carbon Arc Lamp High-Intensity Sun Arc Lamp Xenon Arc Lamp Degrees Kelvin 1. Page 2 of 2 Color Temperature for Various Light Sources Artificial Light Source Match Flame Candle Flame 40-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 75-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 100-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 200-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 1000-Watt Incandescent Tungsten Lamp 3200 K Tungsten Lamp Molard "Brute" with Yellow Flame Carbons and YF-101 Filter (approx) "C.700 1.200 3.500 to 30.KODAK: Filters for Color Films within a limited voltage range and does not always apply to booster voltage operation since certain bulbs will not exceed a certain color temperature regardless of the increase in voltage.400 4.850 2.000 9.

but the value is arrived at by first expressing the color temperature in megakelvins (1 MK = 1. hence the reciprocal color temperature. If this method proves viable. The reciprocal color temperature is commonly multiplied by 1.000. The concept of expressing color temperature in reciprocal form is useful because a given sum of reciprocal units corresponds approximately to the same color difference for most visibly emitting sources (in the range from 1000 K to 10. reporting additional filter data in terms of photographic effect should provide greater assistance in the choice of appropriate filters for photography under a wide range of illuminants. in the past.000 to give numbers of convenient size. A new concept termed photographic color temperature is being developed.000 K) and taking the reciprocal. These filters may or may not provide a visual shift that relates to the measured photographic effect. the term reciprocal megakelvins (MK-1 ) has been used to replace mireds. of any light source by a definite amount. been called micro -reciprocal degrees or "mireds. The reciprocal color temperature expressed in reciprocal megakelvins has the same numerical value as with mireds. Remember that the concept of color temperature relates to the response of the visual system. This list give filters that provide the desired photographic result when used for the conversion indicated. The values obtained by this operation have. The shift value given is a nominal value defined by the equation 1 1 T2 T1 and is not a measure of the visual shift that might actually be computed for the filter.006 MK = 167 MK-1 Filters such as Kodak Light Balancing Filters and Kodak WRATTEN Photometric Filters modify the effective color temperature." 1.000 x 1 Tk Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Recently.000. the reciprocal color temperature for a 6000 K source is 1/0. some filters are designed empirically to fit existing photographic requirements. To match the actual response of films as opposed to the response of the eye. Each filter can be given a visual shift value that is defined by the expression 1 1 T2 T1 where T 1 is the color temperature of the light through the filter (both values expressed in megakelvins).000. it is helpful to use the reciprocal of the color temperature.KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Light Source Conversion with Filters To evaluate filter requirements for the conversion of light sources. For example. .000 K).

is listed in the left column and covers the practical range of color temperatures from 2000 to 10. 82 is intended. values above zero point (+) require yellowish filters. and the 82C by 400 K. Filters can also be combined. or 3400 K. Page 2 of 3 Reciprocal Color Temperature (MK-1)for Color Temperatures from 2000K to 6900 K* K 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 500 333 250 200 167 100 476 323 244 196 164 200 455 312 238 192 161 300 435 303 233 189 159 400 417 294 227 185 156 500 400 286 222 182 154 600 385 278 217 179 152 700 370 270 213 175 149 800 357 263 208 172 147 900 345 256 204 169 145 * Values in reciprocal megakelvins (MK -1) are equal numerically to values in "mireds. T 1 . If the required colorbalance adjustment is small. will be adequate. T 2. The zero point on this column indicates that no filter is required. The original light source. in effect. the 82B by 300K. Kodak Light Balancing Filters are used over the camera lens to enable the photographer to make minor adjustments to the light reaching the film. the desired combination being calculated by adding the (MK. type A) or with illumination of daylight quality (5500 K). 81C 81D) are intended to reduce color temperature by 100 K steps.edge on the points corresponding to the color temperature of the available source. T 2 . If you use more than one filter. To find the shift value and consequently the filter required for a particular conversion. 81B. type B. For greater color correction.82 series. the 82A by 200 K.KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters The light source conversion nomograph shown in Figure 52 is designed to simplify the problem of selecting the proper conversion filter.1) shift values of the filters. with due regard to the sign. 81 series (91. and the desired color temperature of the filtered source. T 1. a single bluish filter of the No. Those of the No. combine two filters in the same series. The straightedge crosses the center column and indicates the reciprocal megakelvin shift value of the required filter. it is only necessary to place a straight. 81 series. to raise color temperature by 100 K. Conversion Filters If still greater corrections in color are required. the converted source. you can use light balancing filters and conversion filters. or a single yellowish filter of the No. The righthand column lists the color temperature of the light through the filterthat is. remember that the illumination loss and flare due to reflection of the multiple surfaces may become considerable. and those below the zero point (-) require bluish filters." Light Balancing Filters Color motion picture films are balanced in manufacture for use either with tungsten light sources (3200 K. 81A. respectively. Use conversion filters over the camera lens to make significant changes in the color temperature of .000 K. The center column shows the scale of reciprocal megakelvin (MK -1) shift values. Kodak Light Balancing Filter No.

Also. Since a film is usually sensitive to ultraviolet radiation. Page 3 of 3 Limits to Color Temperature Measurement Color temperature refers only to the visual appearance of a light source and does not necessarily describe its photographic effect. color temperature does not take into account the spectral distribution of a light source. a scene can record overly blue unless special corrective means are used to filter out the ultraviolet.g. daylight to artificial light).KODAK: Light Source Conversion with Filters illumination (e. various types of tungsten. the photographic results obtained with each may be quite different.filament lamps). smooth spectral-distribution curve that is characteristic of a tungsten.filament source. Fluorescent lamps. its effective color temperature alone may not be reliable as a means of selecting a suitable filter for adapting the source for color photography. the color temperature of such a source does not measure this portion of the emission because the eye is not sensitive to radiation below 400 nm.g. Unless the light source has a similar spectral distribution to that of a black body radiator (e. do not have the continuous. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Although two different light sources may be described as having the same color temperature. Although some light sources emit strongly in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. . for example.

This is caused by the scattering of ultraviolet radiation to which the film is more sensitive than the human eye. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Kodak Light Balancing and Conversion Filters for Color Films Kodak Light Balancing Filters Filter Color Filter Number 82C + 82C 82C + 82B 82C + 82A 82C + 82 82C 82B 82A 82 No Filter Necessary 81 81A 81B 81C 81D 81EF 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 Exposure Increase in Stops* 1 1/3 1 1/3 1 1 2/3 2/3 1/3 1/3 To Obtain 3200 K from 2490 2570 2650 2720 2800 2900 3000 3100 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3850 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K To Obtain 3400 K from 2610 2700 2780 2870 2950 3060 3180 3290 3510 3630 3740 3850 3970 4140 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Nominal Shift Value (MK -1)* -89 -77 -65 -55 -45 -32 -21 -10 9 18 27 35 42 52 Nominal Shift Value (MK -1)* -131 -112 -81 -56 81 112 112 112 112 131 131 131 Motion Picture Home Bluish 3200 K 3400 K Yellowish Conversion Filters Filter Color Filter Number 80A 80B 80C 80D 85D 85 85N3 85N6 85N9 85B 85BN3 85BN6 Exposure Increase in Stops* 2 1 2/3 1 1/3 1/3 2/3 1 2/3 2 2/3 3 2/3 2/3 1 2/3 2 2/3 Conversion in Degrees K 3200 3400 3800 4200 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 5500 to to to to to to to to to to to to 5500 5500 5500 5500 3800 3400 3400 3400 3400 3200 3200 3200 Blue Amber *These values are approximate. scenes over water. and sometimes aerial photographs in open shade made on color films balanced for daylight are frequently rendered with a bluish cast. Kodak WRATTEN Filter No.KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters Page 1 of 5 WEDNESDA Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters Photographs of distant landscapes. you can reduce the bluish cast and slightly penetrate the haze. snow scenes. they should be checked by practical . mountain views. 1A (skylight filter) absorbs ultraviolet light. By placing this filter over the lens. For critical work.

However. If the color balance of a test is not satisfactory. Such corrections are often required. in making color prints or in photography with unusual light sources. blue. or to compensate for deficiencies in the spectral quality of the light to which color films must sometimes be exposed. especially if more than one filter is used. or green parts of the spectrum. The shift value can be read on the center line. for example. they are very . Page 2 of 5 The nomograph can be used to find the shift value for a particular conversion by placing a staightedge from an original source (T 1) to a second source (T 2 ). Use of the nominal shift values for filters shown on the previous tables will allow choice of filters that approximate the necessary correction. Use CC filters to make changes in the overall color balance of pictures made with color films. You can use. filters can be combined to acheive the required shift. for example. because they are gelatin filters. the extent of filtering required to correct it can be estimated by viewing the test print through color compensating filters.KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters test. Shift values are algebraically additive. Kodak Color Compensating Filters have excellent optical quality and are suitable for image-forming optical systems-over the camera lens. Figure 52 Color Compensating Filters for Color Correction A color compensating (CC) filter controls light by attenuating principally one or two of the red. them singly or in combination to introduce almost any desired color correction.

20 that is Yellow. or magenta and cyan filters. and the color is indicated by the final letter. and blue. Convert the filters to their equivalents in the subtractive colors cyan." The densities of color compensating filters are measured at the wavelength of maximum absorbtion (i. red. 50 in each color) helps predict the photographic effects of filter combinations.KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters susceptible to scratches and fingerprints. green. 10. nor do they include the density of the glass in which a filter may be mounted. The density of each color compensating filter is indicated by the numbers in the filter designation. magenta. each filter contains the same dyes in approximately the same amounts as the two corresponding yellow and magenta.10ND (neutral density. CC20Y represents a "Color Compensating Filter with a density of 0.e. Add like filters together. 3. 20. 40. For example.. 20R = 20M + 20Y. and blue filters each absorb two thirds of the visible spectrum. If the resulting filter combination contains all three subtractive colors. the cyan. and yellow-if they are not already of these colors. 30. magenta. In a typical filter designation. Page 3 of 5 Combining Color Compensating Filters The determination of filter combinations can usually be simplified by thinking of all the filters in terms of the subtractive colors: Red (absorbs blue and green) = yellow (absorbs blue) + magenta (absorbs green) Green (absorbs blue and red) = yellow (absorbs blue) + cyan (absorbs red) Blue (absorbs green and red) = magenta (absorbs green) + cyan (absorbs red) The following method of calculation is recommended: 1. both of which can affect optical quality to a serious degree. For example. and blue series. which can be eliminated). 10C + 20M + 20Y = 10M + 10Y + 0. and yellow filters each absorb one third of the spectrum. green. That's the reason the term peak density is used in the table. In the red. magenta. 2. For example. yellow and cyan. The density values do not include the density of the gelatin on which the filter dye is coated. . the density of a yellow filter is given for blue light). 20M + 10M = 30M. The standardized density spacing of these filter series (5. Color compensating filters are available in several density values for each of the following colors: cyan. yellow. green. The red. cancel out the neutral density by removing an equal amount of each.

For critical work. they should be checked by practical tests.30 0. Kodak Color Printing Filters. If the filter combination contains two different filters of equal density.025 0. You must increase exposure for this loss of light. It is available from Kodak.10 0.20 0. making it necessary to insert a heatabsorbing glass to protect the mirrors and filters in the printer optical system from damage.50 Peak Density Yellow (Absorbs Blue) CC025Y CC05Y** CC10Y** CC20Y** CC30Y CC40Y** CC50Y Red (Abosrbs Blue and Green) CC025R CC05R** CC10R** CC20R** CC30R CC40R CC50R Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1 Magenta (Absorbs Green) CC025M CC05M** CC10M** CC20M** CC30M CC40M** CC50M Green (Absorbs Blue and Red Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 Exposure Increase in Stops* Cyan (Absorbs Red) CC025C CC05C** CC10C** CC20C** CC30C CC40C** CC50C Blue (Absorbs Red and Green) Exposure Increase in Stops* 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1 Exposure Increase in Stops* 0.05 0. unlike CC filters.40 0. are made on an acetate film base and are used singly or in combination for color correction of light sources in subtractive color printing. as specified on the data sheets. green. . listed in the table below. or blue parts of the visible spectrum.50 CC05G CC10G CC20G CC30G CC40G CC50G 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1 CC05B CC10B CC20B CC30B CC40B CC50B > 1/3 1/3 2/3 2/3 1 1 1/3 * These values are approximate. or blue filter. 10M + 10C = 10B.10 0. Page 4 of 5 Exposure Allowance for Filters You must make filters absorb light. **Similar Kodak Color Printing Filters (Acetate) are available. Kodak Color Compensationg Filters Peak Density 0. green.05 0. To determine the exposure increase for two or more filters of different colors run practical tests using initially the sum of the suggested increases for the individual filters. Use a dichroic heat-reflecting glass or a heatabsorbing filter. substitute the equivalent single red. especially if more than one filter is used.025 0.KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters 4.20 0. An ultraviolet-absorbing filter may also be required. 2043 (4 mm) now used in many laboratories is satisfactory.40 0. Filters for Color Printing Motion picture printers used for printing color films are generally equipped with high-wattage lamps. For example. CP filters cannot be used in the image-forming beam if optimum quality is desired. The published exposure increases for Kodak Color Compensating Filters (see below) provide a rough guide to the exposure adjustments required for a single filter.30 0. Color printing (CP) filters are similar to color compensating (CC) filters in that they control principally the red. The Heat Absorbing Filter No.

1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). for more technical information concerning the filters discussed in this section. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Handbook of Kodak Photographic Filters. . Page 5 of 5 Kodak Color Printing Filters Cyan CP05C CP10C CP20C CP40C Magenta CP05M CP10M CP20M CP40M Red CP05R CP10R CP20R CP40R Yellow CP05Y CP10Y CP20Y CP40Y Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . B-3.KODAK: Ultraviolet-Absorbing and Haze-Cutting Filters See Kodak Publication No.

KODAK: Motion Picture Sound Recording Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Motion Picture Sound Recording l l A Brief History of Sound Magnetic and Photographic Sound ¡ Photographic Tracks ¡ Basics of Photographic Sound ¡ Photographic Sound-Track Reproduction Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). . the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.

Because of the complexities of push-pull tracks. Its seven sound tracks were on a separate film run synchronously with the picture. In late 1952. Fox released The Robe in CinemaScope. In the late 1930's. was released with push-pull tracks. Only on picture.35:1 wide screen picture from a standard 35 mm print with four magnetic tracks. the improved bilateral and dual-bilateral and the special push-pull tracks. and then only as a special road show performance where Disney technicians had complete control. the 1941 version of Walt Disney's Fantasia . not released.KODAK: A Brief History of Sound Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA A Brief History of Sound Sound was introduced to the movies in 1927 with Al Jolson's The Jazz Singer. Obvious synchronization problems requiring the constant attention of the projectionist led to a system which allowed the picture and sound track to be printed together on the same piece of film. they were used for in-house operations. In 1977. This need for greater sound level led to the abandonment of variable density in favor of the higher output variable -area recording. Motion Picture Home 1930's Two photographic-sound recording systems evolved-variable-density and variable-area. Early in their use. three for wide-band audio and a narrow . the motion picture industry celebrated the 50th anniversary of the talkies. 1940's The primary shortcoming of photographic sound tracks was (and still is) noise. there were several different types of variable-area tracks-the earliest unilateral. In 1953. a three-camera. Also. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events 1920's The very first sound was produced in the early 1900's from a phonograph disk running in mechanical synchronism with the picture at 33 1/3 RPM. Fantasia was released as the first commercial stereo release. three-projector. Bell Labs developed a stereo system with four variable -area tracks on 35 mm film and in 1941. Variable-density meant that the density of the sound track varied in accordance with the audio signal. Variable-area meant that the width of the clear area of the track varied with the signal. ultra-wide screen format was introduced. Over the years. The added realism of stereophonic sound challenged engineers. The driving force was more realistic and exciting theater entertainment to counter the home TV threat to their business. 1950's The 1950's brought wide-screen pictures-most using multiple magnetic tracks for stereo sound. many variations of both variable density and variable-area tracks were developed to increase their dynamic range.--a 2. schemes were devised for noise reduction.

the laws of economics did catch up with CinemaScope. 70 mm 6-track magnetic sound and 35 mm CinemaScope fared the best. nearly all also had a 1/2 width optical sound track nudged in so that the print could be played in theaters without magnetic stereo capability. Also. Ron Uhlig's success with 2-track.000. and by 1978. 25 pictures. it cost between $10. Dolby Laboratories. several tracks could be recorded in the space used for one. developed a 2 track stereo variable-area system with complete compatibility. In 1972. Dolby-encoded stereo prints would yield acceptable monaural reproduction on unconverted projectors on theaters not equipped for stereo. In mid-1965. spurred by a Kodak employee.KODAK: A Brief History of Sound track for surround sound. If they could substantially improve the frequency response and signal-to-noise ratio of an optical track. Ray Dolby from Oregon. Of the remaining 10 percent that had magnetic tracks for stereo. This double -width film not only gave the very best wide-screen picture. 2-channel stereo sound for 16 mm film. All for the attraction of Dolby Stereo on the marquee. only a monaural optical track.s. four pictures. Dolby noise reduction was introduced into motion-picture sound. MGM Camera 65. then living and working in England. Cinemiracle. and VistaVision. 20th Century -Fox with their Fox Sound . Ninety percent of these prints were released with no magnetic tracks. Todd-AO. Universal with its Sensurround. Todd-AO/Nuoptix.000 and $15.recording. Other contenders for this marketplace were Colortek. the company which invented 70 mm 6-track magnetic sound tracks. Also. revolutionized the industry with its 70 mm release of Oklahoma in 1955. They could produce stereo sound without the added print costs of magnetic tracks. but for monaural sound. but that's proved to be a substantial attraction to the many theaters who invested in Dolby. two pictures were released with Dolby Stereo Variable Area (SVA) tracks. However. Many other wide-screen contenders offering improved quality or lower cost came and wentCinemaScope 55. At that time.000 to add Dolby SVA to theaters already equipped to play stereo from 4-track CinemaScope or from 6-track 70 mm prints. in 1976. These cost pressures caused engineers to take a close look at optical sound. these costs increased to between $15. Technirama. Theaters converted to decode Dolby tracks could enjoy the low noise. In 1974. For theaters only able to play monaural tracks.000 and $25. not stereo sound. developed a noise reduction system for magnetic reduction in magnetic recording that was adopted immediately in the music industry. but its six magnetic-sound tracks produced stereo sound of superb quality. Over 900 theaters worldwide were equipped to reproduce Dolby-encoded SVA tracks by 1979. superior magnetic sound required scrupulous and costly maintenance of the magnetic sound reproducers. relatively wide-frequency range stereo reproduction and also get acceptable monaural sound when playing a standard Academy mono print. Page 2 of 4 1960's and 1970's In the 1960's and early 1970. The addition of magnetic stripes and recording four tracks on each print increased their cost from 50 to 75 percent. The reason was simple.

considerable interest had developed in digital sound on motion picture film. CDS debuted in 1990 at selected theaters featuring Dick Tracy in the 70 mm format in New York City and Los Angeles. Page 3 of 4 1980's Through it all.5 mm outside the perforation area on each edge of 70 mm film for the magnetic stripes. even months later. CDS provides filmmakers with a precise ability to control the direction and movement of sound to create a more compelling illusion of reality. Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) for film became a reality. This digital recording medium is quickly supplanting tape and long-play phonograph records for home sound systems because of its virtually flawless audio quality.KODAK: A Brief History of Sound 360. CDS features six discrete channels of pure digital sound optically encoded on the print film. A separate sub-woofer channel reproduces the lowest bass tones. The only difference between 65 mm and 70 mm film is the added width of 2. and Pacific Theaters with their drive-in bilingual presentation of Star Wars . 1990's and Beyond In 1990. CDS is designed to provide consistent audio quality for the life of the print. By the mid-1980's.area tracks. The Cinema Digital Sound System was co -developed by Optical Radiation Corporation and the Motion Picture and Television Products Division of Eastman Kodak Company. These are bilateral or dualbilateral variable. To provide this durability of the digital sound track. . Five discrete channels reproduce the full tonal and frequency ranges the human ear is capable of hearing. Wear and tear can reduce the audio quality of conventional 35 mm optical and 70 mm magnetic sound tracks. Dolby calls them SVA or Stereo Variable -Area Tracks. three formats have withstood the test of time: l l l 35 mm Monophonic Photographic Sound Tracks or Academy Tracks-a standard format since 1927. CDS features a sophisticated error collection system to ensure that every audience will hear opening night sound quality. This interest was spurred to no small degree by the availability to the consumer of compact audio discs. 70 mm Magnetic Sound Tracks-a format used in specialized theaters who promote a wide-screen image and high-quality sound. 35 mm Stereophonic Photographic Sound Tracks with Dolby Noise Reduction-the most common 35 mm format today. The picture is shot on either 65 mm or 35 mm negative film and the final print is released on 70 mm print film. The term Academy was coined because of standardization efforts made in the late 1930's by a group at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

CDS technology for 70 mm and 35 mm release prints is virtually the same. Theatres equipped with single channel surround speakers can easily retrofit for the dual channel surround of CDS. More original sound will be recorded and mixed digitally now that there is a way to release movies in digital sound format. Motion pictures can be released in CDS format by simply remixing the audio made for conventional prints to six discrete channels of digital optical sound. and music. A decision was made to debut CDS in 70 mm format so the new audio system could be introduced in road show theaters. The ability to encode digital sound optically on film required a major technological breakthrough providing the key to affordability and reliability of CDS. Some theaters may consider the option to upgrade speaker systems to realize the full potential that CDS offers. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . but from the special location where it originated. effects. the way it is meant to be heard. . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).KODAK: A Brief History of Sound Page 4 of 4 Figure 53 The separation of sound into six discrete channels ensures that audiences will not only hear all of the subtleties of dialogue. All it requires is installation of a digital decoder on the projector and a digital-to-analog processor in the projection booth equipment-rack. Eventually recording and mixing techniques will evolve to take full advantage of CDS features. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.

However. the two can also be duplicated simultaneously. The additional height of the magnetic stripe raises the emulsion (image) off the base side of the next convolution of film on a reel. A second. the reproduction fidelity of photographic sound tracks can be degraded by dust particles and scratches. etc. is then printed for release. A photographic sound track will last the life of the film and cannot be easily damaged through cleaning or other maintenance of the film. A film producer who wants photographic sound sends the rough-edited workprint. are less susceptible to dust and dirt distortion and are degraded very little by scratches. editing. the script. or a printing master with photographic sound track. The magnetic stripe offers other advantages. There is also no danger of accidentally erasing the track. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Photographic Tracks . the original film. This stripe is normally not used for magnetic recording. emulsion-to-base sticking. The stripe may also have higher fidelity sound (greater frequency response and better signal-to-noise ratio). Photographic sound tracks are usually printed on the film at the same time as the photographic image. Also. The original film. Magnetic tracks. usually the same material is coated near the edge of the film support that is used for the sound stripe (between the perforations and the nearest edge) on 16 mm and super 8. unlike magnetic sound tracks which must be recorded on each print in a separate nonphotographic operation. A photographic sound track is a record of sound (voice. protecting the picture area from frictional damage. changes cannot be made in a photographic sound track after it has been printed on the film. much narrower stripe of the same thickness and. music. it balances the film mechanically to keep it from telescoping or binding against the reel flanges during projection and rewinding. Seventy-millimeter and some 35 mm prints may have multiple stripes for stereophonic sound and special sound effects. and addition of the sound track are accomplished.) printed near the edge of a motion picture film. on the other hand. Thus. Since coating formulations have been developed that are not affected by the processing chemicals. either magnetically on a metallic oxide strip coated on the film or photographically by an optically modulated light system. Sound is recorded on this stripe by running it past a magnetic recording head that selectively magnetizes the metallic particles in the coating. Photographic sound prints can be made from original films with magnetic sound stripes or from original films and separate magnetic tracks. they can be applied to the film before (prestripe) or after (poststripe) processing. A magnetic sound track consists of a strip of metallic oxide coated along the edge of a motion picture film. etc. and the final magnetic recording to a laboratory where conforming.KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Magnetic and Photographic Sound Sound is recorded on a motion picture print in one of two ways.

The record can then be played back. Page 2 of 4 Basics of Photographic Sound The reproduction of sound requires that the sound waves be converted into electrical signals which are then recorded. B.0 and 1. In photographic sound reproduction.KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound A photographic sound-track negative consists of an exposed area whose width and area vary with the volume and frequency of sound recorded. Figure 54c Response of a photocell. The light energy from the lamp is formed into a narrow beam by a lens and aperture. which can be converted back to sound waves by the speakers. and C show the components which convert the photographic sound track into electrical sound signals. The track looks like one or more narrow. the clear portions should be as transparent as possible. generating electrical signals. Consequently. black-and-white patterns along the edge of the film. . The beam is transmitted through the sound-track area of the film and then strikes a photocell. For optimum quality on a variablearea sound track. and the dark portions should have a density at wavelengths from 800 to 1000 mm between 1. or dye-plus-silver image along the edge of the film.8. Figure 54b Light attenuation by a sound track. Figures 54A. dye. jagged. the actual sound record on the print is a silver. Figure 54a Schematic of optical sound reproduction. emulsions and processes that produce high contrast are generally used to record variable-area sound-track negatives.

Figure 56 . the amount of light that reaches the photocell from the sound lamp. The dual bilateral track is the most widely used because it minimizes distortion or signal loss resulting from any uneven illumination of the optical slit at the reproduction heads. sensitive primarily in the infrared area. A sound track made of dye alone will not modulate the infrared radiation as effectively. A bilateral track. the variation in the width of the track determines the amplitude of the signal generated. the color of the light that exposes the sound-track image influences the trace . Virtually all 16 mm and 35 mm projectors have S -1 or silicon-type photocells.KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound Page 3 of 4 Figure 55 A sound track as seen through the aperture. Due to the multilayer construction of most color films. As the film moves past the sound aperture. which silver and to a lesser extent. The illuminant is usually a tungsten lamp having a comparatively low color temperature that provides relatively more energy in the red and infrared regions of the spectrum. Figure 56 As the film moves. and the speed of the variation detertmines the frequency of the signal. reducing the signal-tonoise ratio significantly. or modulates. uses modulations that are symmetrical about the longitudinal center line of the track. silver sulfide are capable of doing. has two bilateral images laid side by side. The electrical current produced by the photocell is directly proportional to the intensity of the light that reaches it. each having a different spectral sensitivity. and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. A dual bilateral track. The photocell then converts the light energy into electrical energy. Therefore all 16 mm and 35 mm sound tracks must be able to modulate infrared radiation. A unilateral track consists of modulations that are generated perpendicularly to the longitudinal dividing edge between the opaque and clear portions of the track. the sound track itself varies. Photographic Sound-Track Reproduction The effectiveness with which a photographic sound track is reproduced is a function of the spectral energy distribution of the illuminant. Figure 56. the spectral absorption of the soundtrack image. Photocells are made out of various photosensitive materials. a multilateral track employs several bilateral images. There are several types of variable -area recordings.

KODAK: Magnetic and Photographic Sound characteristics and. Page 4 of 4 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Silver and silver-plus-dye sound-track images are normally suitable for use with any projector and are printed from a negative sound track. . Silver sulfide sound-track images have somewhat lower quality. therefore. is generally specified for the particular film concerned. They are produced on reversal color films only and are themselves reversal images that are printed from a positive sound-track original.

the most common causes of film damage and abrasion. The five most common causes are discussed below: Excessive Tension. techniques for lubricating new prints. l l l Check for deposits on the trap rails and check the gate tension. Once a print is made. Adjust tension on the projector reel spindles. the source of the tension can be in the gate or at the feed and holdback sprockets. the final responsibility for the quality of the screen image rests with the projection equipment and the people who handle the print. Provide some means to maintain adequate relative humidity (60 percent is ideal) to help eliminate static electricity buildup in film transport systems. Common Causes of Abrasion and Wear To promote long life for your print. whether cement or tape. Adjust gate tension just tight enough to provide a steady screen image. This section covers the steps in inspecting a newly received print for flaws. Insist on a replacement reel if major cuts and damage are noted during your inspection. Motion Picture Home Handling and Inspection of Motion-Picture Prints It is important to establish that the print meets your standards. and techniques for cleaning film. if possible. inspect it. tight reel. If the film was properly lubricated at the laboratory.KODAK: Projection Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Projection l l Handling and Inspection of Motion-Picture Prints ¡ Common Causes of Abrasion and Wear n Excessive Tension n Misalignment of Film in the Projector n Creased Edges n Run-Offs and Roping n Abrasions and Dirt Cleaning Motion-Picture Prints Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events The success or failure of any finished film lies in the viewing. check the 35 mm . If all of these points check out satisfactorily. Too much tension in the film projection transport system usually results in objectionable projection noise and in perforation damage. to prevent singing sprockets. Remake faulty splices correctly. following the recommendations below: l l l l l Maintain constant tension while rewinding to provide a smooth. lint-free gloves while inspecting for damage or bad splices. Hold the film by the edges and wear clean. you should be alert to the causes of damage that can occur during projection. When you receive a print.

Check the projector for proper threading and adjusunent. A coefficient of 0.) Do you use clean. Sixteen-millimeter films should have an overall lubricant.KODAK: Projection prints for proper lubrication of the edges on the emulsion side. (Order a new reel or print. Check for fold-over damaged film sections. Primarily caused by careless handling. improper threading. The first step is to vary the gate tension over the entire range. Examine the print for damaged perforations before using it. Check alignment of film in the projector gate. you are well on your way to minimizing the problems of dirt and abrasion. This problem can cause damage at the corners of the perforations and lead to splitting and breaking at the perforation edge. l l l l l l l Is the projection area clean? Especially the floor and rewind bench? Is the film riding correctly between roller flanges? Is the print free of oil and grimy dirt? Are smoking and eating (notorious dirt sources) prohibited in film handling areas? Is there enough tension during rewinding so that the film does not slip on itself during fast starts and stops? (Much abrasion damage is caused by film slippage. repair or replace the section (or reel). The coefficient of friction of the emulsion side of the unsatisfactory film should be compared to a satisfactory film by the test described in ANSI PH1. l l l Check alignment of the film as it enters the feed sprocket or leaves the holdback sprocket. Film edges can become creased if: l l the projector is improperly threaded so that the pad roller creases the film over the sprocket. Abrasions and Dirt. is caused when the film partially leaves the sprocket and rides over the sprocket teeth while under tension.) Creased Edges. l l l l Check for misaligned splices and remake them. This type of damage. lint-free gloves and hold the film correctly during rewinding and inspection? Do you avoid tightening a loose reel by pulling the film end until it snugs up? (This is another cause of abrasion damage. the film is under high tension and binds against some component or one of the roller flanges. If no improvement is obtained.A7 Methods for Detecting the Degree of Lubrication on Processed Photographic Film by the Paper Clip Friction Test.2 or lower usually indicates a satisfactory level of lubrication.) . Run-Offs and Roping. if necessary. often reported as sprocket marked. and poorly maintained equipment this kind of film damage is readily seen by the viewer. If you can answer yes to the following questions. if necessary. Page 2 of 3 Misalignment of Film in the Projector. Check to see if any unperforated tape covers perforations and make necessary repairs. inadequate edge lubrication should be suspected.

undyed. Even so. and free of fabric fillers and additives for stiffening. you can remove them by buffing with a soft cloth before projection. the film should be lubricated. When you must stop to refold the cloth and apply more cleaner. or a soft cotton batiste. back up the film about 1 foot (30. Do this slowly enough to permit the cleaner to evaporate completely before the film reaches the take-up reel. refold the cloths often so that only clean areas will be in contact with the film. Place the film to be cleaned is placed on a rewind and thread the ladder stripe onto a take -up reel. draw it between two cloths moistened with the cleaner and lubricant. If streaks are noticed on the film after lubrication.5 cm) before resuming the cleaning operation. smooth rewinding of the whole reel. If in doubt the cloths should be laundered before use. Page 3 of 3 * Kodak Movie Film Cleaner (with Lubricant) does not contain carbon tetrachloride. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . Constant light pressure provides continual contact between the film surface and the cloth. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). In this case. Frequent moistening of the cloths is recommended because the solvent evaporates rapidly. Cleaning cloths of the following types are usually satisfactory: a good grade of Canton flannel. follow the instructions on the container. As you rewind the film. If a film is unsteady and noisy during the first projection. Cleaning and lubrication should be accomplished with continuous.* To avoid scratching the film with accumulated dirt particles. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. These should be white. Forced -air ventilation should be provided. it may not have been lubricated at the processing laboratory.KODAK: Projection Cleaning Motion-Picture Prints Clean and lubricate prints by drawing them between soft lintless cloths moistened with a preparation such as Kodak Movie Film Cleaner (with Lubricant). not only to reduce noise but also to minimize film damage. you should use the cleaner with adequate ventilation. .or medium -pile rayon or nylon plush. a short. No matter what type of cleaner you are using.

Ideally. Locating the right lab is extremely important. First come some tips on selecting a lab. Next is a walk-through of laboratory operations during a typical production. . How do you find that lab? The purpose of this section is to explain how laboratory operations fit into your total production. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. before you have many hours worth of exposed film on your hands and are wondering what to do with it. you will be spending quite a bit of time and money with a film laboratory. The next section deals with processing and printing operations and equipment so that you can appreciate what can be done with your film once you've exposed it. you should have some feeling for a lead early in the production phase.KODAK: Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Dealing with a Motion Picture Laboratory l l Tips on Selecting a Laboratory Laboratory Services: A Walk -Through Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events During post production. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .

Have a good idea of what you want from a laboratory and then talk about those needs with several laboratories before you make a choice. the better they can serve you. kept informed about the films and photographic techniques being used. l Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home l l Know your needs. your needs. track record on similar projects. and so on. Daily communications with the lab may also be more difficult. The small laboratory usually offers custom handling and easy access to the right people for advice and counsel. In your discussions. dubbing. get to know. Tell them as much as you can about yourself. advised of the specific objectives. Laboratories differ in terms of the technical services they offer. and excellent quality control. Every production has different requirements. Get acquainted. Consider the question of size. The big lab can usually offer lower prices due to their large-volume operation. The selected laboratory should be looked upon as a silent partner in the production of a motion picture. Consider the location. These important steps in your production can be smoothed considerably if adequate communications are established right from the start. and alerted to any problems that might develop. etc. If a laboratory is a significant distance from your place of business. The laboratory should be taken into the producer's confidence. so the lab can help you accomplish these tasks in the best way possible. Face-to-face discussions and telephone calls are .KODAK: Tips on Selecting a Laboratory Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Tips on Selecting a Laboratory Generally. prices. Weight all of these factors in selecting the right laboratory for the job at hand. animation. Get it in writing. Once you have made your choice of laboratories. the laboratory can assist and simplify your endeavors. There are a number of trade-offs. you will be faced with the potential hazards and increased costs of shipping valuable footage to and from the lab. the people who will do your work. Consider your confidence in the laboratory. special effects. The challenge is to find the lab that can satisfy the greatest number of your needs on schedule and within budget. be sure to relay your ideas about such things as editing. You should select a laboratory you feel takes your interests seriously. personnel. as well as possible. the laboratory that gets your business will be the one whose capabilities best match the requirements for your particularjob. The laboratory selected to do a production filmed in 35 mm for television distribution will probably be different from the one chosen to handle a job shot in 16 mm for reduction to super 8 to be used in point-of-purchase advertising. The more you communicate with them about yourself and your production. Both you and your laboratory should know what is expected-and when to expect it. size and location. But they may have to charge more to support their custom operation or subcontract more of the job. more complete in-house services. and your style. Given this relationship.

Conforming by matching the original camera film to the workprint as edited by the producer. Furnishing advice to help with technical or even aesthetic problems. . Most laboratories will print or duplicate the camera film after it is processed. Few laboratories will offer all the services listed but most of them will provide a major portion. Listed below are some of the principal services offered by commercial motion picture laboratories. a carefully written document-the purchase order-is a must. Printing and duplicating from camera films for workprints or releaseprints. Optical effects which these include dissolves. flashing or force processing). including special techniques (e. wipes. Editing. fades. Black-and-white printing from a color original to produce a workprint for sound editing. but when it comes to specifying what you want. etc. when you want it. or weekend service is available in some places by prearrangement) Find out what processes are available. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. They may also hold the original in their vault and forward the print for use as a workprint. splicing. and how much it will cost. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).g. freeze frames. Edge numbering of originals and workprints to facilitate editing. l Page 2 of 2 l l l l l l l Processing camera film. and assembling as directed by the producer. (Special overnight pickup and delivery.KODAK: Tips on Selecting a Laboratory necessary for efficient work flow. Thus the original is protected from damage in handling until it is needed for final conforming. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . cutting.

Here's how the laboratory fits into the production. This weekly one-hour series is produced by a major studio that has a network contract requiring the production of 24 episodes. priorities. this walk-through gives you three views of scheduling. the truck makes several trips throughout the evening. A truck from the laboratory picks up the negative along with those of several other production. Next is a narrative about the production of a film for television that demonstrates the behind the scenes laboratory work that keeps a production on schedule.). Six to seven days of filming are common for each show. is sorted by the directions on the film cans (flashing. On most days. Often. of this production. The first batch of negatives arrives by lab truck. printed film.m. the production company's exposed 35 mm negative is at the studio's camera department by 7:00 p. The chart shows a graphic description of the close communication between lab and cinematographer that produces a satisfactory final print. The rolls are processed and sent to negative . from shooting to release print. and prepared for processing. The show routinely includes practical location photography (day and night). forcing. etc.KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through To help you visualize the way a laboratory's operations interact with you and your production. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Now. First is a flowchart of operations from preproduction through various laboratory operations to delivery of the edited. Last is a day.to-day schedule. let's describe our show.

fades. The optical effects elements are usually created by an independent optical house rather than the laboratory. for syncing with the sound track that has been transfered from 1/4-inch magnetic tape to 35 mm magnetic film. and the remainder are split regionally within the network system. air date). Rolls (approximately 1. The network usually requires two 35 mm prints (for New York and Los Angeles) and three to fifteen 16 mm prints. This proof print is screened (single frame projection) to identify any further color or density corrections required. it is timed on an electronic analyzer to determine the exposure values to be used in the printer. the required 16 mm prints are contact printed. leaving leader in the areas that are not firm or are awaiting inclusion of laboratory -created segments (dissolves.000 ft) of print-take negative are assembled and spliced. At 1:00 p. depending on the activities of the production company).S. one is for Canadian television (which usually is broadcast 3 to 4 days before the U. Once the answer print has been accepted by the producer. camera. When the negative has been spliced and notched.m. The print is projected full aperture at approximately 120 ft/min (32 frames per second) so any film. the director and other production personnel screen the synced dailies on double -system projectors. dubbing and mixing sound. the answer print is screened at the laboratory for representatives of the production company and the network. the studio is editing. A complete composite print (answer print) is then made and evaluated on the analyzer. On the fourth day after the laboratory received the cut negative. The reel may be only 90 percent complete. During this time. the negative cutter delivers the cut negative with instructions to the lab. and the print is approved. and titles) primarily on color reversal intermediate (CRI) or color intermediate film stock.m. The daily prints are delivered to the production company's editors by 9:00 am. using the final timing derived for the 35 mm answer print. The laboratory's next job is to assemble these elements and generate the final composite prints for this episode. and preparing optical effects. a second 35 mm print is made. The daily print is developed and screened by the laboratory customer representative usually between 6:00 and 9:00 a. From this 16 mm reduction. The roll is ultrasonically cleaned and printed at exposure values that had been derived through a "fine-tuning" of timing information obtained early in the production season on the laboratory's electronic color analyzer. The timing information is used on a proof printer which prints only a few frames of each scene. As reels near completion. A 16 mm wet-gate reduction CRI is made. Two of the 16 mm prints are backup prints for the 35's. but the lab can begin to splice and notch the negative. This phase begins with close communications between the production company's negative cutter and the laboratory.KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through assembly where the out-take negative is removed and stored for safekeeping. Page 2 of 3 Day-to-day Schedule of the Production Starting on Hay Event Huration . or laboratory problems can be seen. The laboratory won't be involved in this particular episode in the series for about two weeks (in some cases for two months.

Actual splicing is done at the laboratory. Page 3 of 3 Days 0-6 Day 2 Production Postproduction Day 12 1. All sound materials (live music. Optical effects are scheduled whenever the individual scene elements are available. Workprint. First Trial Day 37 Day 38 Day 39 6. Some elements missing in titles. daily workprint printing. sound effects such as gunshots. Depends on how many locations to be scouted and/or how many sets to be constructed. Magnetic track transferred to optical track. 7. Some opticals but no titles or sound effects. making optical effects. footsteps. voice. cutting the workprint into sequences. More precisely edited into final form. sound effects. Day 32 Days 34.KODAK: Laboratory Services: A Walk-Through Preproduction 1-6 weeks. etc) combined into a composite magnetic sound track. titles. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . . recorded music. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. sound effects made. making titles. although some opticals and titles are being made. in rough sequences. Photography-6 days. slight recutting. becomes Los Print Angeles air print. Needs tightening up and polishing. 16 mm Prints Reduction CRI and ten 16 mm prints. and dubbing (voice. becomes New York Print 35 mm air print. Includes action and voice only. Negative Cut Music composed and scored. editing finished. and music). Dupe negatives spliced in where there are opticals and title negative footage added. Several labs may be involved in some phase of these operations. Film shows aesthetic defects in some areas. 2-8 weeks Laboratory opertations begin during shooting and include processing the negative. Second Answer Slight color corrections. Dubbing 1-3 days. 35 & 36 5. sound effects. opticals and titles prepared. adding stock footage and sound effects. First Answer Contains everything. First Cut Day 24 2. Final Cut Days 2531 3. Camera negative physically cut to conform to final cut of the workprint. 4. No opticals.

or galvanized iron with either developers or fixing baths. The other major method is by sprockets incorporated on the spools which engage the film perforations. storing. we will describe the operations and equipment involved in processing and printing your film. a machine that provides the most efficient way of handling long lengths of film. In essence. and titanium are the materials most commonly used in the construction of containers for mixing. Construction of Containers Glass. The processor also controls solution temperature and agitation to produce optimum results for the particldar kind of film being processed. fixers (or stop baths). and their alloys may cause serious chemical fog or rapid oxidation when used with developers. Squeegees (Figure 58) or wipers located between the different tanks remove most of the liquid from the film surface. Tin. hard rubber. but the continuous processor meets the quantity and quality demands of professional processing. copper. Do not use aluminum. Not all metals are suitable. In this section.KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations Page 1 of 4 WEDNESDA Motion Picture Laboratory Operations l l l l l l l l Processing Equipment Construction of Containers Transport Design Access Time Time and Temperature Agitation Mechanical Specifications Process Control Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events One important consideration when selecting film-one too often overlooked-is the processing requirements for a given film and the printing needs for the whole production. Motion Picture Home Processing Equipment The modern motion-picture laboratory uses the continuous processor. the continuous processor moves film through the appropriate sequences of developers. zinc. Transport Design The film follows a helical path by moving on partially or totally submerged banks of rollers through the various solutions ( Figure 57). and using photographic solutions. Other kinds of equipment can be built or purchased for development of small amounts of black-and-white footage. and dryer at a carefully controlled speed. The most common method of moving film through a processor is by friction between the rotating spools and the base side of the film. . One way to better appreciate the sophisticated technology that turns your exposed camera film into good projection film is to understand the processes and equipment in the modern film laboratory. washes. 316 stainless steel. polyethylene.

This is accomplished by producing a time-gamma curve. access time will be 14 minutes 15 seconds plus 10 minutes. However.KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations Page 2 of 4 Figure 57 Helical path of film through a single rack and tank assembly Figure 58 This type of wiper -blade squeegee assembly is used on many processors. Access Time Two of the most widely discussed and perhaps the most misunderstood items relating to any processor are speed and access time. Regardless of machine transport speed. or the rollers can be flat and covered with soft-touch tires for uniform film support across the roller width and to prevent scratching of the support in the image area. in the dry sections (feed-on and take-off) of some processing machines. Each laboratory selects the appropriate development times and temperatures for the films being processed in a particular machine and with a particular formula. as discussed in an earlier chapter. Figure 59 Roller undercut in image area. With a 150-foot roll. wet emulsion came in contact with the plastic spool surfaces. it will be 15 minutes 15 seconds before the first foot of film enters the drying cabinet no matter what the speed of the machine. (Some modifications in the control-gamma aim may be . For example. See Figure 59. Speed refers to the time required for a specific point on a film to travel a specific distance and is measured in feet or meters per minute. Some rollers have ridges that touch only edges of the film. However. then a 15-foot -long film will take 14 minutes 15 seconds plus 1 minute to complete the process. there may be emulsion. In this way.side rollers. when a machine running Process VNF-1 is loaded and processing film. the emulsion is protected from possible physical damage that might occur if the soft. time and temperature may vary widely among motion picture laboratories. If the machine speed is 15 fpm. Time and Temperature In black-and-white processing. These are usually under cut in the image area and are designed to contact only the edges or perforation area of the film. Access time refers to the time it takes a particular length of film to be completely processed. The film path through the processor wet sections permits only the base side of the film to contact the rollers. which can range from 15 to hundreds of feet per minute. the time for completing various lengths of film once the process times are met is in direct relation to the machine speed. film cannot be processed faster than the total of the times required in each solution.

KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations necessary depending upon the type of sensitometer or densitometer being used. increased fog. proper agitation is especially critical during the initial development step. Improper color reproduction can result from speed shifts.0.0. These requirements are commonly called the mechanical specifications. contrast changes. Mechanical Specifications If film is to be processed satisfactorily as it moves through the machine. Developer tolerances of +/. and sufficiendy agitated. the exhausted solution. and the development continues. Many commercial motion picture laboratories have found it feasible and profitable.0. Process ECN-2 requires that the developer temperature be held within +/. processing solutions must be adequately replenished and filtered. Generally. time is fixed by the number of rollers per rack and the number of racks threaded in a tank. as it passes through the developer solution is not always sufficient to create adequate agitation. . fresh solution is continually brought to the emulsion surface.5ºF) are typical. The only valid processing change-made for the purpose of force processing (for more camera speed under low-light conditions)-involves increasing the developer (camera negative) or first developer (reversal camera film) time and/or temperature. Therefore. The recommended agitation techniques will vary. may flow slowly across the emulsion from dense areas to less dense areas and produce uneven streaks. to control the developer temperature to within +/. The film movement. individual rack times can be changed by rethreading the rack or using a rack equipped with an adjustable lowershaft assembly. or even less.3ºC (+/ 0. If there is no agitation. in any of the layers. in terms of consistent quality. the action slows down because the developing chemicals in contact with the film surface become exhausted. particularly those for the developers. it must be immersed in solutions of the correct temperature for the proper length of time.2ºF). are critical. The time that film is immersed in a particular solution depends upon the length of the film path in each tank and the machine speed. Usually. depending upon the process and equipment being used.products.) For color films. If the film or the solution is agitated.0. a good lab adheres closely to the exact processing specifications for the particular equipment and materials. Controlling processing time is also more critical with color films than with black-and-white films because any changes that occur in color emulsions may not be equal in all layers. loaded with development by. In addition.1ºC (+/ .25ºF). a nonuniform density in the print that makes it look blotchy. Appreciable deviation from these limits results in speed and color.15 ºC (+/ 0. In color processing. specified temperature tolerances.balance changes. Agitation keeps the solution uniform throughout and avoids uneven development. however. Page 3 of 4 Agitation If exposed photographic materials are placed in a developer and allowed to develop without movement. An equally important effect of agitation is prevention of uneven development that may result in mottle.. etc.

The temperatures of all solutions are kept within specification to minimize dimensional changes in the emulsion. To prevent serious out-ofcontrol situations and chemical waste. one might run up to seven films having nine possible development times through Developer D-96 in the course of a few hours. The operator also checks the physical operation of the machine periodically to ensure good results. Thermometers and temperature -controlling devices are calibrated periodically to insure that the instruments are operating properly. Development is affected by the temperatures and chemical composition of the developer (or first developer). efficient level. which are checked often. the careful laboratory checks the solution times every time there is a threading change. the output from the continuous processor will be good pictures. when plotted in graphic form. including developer temperature. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). Page 4 of 4 Process Control The degree of development in a negative-positive process or first development in a reversal process is the most important factor in determining the final image quality. often to within +/ . An accurate daily record is kept of conditions affecting the process. Use of the recommended replenishment rates. A good lab observes the following practices in the physical control of a process: l l l l Use of correct processing temperatures. Careful control is critical at this point. Use of recommended processing times. These measurements are made before. The other processing steps are also affected by the same factors. give an operator that objective information about the condition of the process. While these pictures can be evaluated subjectively by simply looking at them. When all is well with the process. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. laboratories routinely check the accuracy of their replenisher delivery systems. the time of contact between the film and the solution. the most accurate evaluation is an objective measurement Sensitometric control strip density values.0. Machine speed is checked by carefully measuring the time it takes for a given length of film to pass a specific point.1ºC but can usually be adjusted manually to accommodate any desired temperature changes. amount of film processed. The laboratory also keeps a highly accurate thermometer available to double check the processor temperature gauges. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Accurate replenishment increases the useful life of solutions to a great extent by replacing ingredients that are depleted and maintains the process at a constant. volume of replenisher added. and identification numbers of control stops processed at particular times. Knowing it is possible to use an incorrect processing time when a machine uses different thread-ups for different film stocks. and after a processing run for maximum control of quality. and the degree of agitation.KODAK: Motion Picture Laboratory Operations Temperatures on most processors are controlled automatically. . for black-and-white negative or positive process. Consider that. during.

they buy solutions to problems. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). . Don't try for a film that will win prizes. You build a reputation by taking care of business every day as though your reputation were at stake. If you try for a film that will best serve your client's needs. . . People are accustomed to learning through film. You have nothing to sell. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. except yourself-and the promise that you can deliver a film that meets your client's needs. of course. and a recommendation for another job. Your reputation is as good as your last film. because it is." l l l l Filmmakers who learn how to market and how to communicate with clients are the ones who make films. Motion Picture Home Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak .KODAK: Marketing a Film Page 1 of 1 WEDNESDA Marketing a Film l l l l FiIm as a Business Tool Potential Clients Client's Communication Requirements Reaching Agreement on Need for Film Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events "People don't buy goods and services. you will find yourself with a prizewinner .

A company that perceives a need for solving informational problems will invest in a solution that best reaches its audience. In reality. film is not what you have to offer. That's a good investment. In the informational area. Corporate and product visibility is very important to most companies. some communication problems are a combination of the three. that's known as marketing. there are three types ofcommunication problems: Those related to skill and knowledge. In business. since exposure and goodwill help sell products. the problem is what most people would refer to as public relations. Basically." Knowing how to make a film-kowing how to use the medium to communicate a message-is not enough if you are to become successful. There are several areas open to the nontheatrical filmmaker-business. The point is. governmental agencies. The solution in this case can usually be found in the area of more effective advertising and sales promotion. special interest groups. That's what nontheatrical filmmaking is all about. films that promote. because they make commercials and they're more exposed to film. Your marketing should begin with a sensible look at what you have to offer. Most recognize that people who want to work are more productive and will work harder toward a solution to the problem. vacation resorts. and. Your job is to discover where a film will help. People have to be trained to make products. Motivational problems can also involve prospective clients. What you have to offer are solutions to problems. business spends money to make money. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Potential Clients . films that pass along information. People have to be instructed in safety procedures. The idea is this: People who know more are more effective. All have a use for sponsored nontheatrical films-films that teach. the problem is that someone may not want to do a job. education. and problems of information. Problems in the skill-knowledge area usually involve situations where someone lacks the understanding necessary to perform a job. of course. You must also know how to communicate with people who need the films so that you can get a chance to use your creative talents. A smart business person will provide the money to make a film once there is an understanding that film will help solve a problem. using film as the medium for communication. the educational foundations are not the best source of funds for films. People have to be coached in selling the product. In the motivational area. motivational problems.KODAK: Film as a Business Tool Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Film as a Business Tool "Corporations are closer to the film medium.

trade listings. motivating people. Internal structures are easy enough to penetrate if you keep the cornmunication needs in mind. those are common problems for any kind of organization. but you'll never know unless you contact them. if those companies use film. It may spark an idea that you can develop into a proposal. and that alone may help you get some work. they probably have many other filmmakers calling on them already. and business papers and magazines. This involves a good deal of homework. you will have shown yourself to be someone interested in solving its problems. It may take a while. Also. Page 2 of 3 . because of size.KODAK: Film as a Business Tool "Organizations (business corporations. Of course. communicating government regulations and rules. start with a list of companies in your area. and ask questions: "Could I speak to the manager of the Training Department?" "Who is in charge of Sales Promotion?" "I'd like to talk to someone in Corporate Relations." There may be several people to contact in each company. . They may deal directly with you. Somewhere in these departments you will find one or more prospects. churches. But you have nothing to lose by offering your services as well. Once your ideas are thought out. Advertising and Sales Promotion. Each will give you an idea of current business problems. annual reports. One way to get started is to call the switchboard or drop by the lobby. a company with one prospect for you probably has two. you have to first work through the 'corporate tree' and pick the branch that you feel needs a film. Look in trade journals. such as training their employees. If the company is not interested in that particular proposal. universities. . Use the phone book. "Trade journals will tell you what's going on and what kinds of films are being made and who's making them. and creating a sense of community among their people so they work as teams. If that person seems interested. Marketing Development-but their purposes are all the same: to solve communication problems." . Media Services. . Read the business page in your newspaper. You will find that department names vary greatly AV Services. but most people are helpful once they understand that you are trying to find someone you can show your talents to. industries will address business problems in their annual reports . . place a few phone calls to the company until you find someone who is willing to briefly discuss you idea." Every company is a potential client." A second way to get potential clients is to offer them a solution to a problem you perceive before you ever meet. Within each company there may be several different departments that have a need for film. they may be required to request the work through a central medial department Don't forget. look to see where trends are happening. and so on. "To reach individuals in a company. First. you can send the full proposal for further investigation. or the Fortune 500. on the other hand. It's true that you may not have anything to offer that they are not getting now. Some companies. will be obvious prospects. a Chamber of Commerce listing. hospitals) have internal communications problems.

So. When you meet someone for the first time. your marketing efforts have to coincide with the budgets. But you should be trying to do more than that so that you can best define what you have to offer. and there are times that you can get at the money and times that you can't. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). how these needs are currently solved. and perhaps a heck of a lot more of. the textile industry will probably be most busy twice a year and will have to introduce new products-in the spring and fall. not with the selling periods. You can only do that by determining what your prospect needs. you have to decide why you are going to meet with that person." Before you ever reach a potential client's desk. you have the opportunity to begin a lasting business relationship. if your prospect doesn't save money now. if possible.KODAK: Film as a Business Tool And don't forget that your prospects may be working with cyclical budgets. the money will come eventually. For example. Page 3 of 3 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . Corporate budgets have certain approval cycles. is corporate budgeting. Budgets for producing work becomes available before those selling periods. and whether the person you are talking to has the power or influence to hire you. You know what you can do. "What you have to get a little more aware of. you will want to find out what communications needs exist in the company. certain processes. Now is your chance to find out what you can do for your prospect. Direct your efforts toward the future. You don't want to do all your homework and then go in there and find that there's no water in the well. Certainly you want to introduce yourself and. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Among other things. Car manufacturers come out with their new products in the spring and fall. . show some samples of your work. Summer recreation has an obvious selling period. as does winter recreation.

since exposure and goodwill help sell products. The solution in this case can usually be found in the area of more effective advertising and sales promotion. Basically.KODAK: Film as a Business Tool Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA Film as a Business Tool "Corporations are closer to the film medium. People have to be trained to make products. That's a good investment. the problem is what most people would refer to as public relations. The point is. films that pass along information. A company that perceives a need for solving informational problems will invest in a solution that best reaches its audience. using film as the medium for communication. special interest groups. People have to be coached in selling the product. education. A smart business person will provide the money to make a film once there is an understanding that film will help solve a problem. of course. There are several areas open to the nontheatrical filmmaker-business. What you have to offer are solutions to problems. Motivational problems can also involve prospective clients. motivational problems. Most recognize that people who want to work are more productive and will work harder toward a solution to the problem. because they make commercials and they're more exposed to film. That's what nontheatrical filmmaking is all about. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Potential Clients . In the motivational area. Corporate and product visibility is very important to most companies. business spends money to make money. Problems in the skill-knowledge area usually involve situations where someone lacks the understanding necessary to perform a job. film is not what you have to offer. The idea is this: People who know more are more effective. Your marketing should begin with a sensible look at what you have to offer. In the informational area. All have a use for sponsored nontheatrical films-films that teach. governmental agencies. In business. You must also know how to communicate with people who need the films so that you can get a chance to use your creative talents. some communication problems are a combination of the three. In reality. vacation resorts." Knowing how to make a film-kowing how to use the medium to communicate a message-is not enough if you are to become successful. and. there are three types ofcommunication problems: Those related to skill and knowledge. films that promote. that's known as marketing. People have to be instructed in safety procedures. and problems of information. the problem is that someone may not want to do a job. the educational foundations are not the best source of funds for films. Your job is to discover where a film will help.

KODAK: Film as a Business Tool
"Organizations (business corporations, universities, churches, hospitals) have internal communications problems, such as training their employees, communicating government regulations and rules, motivating people, and creating a sense of community among their people so they work as teams; those are common problems for any kind of organization." Every company is a potential client. First, start with a list of companies in your area. Use the phone book, a Chamber of Commerce listing, or the Fortune 500, trade listings. Some companies, because of size, will be obvious prospects. Of course, if those companies use film, they probably have many other filmmakers calling on them already. But you have nothing to lose by offering your services as well. It's true that you may not have anything to offer that they are not getting now, but you'll never know unless you contact them. "Trade journals will tell you what's going on and what kinds of films are being made and who's making them. Also, industries will address business problems in their annual reports . . . Read the business page in your newspaper; look to see where trends are happening." There may be several people to contact in each company. Internal structures are easy enough to penetrate if you keep the cornmunication needs in mind. One way to get started is to call the switchboard or drop by the lobby, and ask questions: "Could I speak to the manager of the Training Department?" "Who is in charge of Sales Promotion?" "I'd like to talk to someone in Corporate Relations." . . . and so on. It may take a while, but most people are helpful once they understand that you are trying to find someone you can show your talents to. Within each company there may be several different departments that have a need for film. You will find that department names vary greatly AV Services, Advertising and Sales Promotion, Media Services, Marketing Development-but their purposes are all the same: to solve communication problems. Somewhere in these departments you will find one or more prospects. They may deal directly with you; on the other hand, they may be required to request the work through a central medial department Don't forget, a company with one prospect for you probably has two. "To reach individuals in a company, you have to first work through the 'corporate tree' and pick the branch that you feel needs a film." A second way to get potential clients is to offer them a solution to a problem you perceive before you ever meet. This involves a good deal of homework. Look in trade journals, annual reports, and business papers and magazines. Each will give you an idea of current business problems. It may spark an idea that you can develop into a proposal. Once your ideas are thought out, place a few phone calls to the company until you find someone who is willing to briefly discuss you idea. If that person seems interested, you can send the full proposal for further investigation. If the company is not interested in that particular proposal, you will have shown yourself to be someone interested in solving its problems, and that alone may help you get some work.

Page 2 of 3

KODAK: Film as a Business Tool
And don't forget that your prospects may be working with cyclical budgets. For example, the textile industry will probably be most busy twice a year and will have to introduce new products-in the spring and fall. Car manufacturers come out with their new products in the spring and fall. Summer recreation has an obvious selling period, as does winter recreation. Budgets for producing work becomes available before those selling periods. So, your marketing efforts have to coincide with the budgets, not with the selling periods. Direct your efforts toward the future; if your prospect doesn't save money now, the money will come eventually. "What you have to get a little more aware of, and perhaps a heck of a lot more of, is corporate budgeting. Corporate budgets have certain approval cycles, certain processes, and there are times that you can get at the money and times that you can't. You don't want to do all your homework and then go in there and find that there's no water in the well." Before you ever reach a potential client's desk, you have to decide why you are going to meet with that person. Certainly you want to introduce yourself and, if possible, show some samples of your work. But you should be trying to do more than that so that you can best define what you have to offer. Among other things, you will want to find out what communications needs exist in the company, how these needs are currently solved, and whether the person you are talking to has the power or influence to hire you. When you meet someone for the first time, you have the opportunity to begin a lasting business relationship. You know what you can do. Now is your chance to find out what you can do for your prospect. You can only do that by determining what your prospect needs.

Page 3 of 3

Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak , the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company, 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).

KODAK: Client's Communication Requirements

Page 1 of 3

WEDNESDA

Client's Communication Requirements
"You have to find out first of all how they think, how they operate, what their business is like, and how they make decisions." There are two ways to approach a communication problem. One way is to let the client take control; you do that by talking about yourself, your attitudes, your previous successes with other similar problems. This approach is not particularly successful. A more effective way is to take control yourself-define your meeting; you're there to get business. You can help yourself by paying attention to the problem. Listen to what the client has to say and ask questions that will reveal why your client thinks of the problem as unique. But it's not enough for you to discover your client's needs. You also have to help the client's needs. You also have to help the client really understand the needs and reach agreement on them. Only when you have reached that point can you begin to talk about solutions. You may have to hold several meetings before you begin to talk about film, which is just the medium for solving the problem. The importance of good communication skills in determining your client's needs cannot be overestimated. Remember, you are in marketing as well as filmmaking. Marketing requires certain skills that you may never have considered. Keep in mind that your job is to solve your client's problem. You may understand the problem one way; your client may understand the problem differently. You must learn to listen carefully and question your client skillfully so that you can both agree on a definite solution to the problem. You may be able to create a great film; but if your client isn't happy, it may be your last film.
Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events

Motion Picture Home

Reaching Agreement on Need for Film
At the end of your first meeting with a prospect, some action has to be taken if you are going to continue to work with the prospect and perhaps do a film. This, again, is continuing your control. In business, this point in the action is called a close. What it means is that you must get your prospect to agree to do something. You may have to suggest what to do next. It may be to write a proposal, meet with other people, or continue discussing how you might help the company. You have to do something or the prospect is lost to you. If you continue to work with the prospect, you will find that at every point along the way there are places where action must definitely be taken. For example, when you have submitted a proposal which in many cases is simply to ask: "Shall we go ahead with it then" or "Does it meet with your approval?" When you ask for a positive action and the prospect says No, don't give

you have to decide where the potential jobs are. Find out as much as you can about your prospect's organizational setup and communication needs. . somewhere along the line you will have to talk to people who relate to costs differently than you. "What gives a company the results it's looking for? A film may be your end product. then that is a gain for the company and the kind of "bottom line" that interests those who have final approval of the project. disseminate more necessary information using audiovisuals. It may be that the proposal you have submitted doesn't clearly solve the problem. decide what it is you have to talk about so you can present yourself properly. if nothing else. Even though you are only marketing yourself. you have to present yourself as a person-a filmmaker-who can offer some solutions. In that case. there is a logical order of steps to go through in order to get down to business of making a film. . get more work done. you can ask the client if references from other people would be helpful. Whatever you do. Before you ever see that person. The film you create will have to solve those problems in cost-effective ways. you will have to get the proposal approved. your job is easy. . In that case. And when you find out why. you have to write a proposal based on the objectives that you and your client have worked out. Ask yourself a few questions: Will the company be able to sell more porducts? Will it be able to train people better? Will it now be able to communicate information to more people more effectively? Will employees be sufficiently motivated by the film to justify the cost of producing it? All of these questions are related in one way or another to profit. but it's not their end product . And. Basically. It goes back to the three kinds of communication needs. you decide when to meet again to talk more specifically about certain projects or needs within the company. don't let the word no stop you until you find out why. if the prospect looks good. Second. First take the time to find out why your prospect has said no. First. Once you know these needs. close-that is. just write another proposal. Perhaps the client isn't convinced that you can do the job. Even though your client may understand the creative and technical aspects of filmmaking as well as you do. After you have a project or perhaps an order to get a project. film is a medium you give them to help solve their internal or external communication problems. you have to find out whom to talk to. Keep in mind that your client's company doesn't need a film per see. it involves doing things one step at a time. If the company can sell more goods and services. you have to close-which means that. ." To summarize. Then. it needs solutions to problems. take an action that will get you a yes. you will go through a series of steps involving questioning and listening to find out the communication needs of the prospect and of the company. not yet. When you see the prospect. At some point in the filmmaking process-before you begin production-you will have to communicate with people who hold the purse strings . and if it can get more in return than it spends on your film. you have to do some homework in two areas. finding and keeping clients is a sequential marketing process. You may even have to write a second proposal detailing the Page 2 of 3 .KODAK: Client's Communication Requirements up.

than the next person-doing more than the client expects. . . "Take that next step beyond your filmmaking skills . it means being a little more equipped. . it's simply a matter of taking care of business. I'm going to spend all my time with tax accountants. a lot of people are afraid that. Filmmakers tend to think of themselves as artists. more astute. .KODAK: Client's Communication Requirements business advantages to the company as well as alternative proposals. you aren't ." Page 3 of 3 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . . 'If I take on business skills. Even though you are now concentrating most of your efforts on making the film. Why? Because marketing is a skill that will help you make the kind of films you want. . apart from the clutter of the business world. Don't let the term frighten you . But no matter how alien the concept of marketing seems. . Marketing a film is very much like producing a film. your marketing job is not over. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). . business skills don't decrease your freedoms . it is still a skill that must be learned and developed. And finally. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. you must still stay in close contact with your clients to keep them up-to-date on the progress of the film and secure the necessary approvals along the way. every step must be considered in order to meet the client's needs as the client sees them. you have to secure a contract before you begin production. At this point. .

be able to help your client choose the distribution format. distribution and promotion are the critical points in the decision to make-or not make-a film. might be dramatic in a theater setting but look muddy or washed out on a television screen. you target your potential for payback. and when the answers are not obvious. available with distribution. When you target your audience. it is very good business to consult a professional distributor. and for that reason the distribution format must be considered in your proposal. A high contrast black-and-white film. many times. Will the film be shot in 16 mm and converted to 35 mm. for example. You must give the audience a chance to see it by making it visible with promotion. and avoid serious mistakes when choosing production techniques. Is there an audience for the film? How will you get it to them? How will they know the film is available? These questions must be addressed in the planning stages. then converted back to 16 mm for television use? Will it be shot in 35 mm and converted to 16 mm for distribution? Will the same film have several uses in several formats? Your client's answers will help you determine both the original format and the distribution format. it will stay in the can. Many companies have predetermined distribution channels.KODAK: Distribution and Promotion Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Distribution and Promotion l l l General Market Considerations ¡ Educational ¡ Special Interest ¡ Broadcast Television ¡ Cable Television ¡ Vacation Resorts Film Ingredients ¡ Running Time ¡ ProfessionaI Versus Industrial Talent ¡ Film Content Distributor Services ¡ Promotional Ideas ¡ Print Inventory ¡ Supporting Materials ¡ Film Maintenance Your creative work is of little value unless you have an audience. especially with materials created for internal use (training outlets or salespeople) or for well. a matter of rote. determine costs for the total needs of your client. If you don't have a plan. Early involvement with a professional film distributor is essential in . Inadequate planning can ruin even your best work or cause unnecessary costs for your client. however. and usable with support materials and proper maintenance. A good film is one that is aimed at a particular audience. There are as many outlets for good films as there are good films. Many times. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home l l l l The distribution and promotion phase is.established clients (dealers or distributors). You may.

the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. Whether you are aiming at a large. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). a distribution service is an excellent vehicle for publicizing and communicating your film's message. the potential distribution channels for reaching mass audiences. Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . and the many services offered by the distributor (including promotional pieces. film maintenance). supporting materials. This part covers general considerations for distribution planning.KODAK: Distribution and Promotion getting a general-interest film production to its target audience. single audience or widely diversified audiences. important film ingredients influencing distribution methods. print inventory. .

Educational There are four major subcategories in the educational field: grade school. and college. point of view. Instructional films covering the following subject areas (among many others) are regularly shown to school-age students: l l l Home Economics Science Physical Education . Early in the game. If you feel at all uncomfortable with any of the distribution areas. military films). Non-theatrical films are generally directed to one or more of the five potential channels of distribution: l l l l l Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Educational Special-interest groups Broadcast TV Cable TV Vacation resorts Schools and special-interest groups account for the greatest utilization of sponsored films. film producers are often not well-equipped to communicate to their clients all of the effective distribution alternatives. medical films.KODAK: General Market Considerations Page 1 of 3 WEDNESDA General Market Considerations "We have just made a new film. Not all industrial films are suitable for mass distribution. nor are their target a mass audience. Your films can also receive considerable visibility through the other four distribution channels. And. The above question should be answered at the planning stage. This part is really addressed to the films that are made for unclassified or general audiences. Unfortunately. such as: boys. you should really contact a professional distributor. g. get in touch with a film distributor who can answer your questions and handle your specific needs. senior high school. consider not only why the film. or service to an extremely narrow market (e. there are many other subcategories. but also where the film. Films are often produced to sell a client's product. even within these. Could you come over and take a look at it and give us some suggestions for distribution?" This type of request (which originates from film producers or from the sponsors of a producer's film) is too often heard by professional film distributors. If you want to target your films at these areas most effectively. Professional distribution is normally not required for this type of film.. junior high school. These films are carefully aimed at the target audience and usually delivered directly by the sponsor or his or her sales personnel. and coeds. girls. not after the film is in the can.

27 1/2. Special -Interest The special-interest grouping encompasses business and professional organizations. electronics factories. it could also be of interest to people in other communities. . educational backgrounds. and interests. automobile clubs (NASCAR.. and other sports groups. Again. etc. and Welfare Department) State agencies (Department of Motor Vehicles. SCCA). Marines) Hospitals The above is not intended to limit the possibilities.g. your film should have wide audience appeal. etc. Education. Although your film may be meant for a certain special-interest regional group. computer companies. or 7 to 10 minutes. but merely to point out the broad range of potential target audiences within the specialinterest category. Broadcast Television Broadcast television (commercial and educational) provides the quickest method of exposing many thousands of viewers to your film at one time and at a surprisingly moderate cost. YMCA. A couple of points to remember are that running times of either 13 1/2 or 27 1/2 minutes are most suitable for the average TV station. Navy. Girl Scouts. Transportation Department) Military branches (Army. Kiwanis. civic and social clubs. YWCA. Similar to broadcast TV. and less prevalent film lengths include 3 to 5 minutes and 7 to 10 minutes for use as fill material (full-length film or sports event running less than a two -hour programming slot). oil companies. automobile companies) Service and Fraternal organizations (Rotary. Air Force. fishing. Masons) Church groups (Finance Committees. and run either 13 1/2. Cable Television Cable television (CATV) is a steadily growing market.KODAK: General Market Considerations l l l l l Page 2 of 3 Health Social Studies Business and Economics Vocational Guidance Arts and Crafts Also within this age range are various non-school youth organizations such as: Boy Scouts. CATV enables you to show your film to many of the cable viewers (a total of about 10 million homes in 7. Little League. Generally. 3 to 5.. TV stations broadcast from 2 to 4 hours of sponsored films every week. Your film should be original and aesthetically pleasing to be accepted for TV broadcast. it should also be appropriate for an audience of varying ages. hiking clubs Federal Govemment agencies (Internal Revenue Service. religious groups. Health.000 communities) at a number of locations throughout the country. ski clubs. Pastor-Parish Relations) Sports groups-hunting. Listed below are many of the areas that make up this large and diverse category: l l l l l l l l Business and Industry (e. be approplate for many geographic areas.

camps. . 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). fishing culture) in a leisurely and relaxed atmosphere. You have the opportunity to reach many community adult groups that do not normally meet in the summertime.KODAK: General Market Considerations Vacation Resorts Vacation resorts are another excellent area for promoting your films. or other similar vacation habitats. This approach enables you to communicate with a wide range of relatively affluent viewers (with the appropriate type of film-skiing. Page 3 of 3 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. Movies are frequently offered for evening entertainment by the management for resort hotels. motels. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.

there are certain films that require appropriate stars (films pertaining to major sports. soccer. football. the advantages and disadvantages of using professional talent versus industrial talent. you should also examine some of the important parts of a successfully designed film: the running time. Generally. educators are looking for appropriate films running from 15 to 30 minutes. viewers are primarily concerned with the film's message. If you decide to go with recognized talent. Or. or even date a film. On the other hand. An actor involved in your production could possibly do a film for a competitive company and create credibility problems. will normally shy away from film this long. unfortunately. auto racing. make elaborate films strictly to win filmmaking awards and to gain recognition. on the other hand. consider these potential (yet remote) conditions. Some producers. pass away. Film Content Film content must be a blend of what the client deems impormnt to get across to the public and the producer's interpretation of those aims. the content and the cinematic techniques applied may be accentuated to that end. Motion Picture Home Professional Versus "Industrial" Talent One of your responsibilities is to decide whether to use recognized (name) talent or unrecognized talent. such as skiing. could be too expensive. lose popularity. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Running Time The running time of your film will have a significant effect on the way it is distributed. The use of good industrial performers in place of name talent can result in an excellent film. for the most part. There are advantages to using either type of talent (cost considerations and film impact). such a personality might not be available when needed.KODAK: Film Ingredients Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Film Ingredients In addition to considering the categories of audiences and potential distribution channels. In fact. preferring presentations that run less than 15 minutes. Therefore. you should carefully evaluate the length of your film based on the target audience. Adult organizations. bowling. many will avoid the use of extremely short films simply because the time required to obtain and set up a movie projector cannot be justified for a few minutes of screen time. and the film content. It is . You might even want to produce two different lengths (different versions) of the film to maximize usage for both the adult and the school audiences. baseball).

1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001).KODAK: Film Ingredients conceivable that the client's/sponsor's original purpose for the film has been somewhat misdirected. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company. The real objective is to meet all of your client's expectations. Page 2 of 2 Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak. .

supplemental promo literature (ranging from a single handout to a series of brochures and catalogs) can be prepared by the distributor. are fairly easy to locate. a direct-mail system will play a vital role in getting promotional media to the film users. distribution is really a more complex science.KODAK: Distributor Services Page 1 of 2 WEDNESDA Distributor Services The actual elements of film distribution are simple in theory but vastly more complex in practice. To assist the sponsor. many films are produced without consideration given to this subject. However. The only time a distributor might charge the sponsor a special fee would be for a very unique promotion. If the sponsor's film is listed in general catalogs indicating numerous film availabilities. covers the advantages of using film distributors and the techniques they use to help you and your sponsor determine less obvious target audiences. Frequently only a minimal budget is set aside for filmprinting costs. This section. Print Inventory Print inventory is virtually the key element in effective film distribution. Student Main About the Program Publications Career Profiles Film Techniques Campus Beat Speak Out Program Membership News & Events Motion Picture Home Promotional Ideas Efficient promotion can heavily affect overall film distribution. Unfortunately. there will be an extra expense in getting materials to the audiences. Other target audiences (skiers belonging to ski clubs and members of hunting and fishing Rod and Gun clubs) are not particularly hard to reach because they belong to well-known organizations. Costs for an outside vendor's services (layout and printing) are only part of the expenses that must be factored in. However. The handling of promotional materials can range from self-mailers to elaborate catalogs. and postage. to help you. Regardless of the format chosen and the cost of producing such a promotional unit. Self-promotion by a sponsor who has a single film would cost more than any other unit listing several films for which promotional expenses could be amortized. The sponsor will need a sufficient number of prints on hand to adequately supply all of the intended target audiences. You might think that to successfully market your film you need only an audience and a method of getting the film to the viewers. certain desired target audiences are difficult to find and perhaps not as easily influenced toward using your film. Obviously. distributors have the latest comprehensive mailing lists of nationwide business and educational institutions. Based on an old rule of thumb of approximately 20 different audience . then. Mass audiences. you may also be charged for mailing lists. handling. then there will not be a separate distributor's charge. such as classroom students (kindergarten to college level).

tidal charts for fishermen. and missing footage. Check with several film distributors concerning pricing for print-inventory services and factor those expenses into the distribution plan. suggestions for discussion after the Screening. and a precise presentation on the products involved (including prices). your prints will be completely inspected for torn or open splices. It would be unfortunate for you to discover late in the game that sufficient dollars were not set aside for proper film distribution. demonstration kits for teachers. as well as student or group member take-home pieces. The leader will clear the projector gate of dust and debris before the film is projected. an in-depth discussion of the film's historical context. . because: l l l l l You can easily identify the film by title and print number. Early correction of these problems will protect your prints from possible damage and loss. colored head and tail leaders (complete with the address of the distributor) on the release prints. Far too many films are sent to audiences without adequate support information. you should also think about the possible use of printed instructor or program chairperson materials. The leader will indirectly guard against film loss through the mail. Home | Search | Service & Support | Visit shop @ kodak . Color coding of the leader will immediately indicate if the print is heads or tails out (to determine if rewinding is necessary). Again. torn sprockets or other imperfections. Other possible uses: hints on product features and usage. Page 2 of 2 Supporting Materials Besides considering print inventory and distribution cost. The distributor will place protective. 1994-2002 and Privacy Practices (updated 14 -Sep-2001). in the event that the film and its case become separated. the online store | Careers Copyright © Eastman Kodak Company.KODAK: Distributor Services bookings per print per year. game laws for hunters. Film Maintenance Finally. The leader will protect the film from damages occurring by way of improper projector threading. by merely supplying a business leader' s (or teacher's) booklet or guide with the film. you can make it a much more appealing and meaningful package from the audience's standpoint. Under such an agreement. be sure you account for anticipated distribution costs in your planning and budgeting activities. most film distributors will offer a print maintenance program. of exercise suggestions for athletes. Typical subjects include: a capsule description of the film. scratches. a sponsor can roughly calculate how many audiences can be reached in a year on varying print inventories and thus estimate the cost of such distribution including prints and commercial circulation.