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A GUIDE TO REFERENCING

with examples in the Harvard style
2010
Edition 1
RMIT International University Vietnam
2010
Edition 1
A GUIDE TO REFERENCING
with examples in the Harvard style
Learning Skills Unit
RMIT International University Vietnam
702 Nguyen Van Linh Blvd.
District 7, HCMC, Vietnam
Tel: +84 8 3776 1300
Fax: +84 8 3776 1399
Website: www.rmit.edu.vn
Acknowledgements
The following RMIT Vietnam lecturers and staff assisted with this project:
Christopher Barker
Christopher Leute
David Feliz
Dominic Mahon
Robert Hollenbeck
Oanh, Pham Thi Hoang
Tin, Nguyen Minh Tri
Thuy, Le Mong
Thank you very much for giving so generously of your time.
Robyn Keech
Coordinator, Learning Skills Unit
February 2010
A softcopy of this referencing guide is available on Blackboard.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..…………….…
I. Which referencing style should I use?...........................................................................
II. Why must I cite and reference my sources?..................................................................
III. What is plagiarism?........................................................................................................
IV. Is there plagiarism in sources on the Internet?..............................................................
V. What is paraphrasing?...................................................................................................
VI. What is summarising?....................................................................................................
GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES…………..….
1. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PARAPHRASES……………………….……..
- Using correct grammar……………………………………………………………….………..
- The use of ‘&’ and ‘and’……………………………………………………………….……….
- Author prominent OR information prominent?.................................................................
- Collectively citing several sources……………………………………………………………
- Citing oneself……………………………………………………………………………………
- The author(s) is/are not known ……………………………………………………………….
- Shortening long titles for in-text citations…………………………………...………………..
- The authors have the same family name…………………………………………………….
- Year of publication is not known………………………………………………………………
- There is only an approximate year of publication…………………………………………...
- Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication………………………
- Secondary citations………………………………………………………………….………..
- Punctuation…………………………………………………………………………….………
2. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR DIRECT QUOTATIONS………….…………
- Formatting rules……………………………………………………………………….….......
- Making minor changes to direct quotations…………………………………….…….........
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12 - Page numbers for direct quotations…………………………………………………...........
3. PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST……………………………………………….…
- The difference between a reference list and a bibliography……………………….....
- The first few words of the source in the reference list must match the in-text
citation………………………………………………………………………………….......
-
-
Each source in the reference list must begin with the name(s) of the author(s),
if the author(s) is/are given……………………………………………………….……....
Name(s) of the author(s) in the reference list must be correctly referenced and
correctly spelt……………………………………………………………………………....
- The reference list must be in alphabetical order…………………………………….....
- Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication………………....
- Titles starting with ‘A’ or ‘The’…………………………………………………………....
- The reference list must be correctly formatted………………………………………....
ONLINE SOURCES…………………………………………………………….……
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image…………………………………………………….……
Company/Industry document/information/annual report………………………………….
- on a website or in a database……………………………………………………
Conference/Seminar/Forum paper/presentation.………………………………………….
- published………………………………………………………………..…………
Dictionary………………………………………………………………………………………
Discussion forum post (online discussion forum)…………………………………….……
E-book. …………………………………………………………………………………..…….
- a scanned (paper) book viewed online or downloaded in page image
format (pdf)……………………………………………………………………..…
- an e-book formatted for reading online…………………………………………
- without author(s), without an authoring organisation………………………….
Encyclopaedia………………………………………………………………………………....
Government document…………………………………………………………………….…
Handbook………………………………………………………………………….…………..
- with a corporate author…………………………………………………………..
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A Guide to Referencing 1
A Guide to Referencing 2
Homepage…………………………………………………………………………………….
- company/organisation……………………………………………………………
- a website showcasing a professional’s/academic’s qualifications,
publications and achievements…………………………………………………..
Journal article……………………………………………………………………………….…
- in a database as page image format (pdf)………………………………….…..
- in a database as a webpage………………………………………………….….
- online, not in a database…………………………………………………….……
Newspaper/Magazine article…………………………………………………………………
- in a library database, with author(s)…………………………………………….
- in a library database, without author(s)………………………………………...
News website article………………………………………………………………………….
- with author(s)………………………………………………………………………
- with author(s) using a Vietnamese pen name……………………….…………
- with author(s), news website name and authoring organisation
are different…………………………………………………………………….…..
- without author(s), with an authoring organisation, news website name
and authoring and sponsoring organisations are different…………………….
- without author(s), without an authoring organisation…………………….……
News website editorial.……………………………………………………………….………
- without author(s)………………………………………………………….……….
Personal communication…………………………………………………………….……….
- email, other……………………………………………………………….………..
Podcast……………………………………………………………………………….………..
- with presenter(s).……………………………………………………….…………
- without presenter(s), with an authoring organisation………………….………
Study materials on RMIT Blackboard……………………………………………….………
- with author(s)……………………………………………………………….….…..
- without author(s)………………………………………………………….…….…
- video recording of course lecture……………………………………..…………
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Study materials from the Internet………………………………….…………….…………..
- video recording of course lecture………………………………….…………….
Television………………………………………………………………………….….………..
- episode………………………………………………………………..……………
- interview………………………………………………………………..…………..
- program………………………………………………………………..…………...
Thesis/Dissertation………………………………………………………………..…………..
Transcript…………………………………………………………………………..…………..
- radio program/episode, with presenter(s)…………………………..…………..
- radio program/episode, without presenter(s), with an authoring
organisation………………….………………………………………..……..…….
- speech on radio……………………………………………………….…………..
- television program/episode, with presenter(s)…………………….….………..
- television program/episode, without presenter(s), with
an authoring organisation………………………………………………..……….
Video recording…………………………………………………………………………..……
- with presenter(s)………………………………………………………….…..……
- without presenter(s), with an authoring organisation…………….……….…...
Vodcast (video podcast)…………………………………………………………….…..……
- with presenter(s)……………………………………………………….……..……
- without presenter(s), with an authoring organisation………………….……...
Weblog (blog)………………………………………………………………….……………....
Weblog post (blog post)………………………………………………………..……………..
- with author(s)……………………………………………………..………………..
- without author(s), with an authoring organisation……………..……………….
Website article/document…………………………………….………………………………
- with author(s)………………………………………………………………..……..
- with author(s), website name and authoring organisation are different……..
- without author(s), website name and authoring organisation are the same..
- without author(s), website name and authoring organisation are different….
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- without author(s), without an authoring organisation…………………….……
Wiki article/entry………………………………………………………………………………
BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS……………………..……….
Book……………………………………………………………………………….……..…….
- one author……………………………………………………………………..…..
- two or three authors………………………………………………………….…..
- four or more authors………………………………………………………...……
- without author(s), with an authoring organisation……………….……….…...
- without author(s), without an authoring organisation…………………………
- edited (one editor)………………………………………………………………..
- edited (more than one editor)…………………………………………………...
- second or later edition.…………………………………………………………..
- chapter/article in a book with different author(s) for each chapter/article…..
- corporate author which is also the publisher…………………………………..
- several books by the same author(s) and published in the same year….….
- translated, compiled or revised.…………………………………………………
- multi-volume publication with all volumes produced in the same year……...
- multi-volume publication produced over several years.………………………
Brochure……………………………………………………………………………………….
- corporate author and publisher are the same…………………………….……
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image.…………………………………………………………
Company/Industry document/information/annual report………………………………….
- with author(s)………………………………………………………………………
- without author(s), with an authoring organisation……………………………..
- with corporate author(s); draft, unpublished, commissioned report…………
Conference/Seminar/Forum paper/presentation………………………………………….
- published…………………………………………………………………………..
- unpublished……………………………………………………………………......
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Dictionary………………………………………………………………………………….....
Encyclopaedia……………………………………………………………………………....
Government document……………………………………………………………………..
- government department/organisation is the author, without identifying
numbers………………………………………………………………………….
- government department/organisation is the author, with identifying
numbers………………...……………………………………………………….
Government legislation………………………………….………………………….………
- Act, Ordinance or Regulation………………………………………….….……
- legal case………………………………………………………………….……..
Handbook…………………………………………………………………………….………
Patent…………………………………………………………………………………...……
Study materials………………………………………………………………………….…..
- lecture notes……………………………………………………………………..
- reading brick…………………………………………………………….……….
- study guide……………………………………………………………………….
- workshop/tutorial handout………………………………………………………
Thesis/Dissertation………………………………………………………………………….
- unpublished………………………………………………………………………
- abstract……………………………………………………………………………
PERIODICALS (Paper Journals, Newspapers, Magazines
and Newsletters)………………………..………………….

Journal article………………………………………………………………………….…….
- with author(s), with month, with volume and number/issue………………..
Newsletter……………………………………………………………………………………
- with author(s)…………………………………………………………………….
- without author(s), with an authoring organisation……………………………
Newspaper/Magazine article………………………………………………………………
- with author(s)…………………………………………………..………………..
- with author(s)…………………………………………………..………………..
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A Guide to Referencing 3
A Guide to Referencing 4
Speech…………………………………………………………………………………………
- without author(s)……………………………………………….……………….…
- formal, delivered by expert(s)…………………………………………….………
- with author(s), article is not on continuous pages…………..…………………
Television………………………………………………………………………………………
Newspaper/Magazine editorial…………………………………………….…………….…..
- advertisement………………………………………………………………………
- without author(s)…………………………………………………………………..
- episode……………………………………………………………………………...
MULTIMEDIA SOURCES………………………………….………………………
- interview…………………………………………………………………………….
- program……………………………………………………………………………..
Artwork (painting/sculpture/other)……………………………………….…………….……
Video recording………………………………………………………………………….…….
Audio cassette……………………………………………………………………….………..
CD-ROM……………………………………………………………………………………….
CHARTS, TABLES, GRAPHS, MAPS AND IMAGES…………..….….. - with author(s)……………………………………………………………………..
- without author(s), without an authoring organisation…………………………
- Rules……………………………………………………………………………………………
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image………………………………………………………….
Lecture …………………………………………………………………………………………
- Reproducing a chart, table, graph, map or image…………………………………………
- Adapting a chart, table, graph, map or image…………………………………….…..……
- Citing a chart, table, graph, map or image from an online source…………….…………
Motion picture (movie/film)……………………………………………………………….…..
- Citing a chart, table, graph, map or image from a hardcopy source……………….……
Music……………………………………………………………………………………………
- one song/track on a CD/album; one section of a longer work ……………….
KEY INFORMATION FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS AND THE LIST OF
REFERENCES……………………………………….…………………..……………
- entire CD/album…………………………………………………...………………
Personal communication……………………………………………………………………..
- interview…………………………………………………………………………….
Books…………………………………………………………………………………………...
- conversation………………………………………………………………………..
- In an Australian Book………………………………………………………………....
- text message (sms)………………………………………………………………..
- In a British Book……………………………………………………………………….
- telephone call………………………………………………………………………
- In an American Book………………………………………………………………….
- facsimile…………………………………………………………………………….
News websites…………………………………………………………………..……….
- letter…………………………………………………………………………………
- oral presentation delivered by student(s)/non-expert(s)……………….…...…
- other………………………………………………………………………………...
COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS……………………...……….
Radio……………………………………………………………………………………………
- interview……………………………………………………………………………
- program/episode………………………………………………………………….
Sheet music……………………………………………………………………………………
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REFERENCES………………………………………………..…….……
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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
A Guide to Referencing 5
INTRODUCTION
I. Which referencing style should I use?
There is a wide range of referencing styles, each with different origins and
This guide contains examples from one of the most commonly-used
features. Certain disciplines traditionally use particular styles. For example,
‘author-date’ referencing styles, the Harvard style. Most courses at RMIT
the Vancouver style is commonly used in sciences (especially the health
sciences); the Modern Language Associ
International University Vietnam use the Harvard style but you should
always check with your lecturer to see what style he/she wants you to
use. If you fail to do this, you may be penalised.
ation of America (MLA) style is
widely used in the fields of modern literature and linguistics; the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is used in electrical
engineering and computer sciences; and the American Psychological
Association (APA) style is favoured by many of the social sciences.
Whichever style you use, you must remain accurate and consistent to that
style throughout your assignment. Never mix two (or more) referencing
styles in an assignment.
Whichever referencing style you use, your assignment must have double or
1.5 line spacing. Check with each lecturer to see which he/she prefers.
It is likely that sometimes you will want to reference an item that you cannot
find in this guide. No referencing guide can cover every possible type of
source you may want to use. However, you can use the basic rules
displayed in this guide to construct an accurate and consistent
citation/reference. The Learning Skills Unit staff can help you with this.
II. Why must I cite and reference my sources?
x To provide authority for what you have written.
x To demonstrate to the reader that you have read and understood
relevant sources of information.
x To strengthen your argument/thesis/point of view.
x To lend support to your own ideas.
x To allow the reader to locate and read your sources and to read the
material in the original context.
x To allow the reader to check that you have paraphrased and
summarised appropriately and quoted correctly.
x To avoid stealing other people’s ideas.
x To avoid committing plagiarism.
III. What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is when you pretend that the ideas, written text or images
contained in your assignment are your own, when they are not. The main
business of Western universities is dealing with ideas. When you prepare
your university assignments, many of the ideas should come from the work
of experts in your field of study. You must acknowledge that these ideas are
not your own. If you do not, you are committing plagiarism because you are,
in effect, stealing someone else’s ideas. If you copy, summarise,
paraphrase, or in any other way use someone else’s ideas, findings,
theories, opinions, tables, pictures, videos, examples, graphs, DVDs,
conclusions, and so on, you must acknowledge this by providing a citation in
the text of the assignment and by including full referencing details in the
reference list.
RMIT has a strict policy on plagiarism and this can be found on the RMIT
University Vietnam website.
IV. Is there plagiarism in sources on the Internet?
Yes, the Internet is full of plagiarised material. You will often find identical
material on several websites, none of which cites each other.
You may use this material yourself without fear of plagiarising if you follow
these two guidelines:
1. You must make a concerted effort to find the original source of the
material. Looking at the date that each website posted the material is a
good way to start.
2. You must, of course, properly cite and reference whichever source you
believe is the original one.
V. What is paraphrasing?
University students need to be able to paraphrase. Paraphrasing is when
you write an author’s idea(s) in your own words. The best way to do this is to
read, and re-read, one paragraph at a time, until you feel you really
understand what the author is saying. Then, put the original text aside and,
without looking at it, write about the idea(s) in your own words. Lecturers
prefer you to paraphrase rather than to use many direct quotations in your
assignments as this shows that you really do understand what the author is
saying. A paraphrase needs to have an in-text citation with the family
name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. Paraphrases usually do
not need a page number in the in-text citation but check with each lecturer to
see if he/she requires this.
VI. What is summarising?
A summary consists of the main points in an article, passage, chapter or
book. It always has significantly fewer words than the original text. The best
way to summarise is to read the whole text first, and then re-read it, while
noting down the main points. A summary needs to have an in-text citation
with the family name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
Summaries usually do not need a page number in the in-text citation but
check with each lecturer to see if he/she requires this.
***
A Guide to Referencing 6
GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES
GENERAL CITING
AND
REFERENCING GUIDELINES
A Guide to Referencing 7
GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES
1. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PARAPHRASES
x Using correct grammar
There are several correct ways to use the name of the author in the text of
a sentence. However, note the following correct and incorrect grammatical
structures.
These are correct:
‘According to’ + AUTHOR (YEAR) + , + CLAUSE. According to Entz (2009), many
aspects …
AUTHOR (YEAR) + VERB + CLAUSE. Entz (2009) states that many
aspects …
This is NOT correct as you cannot combine them:
‘According to’ + AUTHOR (YEAR) + VERB +
CLAUSE.
According to Entz (2009) states that
many aspects …
x The use of ‘&’ and ‘and’
‘and’ is used when the names are used as part of the sentence.
Example
Cope and Mason (2001) maintain that …
‘&’ is used when the names are within the brackets of an in-text citation, and
in the reference list.
In-text Citation Example
Business today is reliant on computers and associated technology (Cope & Mason
2001).
Reference Example
Cope, B & Mason, D (eds) 2001,C-2-C: creator to consumer in a digital age, 6
th
edn,
Common Ground Publishing, Altona, Victoria.
x Author prominent OR information prominent?
In-text citations can make the author, or the information, more prominent.
When writing an assignment you will sometimes want to make the author
more prominent and sometimes the information will need to be emphasised.
To make the information stand out more, cite the author(s) in brackets.
Example
Globalisation affects culture (Smith 2006).
To make the author(s) more prominent, cite the author(s) in the text of the
sentence.
Example
Smith (2006) states that globalisation affects culture.
A Guide to Referencing 8
x Collectively citing several sources
Each source must be listed in the in-text citation and be separated by a
semi-colon. List different authors alphabetically and list the same authors by
publication dates (separated by a comma), with the earliest date coming
first.
In-text Citation Examples
The cyclical process (Cope & Mason 2001; Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill 2003;
Shannon 2003a, 2003b; Smith & Smith 2009) suggests we should …
Cope and Mason (2001), Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003), Shannon (2003a,
2003b), and Smith and Smith (2009) all suggest that we should …
x Citing oneself
If you want to re-use material from a previous assignment, you must cite
yourself in the same way you would for any other author.
In-text Citation Example
As mentioned in a previous assignment for Introduction to Organisational Behaviour
(Nguyen 2009), there are several different types of organisational behaviours.
Reference Example
Nguyen, LT 2009, ‘Individual paper part 1’, paper submitted 16 August for BUSM2301
Introduction to Organisational Behaviour, RMIT University, Vietnam.
Note: Check with your lecturer to see if he/she requires an entry in the list of references.
x The author(s) is/are not known
If the author(s) is/are given, the in-text citation and the entry in the reference list
must begin with the family name(s) of the author(s).
In-text Citation Example
Emotional intelligence (Cherniss
2000) seems to be …
Reference Example with an Author
Cherniss, C 2000, ‘Emotional intelligence: what
it is and why it matters’, The Consortium for
Emotional Intelligence, viewed 27 August 2007,
<http://www.eiconsortium..org/reports/what_is_
emotional_intelligence.html>.
If the source does not have an author(s), but it does have an authoring
organisation, the in-text citation and the entry in the reference list should
begin with the name of the authoring organisation.
In-text Citation Example
First in-text-citation:
Managing government services
(Department of Finance &
Administration (DOFA) 2006) is …
Subsequent in-text citations:
… (DOFA 2006) …
Reference Example without an Author but
with an Authoring Organisation
Department of Finance and Administration
(DOFA) 2006, Delivering Australian
government services: managing multiple
channels, Commonwealth Publishing,
Canberra, Australia.
A Guide to Referencing 9
If the source does not have an author(s) or an authoring organisation, the
in-text citation and the entry in the reference list should begin with the title of
the source.
In-text Citation Example
The Earth is in big trouble
(‘Climate change is upon us’
2007) and …
Reference Example without an Author and without
an Authoring Organisation
‘Climate change is upon us’ 2007, BBC, 12 May,
viewed 10 December 2009,
<http://www.bbc.newstoday/climatechange_html>.
If you cite a source with no author(s) and no authoring organisation, and it has
a long title, you should shorten the title in the in-text citation to a meaningful
short form (approximately the first four words).
Note: You must put the full title in the list of references.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
The Congo’s economy is
faltering badly (‘Too big to fail’
2009).
‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009,
AfricaNews, 4 April, viewed 12 November 2009,
<http://news_africaonline /830785.stm>.
x The authors have the same family name
x Shortening long titles for in-text citations
When a source has two authors with the same family name, you must cite
the family name twice because they are different people.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
Research can be made easy
(Smith & Smith 2009) if one …
Smith, JA & Smith, P 2009, Research made easy
2
nd
edn, Phoenix Publishing, New York.
x Year of publication is not known
If the year of publication is not available, use ‘n.d.’ which stands for ‘no date’.
In-text Citation Example
Modern forensic scientific processes are essential for accurate identification (Browne
n.d.).
Reference Example
Browne, HP n.d., Modern forensic science, 2
nd
edn, Angus & Robertson, Adelaide,
Australia.
x There is only an approximate year of publication
If the precise year of publication is not available, use ‘c.’ which stands for the
Latin word ‘circa’, meaning approximately/about.
In-text Citation Example
A recognised leader in the field (Smythe c.1823) propounds that …
x Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication
Publications which have the same author(s) and the same year of
publication should be ordered alphabetically by title, and the letters a/b/c should
be added to the year of publication.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
… (Young 1988a) … Young, JC 1988a, A quick guide ...
… (Young 1988b) … Young, JC 1988b, Economic indicators ...
A Guide to Referencing 10
x Secondary citations
A secondary citation is when you refer to the work of one author who has
already been cited by another author.
If the original source is available, you should use it, as primary sources are
always preferred. However, if you do not have access to the primary source
and you use a secondary source, you must include the name and year of
publication for both sources, in the in-text citations.
In-text Citation Examples
Furneaux’s 2006 study (cited in Brown 2008) found that …
Furneaux (2006, cited in Brown 2008) found that …
A recent study (Furneaux 2006, cited in Brown 2008) indicates that …
In this example, Brown has cited Furneaux in Business in Asia, so Brown is
the secondary source and Furneaux is the primary source and thus the
reference will look like this:
Reference Example
Brown, A 2008, Business in Asia, Brooks Cole, San Francisco, CA.
Note: Only the source you have read appears in the reference list.
x Punctuation
Pay careful attention to correct punctuation in your in-text citations and
reference list. Failure to do this can result in a loss of marks.
There is a handout in the Learning Skills Unit about correct punctuation.
***
Secondary Source
Primary Source
A Guide to Referencing 11
2. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR DIRECT QUOTATIONS
A direct quotation is when you directly copy the exact words of an author(s), in the same order as in the original text. There are different rules for direct quotations
depending on how many words you copy.
x Formatting rules
Length of
quotation
e l p m a x E t a m r o F
1 to 30 words - Include the direct quotation in the paragraph.
- Use single quotation marks around the quotation.
- Include the page number(s) in the in-text citation.
- Ensure the direct quotation is EXACTLY the same wording
as the original.
Nuclear power is being muted as a possible solution to the realities of global
warming. ‘Nuclear power is more important today than ever before’ (Nguyen 2008,
p. 5). However, while under the constant threat of terrorism, many remain nervous
about more nuclear power plants being constructed. The issue of nuclear waste is
another concern and many argue that we should have no nuclear power plants at
all. One who argues against nuclear power is Smythe (2006, pp. 6-7) who states
that ‘the crux of the matter is whether or not any country should be allowed to have
nuclear power’.
31+ words - Start the quotation on a new line.
- Do not use quotation marks around the quotation.
- Introduce the quotation with a colon.
- Indent (on the left) one centimetre from the main text.
- Use one font size smaller than the rest of your assignment.
- Use single line spacing for the actual quotation.
- Include the page number(s) in the in-text citation.
- Ensure the direct quotation is EXACTLY the same wording
as the original.
All students complain that books about citing and referencing are too difficult and
too long. However, Menand (2003, pp.120-121) points out that:
Some people will complain that the new Chicago Manual is too long. These
people do not understand the nature of style. There is, if not a right way, a best
way to do every single thing, down to the proverbial dotting of the “i”. The
Manual is not too long. It is not long enough. It will never be long enough. The
perfect manual of style would be like the perfect map of the world; it would need
an extra universe to accommodate it. It would be worth it.
Many would not agree with Menand’s call for such a volume. Some say …
A Guide to Referencing 12
x Making minor changes to direct quotations
There are rules to follow if you find it necessary to change a direct quotation
in some way. Whatever you do, you must be very careful not to change the
meaning of the original text.
1. If you leave out any part of the original text you must indicate this by
using an ellipsis. An ellipsis consists of three dots: …
2. If you want to put extra, or different, words into the direct quotation
to make the meaning clearer, or to make it fit grammatically into
your sentence, you must put the changed or extra word(s) in square
brackets [ ].
3. If you want to emphasise certain words in the direct quotation, you
can put the word(s) in italics and state in brackets immediately after
the italicised word(s) that it is your emphasis and not the original
author’s emphasis.
4. If the source contains a grammatical error, you must copy the direct
quotation exactly as it appears in the original source (including the
grammatical error) and then put ‘sic’ in brackets immediately
following the incorrect part.
Example
Bush and Smith (1994, p. 23) state that ‘ …students must present their own point
of view (emphasis added) which [is] a synthesis of ideas gained from read (sic) the
various texts. Students must refer to the sources they have read. [An] academic
essay embodies … [a] student’s opinion about the topic’.
x Page numbers for direct quotations
Always provide the page number(s) when you quote directly from a source.
In-text Citation Examples
Larsen (1971, p. 21) noted that ‘many of the facts in this case are incorrect’.
‘This research is flawed due to the obvious mistakes made in the gathering of data.
An esteemed researcher should not make such a basic error as is displayed in this
work’ (Larsen 1971, pp. 245-246).
Note: When online sources do not have page numbers, it is accepted that you
cannot include page numbers in those particular in-text citations.
***
A Guide to Referencing 13
3. PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST
x The difference between a reference list and a bibliography
A reference list (or list of references) only contains those sources which you
have cited in your assignment. A bibliography, on the other hand, is a list of
all the sources you have consulted in preparation for writing the assignment;
you will not have cited all of these sources in your assignment.
Most lecturers require a list of references and NOT a bibliography. If you are
unsure about this, ask your lecturer.
x The first few words of the source in the reference list must
match the in-text citation
The in-text citation is a ‘key’ to the source listed in the reference list. Your
reader must be able to easily use the in-text citation to find the reference in
the reference list. Then the reader can use the reference to find your original
source.
In-text Citation Examples Reference Examples
Some experts (Saunders,
Lewis & Thornhill 2003)
indicate that …
Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2003, Research
methods for business students, 3
rd
edn, Pearson
Education, Essex.
Figures from the
Australian Bureau of
Statistics (ABS) (2004)
show ...
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004, Mental
health in Australia: a snapshot, cat. no. 4824.0.55.001,
ABS, Canberra, viewed 18 August 2005,
<www.abs.gov.au>.
The AMP has greatly
suffered as a direct result
of the recent information
leak (Kemp 2003).
Kemp, S 2003, ‘Leak pushes AMP to record low’, The
Age, 7 August, p. 1 (Business section).
x Each source in the reference list must begin with the name(s)
of the author(s), if the author(s) is/are given
The reference should begin with the author(s), if the author(s) is/are given.
Reference Example with an Author
Cherniss, C 2000, ‘Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters’, The
Consortium for Emotional Intelligence, viewed 27 August 2007,
<http://www.eiconsortium.org/reports/what_is_emotional_intelligence.html>.
If the source does not have an author(s), but it does have an authoring
organisation, the reference should begin with the name of the authoring
organisation.
Reference Example without an Author but with an Authoring Organisation
Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006, Delivering Australian
government services: managing multiple channels, Commonwealth Publishing,
Canberra, Australia.
A Guide to Referencing 14
If the source does not have an author(s) or an authoring organisation, the
reference should begin with the title of the source.
Reference Example without an Author and without an Authoring Organisation
‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009, AfricaNews, 4 April, viewed 12
November 2009, <http://news_africaonline /830785.stm>.
x Name(s) of the author(s) in the reference list must be correctly
referenced and correctly spelt
In the reference list, write the family name(s) first, followed by the initial(s) of
the given name(s). Do this for all authors, Western or Asian. Unlike in many
Asian languages, Western names are written with the given name(s) first and
the family name last. For example:
Name e c n e r e f e R
B 2009, ... , r r a t S r r a t S t r a B
Y 2002, ... J , k r a P n o o Y i J k r a P
2010, ... T , m a h P n a u T m a h P
If a Western name is written with a comma, the name before the comma is
the family name.
Name e c n e r e f e R
Jones, Spike Jones, S 2000, …
… 2000, ... S , s e n o J s e n o J e k i p S
For a Vietnamese pen name which leaves off the family name, use the full
pen name for both the in-text citation and in the list of references.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
… (Duy Binh 2008) … Duy Binh 2008, …
x The reference list must be in alphabetical order
Sort the reference list alphabetically.
Reference List Example
Ahmadjian, CL 2006, ...
Jones, B 1995, …
Smith, AK 1990, …
Smith, AK 2004, ...
Stein, B 2003, …
Stein, B, Lee, HK, Yin, CZ & Singh, CS 2000, ...
Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 1995, ...
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, …
‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009, …
Yarbro, CH, Frogge, MH, Goodman, M & Groenwald, SL 2000, ...
Young, JC 1988a, A quick guide ...
Young, JC 1988b, Economic indicators ...
For authors with the same family name, alphabetise by the initial of their
given name(s).
A Guide to Referencing 15
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
… (Jones 2000) … Jones, AB 2000, …
… (Jones 1995) … Jones, B 1995, …
If there is more than one work by the same author, sort that author’s entries
by year of publication with the earliest source appearing first.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
… (Smith 1990) … Smith, AK 1990, ...
… (Smith 2004) … Smith, AK 2004, ...
x Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication
Publications which have the same author(s) and the same year of
publication should be ordered alphabetically by title, and the letters a/b/c
should be added to the year of publication.
In-text Citation Example Reference Example
… (Young 1988a) … Young, JC 1988a, A quick guide ...
… (Young 1988b) … Young, JC 1988b, Economic indicators ...
A reference with a single author is entered before a reference with multiple
authors that starts with the same name.
Reference Example
Stein, B 2003, … (single author)
Stein, B, Lee, HK, Yin, CZ & Singh, CS 2000, ... (multiple authors)
If there is more than one work by the same author but with different co-
authors, order the references alphabetically by the second author.
Reference Example
Stein, B, Lee, HK, Yin, CZ & Singh, CS 2000, ...
Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 1995, ...
Many article and book titles begin with ‘A’ or ‘The’. Keep ‘A’ or ‘The’ at the
beginning of the title and alphabetise the reference list using the first letter
(‘A’ or ‘T’) in the title.
Reference List Example
A short history of RMIT in Vietnam 2007, ...
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, …
The game of cricket 2005, ...
Yarbro, CH, Frogge, MH, Goodman, M & Groenwald, SL 2000, ...
x The reference list must be correctly formatted
x Titles starting with ‘A’ or ‘The’
- Put the heading ‘References’ at the top of the list of sources.
- Give each item single line spacing.
- Separate one item from the next item with double line spacing.
- Do not use numbers, bullets, stars, smiley faces, or anything else, before
the name(s) of the author(s).
***
A Guide to Referencing 16
The HARVARD section of this Referencing Guide draws on the following publications:
RMIT University 2007, Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing
and presentation in RMIT Business, 3rd edn, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
RMIT University 2009, CEP guide to Harvard-style referencing, 6th edn, RMIT University,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th rev. edn, John Wiley &
Sons, Milton, Queensland.
Further advice on referencing online sources in the Harvard style used by RMIT can be found
at <http://mams.rmit.edu.au/2nkrhwuswrpq.rtf>.
***
ONLINE SOURCES
ONLINE SOURCES
ONLINE SOURCES
Note: Always choose page image format (pdf) files when this format is available. Using a pdf version allows you to cite and reference the source as if it were a hardcopy.
Also, page numbers are usually available in pdf files for including in in-text citations for direct quotations.
Some documents on websites do not have page numbers and you will then not be able to include the page numbers in th e in-text citation for those particular direct quotations.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Company/Industry
document/
information/
annual report
on a website or in a
database
Note: If the information is
Note: For information on citing
and referencing charts/tables/
graphs/maps and images, see
pages 65-69 of this guide.
sourced from a library
database, it is better to
include the database name
rather than the URL.
Chart/Table/Graph/
Map/Image
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s)/Name of
Company/Industry/
Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable)
Year of publication, Title of
document/information/
annual report, Website
Name, Name of Sponsoring
Organisation (if different to
website name/authoring
organisation), viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
IBISWorld Pty Ltd 2005, Wine
manufacturing in Australia, IBISWorld,
viewed 28 November 2005,
<http://www.ibisworld.com.au>.
Datamonitor 2005,
Family Name(s) of Author(s),
Initial(s) Year of publication,
‘Title of paper/presentation’,
in Initial(s) Family Name(s)
Jakubowicz, A 2002, ‘Race vilification and
communal leadership’, in W Jonas (ed.),
Beyond Tolerance: National Conference
on Racism, Sydney, 12-13 March 2002,
Human Rights and Equal Opportunities
Racism appears to be on the increase in Asia and
the Middle East (Jakubowicz 2002).
Jakubowicz (2002) argues that ...
Westfield Group
(Australia): company profile, Datamonitor,
viewed 23 January 2006, Business
Searching Interface (EBSCO) database.
Although the domestic wine market is expected to be
stagnant from 2006 to 2010, wine exports will
continue to grow, albeit at a lower rate than
previously (IBISWorld Pty Ltd 2005).
The Westfield Group has interests in 129 shopping
centres in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and USA
(Datamonitor 2005).
Conference/Seminar/
Forum paper/
presentation
published
A Guide to Referencing 17
A Guide to Referencing 18
Format Reference List In-text Citation
of Editor(s) (ed./eds), Name
of Conference/Seminar/
Forum, Location of
Conference/Seminar/ Forum,
day(s) month year held,
Publisher, Place of
Publication, page number(s)
for the entire paper, viewed
day month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Commission, Sydney, pp. 34-45, viewed 17
June 2002,
<http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_dis
crimination/beyond_tolerance/speeches/
jakubowicz.html>.
Note: The editor’s initial(s) go(es) in front of the
family name(s).
Dictionary
Family Name(s) of
Author(s)/Editor(s), Initial(s)
(ed./eds) Year of
publication, Title of
dictionary, edition,
Publisher, Place of
Publication, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Carring, X & Carring, S (eds) 1992,
Dictionary of money and finance, 5 edn,
Macmillan, Brisbane, Queensland, viewed
30 September 2000, DictionaryOnLine
database.
Note: An entry in the list of references is not
usually required for a dictionary. However, further
details may be given in the reference list if you
wish the reader to be able to follow up the source,
or if your lecturer requires such an entry.
Another dictionary (eds Carring & Carring 1992)
defines ‘hedging’ as …
Carring and Carring’s (eds 1992) Dictionary of
money and finance defines ‘hedging’ as …
Note: An in-text citation is required.
th
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Discussion forum post
(online discussion forum)
Note: A discussion forum
post may not be a reliable
source of academic
information.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
posting, ‘Title of post’,
Course Code Course
Name, discussion forum
post, posted day month,
viewed day month year,
Blackboard@RMIT.
Note: If only the User Name(s)
is/are available, then use that
instead of the actual name(s) of
the author(s).
User Name(s) of Author(s)
Year of posting, ‘Title of
post’, Website Name,
discussion forum post,
posted day month, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Nguyen, C 2007, ‘Ideas for PAP
assignment’, OMGT2085 Introduction to
Logistics & Supply Chain Management,
discussion forum post, posted 11 June,
viewed 20 June 2007, Blackboard@RMIT.
Black Goddess 2009, ‘Why I love Vietnam’,
VietHol, discussion forum post, posted 24
March, viewed 18 July 2009,
<http://viethol.org/infolist/new.org>.
Knowledge management for PAP is a significant
problem (Nguyen 2007).
Nguyen (2007) seems to agree with the lecturers on
this matter.
Of all the countries in South-East Asia, Vietnam is
one of the easiest to navigate (Black Goddess 2009).
Black Goddess (2009) indicates that …
A Guide to Referencing 19
A Guide to Referencing 20
Format Reference List In-text Citation
E-book
a scanned (paper) book
viewed online or
downloaded in page
image format (pdf)
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of
Publication.
Note: If an e-book is in a library
database as a page image
format (pdf), cite it as if it were a
hardcopy book. Do not include
the <URL> or database name.
Zietlow, J, Hankin, JA & Seidner, AG 2007,
Financial management for non-profit
organisations: policies and practices, 4
th
edn, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken,
New Jersey.
Paine, T 2009, Common sense, 8
th
edn,
Pearson, Alexandria, Virginia, viewed 6 July
2009, <http://www.google.com/books>.
A recent policy and practices document for NGOs
indicates that some things need to change as soon
as possible (Zietlow, Hankin & Seidner 2007).
Zietlow, Hankin and Seidner (2007, p. 78) report that
‘financial management reform is urgently needed in
non-profit organisations’.
A recent book about common sense (Paine 2009)
claims that …
Paine (2009) stipulates that …
Note: Many books found on Google Books at <http://www. google.com/books> are available only as previews. Reading a preview is not the same as reading the entire book or a
complete chapter. If the preview contains one or more complete chapters, you can read and cite those as chapters in a book (see page 43). If you need the entire book, remember to
look in the RMIT Vietnam Library catalogue or the e-book databases available through the Melbourne Online Library, as the complete book may be available there. You cannot consider
a preview as the complete book if that is all you have found.
E-book
an e-book formatted for
reading online
Note: Where possible,
always use the database
name rather than the URL.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, viewed
day month year, Database
Name.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Swich, E 2009, German demystified,
McGrawHill, viewed 9 December 2009,
Ebooks.com database.
McCreadie, K 2009, How to write a book in
33 days, Blackwell Publications, viewed 10
December 2009,
<http://ebook.com/ebooks/Literature/How_
to_Write_a_Book_in_33_Days>.
The German language contains sounds which are
difficult for Vietnamese speakers (Swich 2009).
Swich (2009) examines …
Writing a book can be a tedious and demanding
process (McCreadie 2009).
McCreadie (2009) maintains that …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Encyclopaedia
without author(s)
without an authoring
organisation
Note: Wikipedia is not
usually an acceptable
source of academic
information.
Title of encyclopaedia Year
of publication, edition,
Publisher, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
‘Title of entry’ Year of
submission of entry, in Title
of encyclopaedia, edition,
day month of submission of
entry, viewed day month
year, <URL>.
Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009,
Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., viewed 2
February 2009, Online Books database.
‘Plagiarism’ 2004, in Wikipedia, the free
encyclopaedia, 22 July, viewed 9 December
2009,
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism>.
Note: An entry in the list of references is not
usually required for an encyclopaedia. However,
further details may be given in the reference list if
you wish the reader to be able to follow up the
source, or if your lecturer requires such an entry.
Globalisation, as defined by the Encyclopaedia
Britannica (2009), is …
Broadly speaking, there are two ways a student can
plagiarise (‘Plagiarism’ 2004).
Government document
Note: This includes
departmental reports,
reports and commissions of
enquiry, committees of
review and committees of
parliament.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s)/Name of
Authoring Organisation/
Government Department
(Acronym, if applicable)
Year of publication, Title of
document, document/
report/catalogue number,
Publisher, Place of
Publication, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004,
Mental health in Australia: a snapshot, cat.
no. 4824.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed
18 August 2005, <http://www.abs.gov.au>.
Australian National Audit Office (ANAO)
2003, Fraud control arrangements in the
Australian Customs Service, ANAO, viewed
4 August 2003,
<http://anao.gov.au/WebSite/publications>.
First in-text citation:
The rate of suicide among Australia’s young men
continues to be far too high (Australian Bureau of
Statistics (ABS) 2004).
The Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) (2004)
report indicates that …
Subsequent in-text citations:
A notable document (ABS 2004) indicates that ...
The ABS (2004) brought out a document which
says …
First in-text citation:
The Australian Customs Service (Australian National
Audit Office (ANAO) 2003) proposes …
A Guide to Referencing 21
A Guide to Referencing 22
Format Reference List In-text Citation
The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) (2003)
has …
Subsequent in-text citations:
A critical document (ANAO 2003) indicates that ...
The ANAO (2003) brought out a document which
says …
Handbook
with a corporate author
Name of Corporate Author
(Acronym, if applicable)
Year of publication, Title of
handbook, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
University of London 2007, Course
handbook for 2007, viewed 6 June 2007,
<http://www.universityof london.edu.au/
courses/>.
A University of London (2007) handbook is very helpful
when one is trying to choose what courses to take.
Homepage
company/organisation
Note: A homepage does not
always have a title.
Name of Homepage/
Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable)
Year homepage was
created/last updated, Title
(if any), homepage, Name
of Organisation responsible
for publishing the site (often
the same as the authoring
organisation), Location of
Organisation responsible for
publishing the site, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Telstra 2005, homepage, Telstra,
Melbourne, viewed 2 December 2005,
<http://telstra.com.au>.
business.gov.au 2005, homepage,
Department of Innovation, Industry, Science
and Research, Canberra, viewed 2
December 2005,
<http://www.business.gov.au/Business+Entr
y+Point>.
Note: An entry in the list of references is not
usually required for a homepage. However, further
details may be given in the reference list if you
wish the reader to be able to follow up the source,
or if your lecturer requires such an entry.
Many corporate websites, for example, Telstra
(2005), are …
business.gov.au (2005), the Australian
Government’s business gateway, provides
information on starting or running a small business.
Note: Homepage addresses can be provided directly in the
text, as in the following example:
The Australian Government’s business gateway
(2005),
<http://www.business.gov.au/Business+EntryPoint>,
provides information on starting or running a small
business.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Homepage
a website showcasing a
professional’s/academic’s
qualifications, publications
and achievements
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
article, Title (if any), posted
day month, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Portal, P 2007, Abstract mathematical
theory, posted 18 October, viewed 17
November 2009, <http://math.univ-
lille1.fr/~portal/index.html>.
Research in pure mathematics is at the cutting edge
of mathematics (Portal 2007).
Dr Pierre Portal’s website (2007) gives access to …
Journal article
in a database as page
image format (pdf)
Note: Journals are
designated by any one, or
any combination of, the
following: season, month,
volume, number or issue.
Use whatever information is
available for your entry in the
list of references.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Journal Name, month of
number/issue, page
publication, volume,
number(s) for the entire
article.
Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a
cultural divide in Australian international
trade?’, Australian Journal of Management,
vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134.
Note: If a journal article is in a database as a page
image format (pdf), cite it as if it were a hardcopy.
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007, p. 113).
According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007, p. 113),
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’.
Journal article
in a database as a
webpage
Note: Cite articles found in
e-journals the same way you
cite journal articles found
online.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Journal Name, month of
number/issue, page
publication, volume,
number(s) for the entire
article, viewed day month
year, Database Name.
Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a
cultural divide in Australian international
trade?’, Australian Journal of Management,
vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134, viewed 11
November 2007, Factiva database.
Note: If a journal article is in a library database and
you read it as HTML or plain text, then you must cite
the viewed day month year and the database name.
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007, p. 113).
According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007, p. 113),
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’.
A Guide to Referencing 23
Note: A homepage does not
always have a title.
A Guide to Referencing 24
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Journal article
online, not in a database
Note: Cite articles found in
e-journals the same way you
cite journal articles found
online.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Journal Name, month of
publication, volume, number/
issue, page number(s) for
the entire article, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Note: If a journal article has been
located on the Internet and not
in a database, you must add the
viewed day month year and the
<URL>.
Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a
cultural divide in Australian international
trade?’, Australian Journal of Management,
vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134, viewed 11
November 2007,
<http://www.agsm.edu.au/~eajm/
0706/06-brewersheriff.html>.
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007, p. 113).
According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007, p. 113),
‘Australian international trade is in for a major shake-
up’.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Newspaper/Magazine
article
in a library database
with author(s)
Note: If a newspaper/magazine
article appears in a library
database as page image format
(pdf), cite it in the same way as
a hardcopy.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Newspaper/Magazine
Name, day month of
publication, page number(s)
for the entire article (Name
of section, if applicable).
Note: If a newspaper/magazine
article is in a library database
and is only available as HTML or
plain text, then you must cite
the viewed day month year and
either the database name or
<URL>.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Newspaper/Magazine
Name, day month of
publication, page number(s)
for the entire article (Name
of section, if applicable),
viewed day month year,
Database Name or <URL>.
Isikoff, M 2005, ‘Leak investigation: an
oversight issue?’, Newsweek, 15 August,
p. 6.
Khadem, N 2007, ‘Lid stays on wages
growth’, The Age, 15 November, p. 1
(Business section), viewed 16 November
2007, OVRC database.
An investigation into the information leak out of the
White House (Isikoff 2005) emphasises …
Isikoff (2005) reminds us that …
An increase in the salaries for Cambodia’s public
servants would go some way to curbing corruption in
the country (Khadem 2007).
Khadem (2007) reports that, unfortunately, ...
A Guide to Referencing 25
A Guide to Referencing 26
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Newspaper/Magazine
article
in a library database
without author(s)
Note: A newspaper/magazine
Note: If a newspaper/magazine
article appears in a library
database as page image format
(pdf), cite it in the same way as
a hardcopy.
article which does not have
an identifiable author should
be cited in the text, but it
does not need to appear in
the reference list. However,
further details may be given
in the reference list if you
wish the reader to be able to
follow up the source, or if
your lecturer requires such
an entry.
Note: If a newspaper/magazine
article is in a library database and
is only available as HTML or plain
text, then you must cite the viewed
day month year and the database
name.
Newspaper/Magazine
Name Year of publication,
‘Title of article’, day month
of publication, page
number(s) for the entire
article (Name of section,
if applicable).
article (Name of section,
if applicable), viewed day
month year, Database
Name.
Newspaper/Magazine
Name Year of publication,
‘Title of article’, day month
of publication, page
number(s) for the entire
The Shanghai Daily 2009, ‘Our Earth is
already over populated’, 21 September,
pp. 3-4.
Forbes Magazine 2005, ‘Advertising on
demand’, 25 July, p. 72, viewed 28 July
2005, OVRC database.
It would seem that the Earth is in trouble (The
Shanghai Daily 2009) and that we …
The Shanghai Daily (2009) estimates that …
New legal requirements in the world of advertising
seem to have sent the advertising giants into a rage
(Forbes Magazine 2005).
Forbes Magazine (2005) sets out ...
Format Reference List In-text Citation
News website article
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of Author(s),
Initial(s) Year of publication,
‘Title of article’, Website
Name, day month of
publication, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Griffiths, D 2007, ‘China's “cancer villages”
pay price’, BBC News, 17 January, viewed
19 February 2007,
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-
pacific/6271103.stm>.
The situation in some villages in China portrays a
case of disgraceful neglect by government
authorities (Griffiths 2007).
Griffiths (2007) has put the spotlight on a serious
case of neglect in China.
News website article
with author(s) using a
Vietnamese pen name
Note: You must get prior
permission from your
lecturer to use sources
which are not in English.
Pen Name(s) of Author(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of
article’, Website Name, day
month of publication, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Gia Linh 2008, 'Giұt mình teen cҳt tay tӵ
“hành xác”’, Vietnamnet, 18 April, viewed
6 December 2009,
<http://vietnamnet.vn/xahoi/2008/04/82/>.
Some teens cut themselves to get their parents’
attention (Gia Linh 2008).
According to Gia Linh (2008), some teens cut
themselves to get their parents’ attention.
News website article
with author(s)
news website name
and authoring
organisation are different
Family Name(s) of Author(s),
Initial(s) Year of publication,
‘Title of article’, Website
Name, Name of Authoring
Organisation, day month of
publication, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Shinal, J 2007, ‘Google lawyers pass
YouTube baton to engineers’, MarketWatch,
Dow Jones, 14 June, viewed 15 June 2007,
<http://www.marketwatch.com/News/
Story/google-lawyers-pass-youtube-baton/
story.aspx?>.
The latest legal battle over YouTube is set to cause
upset once again (Shinal 2007).
Shinal (2007) opposes the view that ...
News website article
without author(s)
with an authoring
organisation
news website name and
authoring and sponsoring
organisations are different
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’,
Website Name, Name of
Sponsoring Organisation,
day month of publication,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
Pacific News 2007 ‘Korean media sad and
concerned over supervisor’s arrest’, New
America Media, New Zealand Media Inc.,
13 June, viewed 15 June 2007,
<http://news.pacificnews.newamericamedia.
org/news/view_article.html?article_id=09f12
65e14a05f472d134bc0d3fa7242>.
It seems that the policing of media bosses in Korea
is on the increase (Pacific News 2007).
Pacific News (2007) opposes the arrest of ...
A Guide to Referencing 27
A Guide to Referencing 28
Format Reference List In-text Citation
News website article
without author(s)
without an authoring
organisation
‘Title of article’ Year of
publication, Website Name,
day month of publication,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’
2009, AfricaNews, 4 April, viewed 12
November 2009, <http://news_africaonline
/830785.stm>.
Congo’s economy is in trouble (‘Too big to fail’ 2009)
and …
The article, ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’
(2009), tells of how …
News website editorial
without author(s)
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
publication, ‘Title of
editorial’, Website Name,
day month of publication,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
New York Times 2009, ‘The non-public
option’, NewYorkTimes, 9 December,
viewed 10 December 2009,
<http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/10/opinio
n/10thu1.html?_r=1&ref=opinion>.
The issue of health care reform is becoming further
mired in controversy (New York Times 2009) …
The New York Times (2009) has joined in the health
care reform debate.
Personal
communication
- email
- other
Note: Information obtained
from these sources might
not be credible and thus
might not be accepted in an
academic paper.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
communication, email/
other, day month of
communication, <sender’s
e-mail address>/other.
Costa, C 2007, email, 5 November,
<cathy.costa@spacecraft.com.au>.
Note: Personal communication should be cited in
the text, but does not need to appear in the
reference list. However, further details may be
given in the reference list if you wish the reader to
be able to follow up the source, or if your lecturer
requires such an entry.
It was confirmed in an email from Cathy Costa
(2007) that …
WARNING: To avoid breaching privacy you MUST obtain
permission from the person before including details such as
an email address, mobile phone number, and so on, in the
text of your assignment or in the reference list.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Podcast
with presenter(s)
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s), Initial(s) Year
of original broadcast, ‘Title
of podcast’, Title of
program/series, audio
podcast, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
original program, retrieved
day month year, <URL>.
Knight, M 2009 ‘Why regulations must be
consistent across financial and geographical
borders’, Chicago booth podcast series,
audio podcast, University of Chicago,
Chicago, 4 May, retrieved 10 December
2009,
<http://www.chicagobooth.edu/multimedia/
podcast/>.
In order to avoid major problems, regulations must
be consistent (Knight 2009).
Knight (2009) maintains that …
Podcast
without presenter(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of original
broadcast, ‘Title of
podcast’, Title of program/
series, audio podcast,
Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast,
day month of original
program, retrieved
day month year, <URL>.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2008, ‘PM’, News and current affairs, audio
podcast, ABC Radio, Sydney, 2 November,
retrieved 14 December 2008,
<http://abc.net.au/news/subscribe/sml>.
First in-text citation:
An increasing number of people today are listening
to podcasts on MP3 players and it seems to be a
good way to catch the news on the way home from
work (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2008).
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
(2008) seems to support the view that …
Subsequent in-text citations:
A popular radio program (ABC 2008) has been …
ABC’s (2008) program, News and current affairs,
is …
Study materials on
RMIT Blackboard
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
preparation of materials,
‘Title of study materials’,
Smith, H 2005, ‘Organisational behaviours
and the workforce’, course notes for
BUSM2301 Introduction to Organisational
Behaviour, RMIT University, Melbourne,
Several different organisational behaviours can be
identified (Smith 2005).
Smith (2005) states that …
A Guide to Referencing 29
A Guide to Referencing 30
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Note: This includes course
notes, PowerPoint slides,
and so on.
course notes/PowerPoint
slides/other for Course
Code Course Name, Name
of Institution, Location of
Institution, viewed day
month year,
Blackboard@RMIT.
viewed 19 April 2005, Blackboard@RMIT.
Study materials on
RMIT Blackboard
without author(s)
Note: This includes course
notes, PowerPoint slides,
and so on.
‘Title of study materials’
Year of preparation of
materials, course
notes/PowerPoint
slides/other for Course
Code Course Name, Name
of Institution, Location of
Institution, viewed day
month year,
Blackboard@RMIT.
‘Metadata’ 2004, course notes for
ISYS2089 Software Engineering
Fundamentals, RMIT University, Melbourne,
viewed 8 July 2005, Blackboard@RMIT.
As mentioned in the course notes for ISYS2089
Software Engineering Fundamentals (‘Metadata’
2004), software engineering is a good career to be in
as prospects for employment are excellent,
especially in the developing economies of India,
China and Vietnam.
Study materials on
RMIT Blackboard
video recording of
course lecture
Family Name(s) of
Lecturer(s), Initial(s) Year
lecture was recorded, ‘Title
of lecture’, lecture in
Course Code Course
Name, day month lecture
was recorded, Name of
Institution, Location of
Institution, viewed day
month year,
Blackboard@RMIT.
Hopkins, A 2008, ‘Auditing today’, lecture in
ACCT2161 Auditing, 5 November, RMIT
University, Melbourne, viewed 7 December
2009, Blackboard@RMIT.
During a lecture on 5 November 2008 for ACCT2161
Auditing at RMIT University, Melbourne, the lecturer,
Andrew Hopkins, said that …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Study materials from
the Internet
video recording of
course lecture
Family Name(s) of
Lecturer(s), Initial(s) Year
lecture was recorded, ‘Title
of lecture’, lecture in
Course Code Course
Name, day month lecture
was recorded, Name of
Institution, Location of
Institution, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Hopkins, A 2008, ‘Auditing today’, lecture in
ACCT2161 Auditing, 5 November, RMIT
University, Melbourne, viewed 7 December
2009,
<www.rmit.edu.au./accounting/videolectures
/auditingtoday.html>.
Andrew Hopkins, lecturer at RMIT University,
Melbourne, in a lecture on 5 November 2008,
commented that …
Television
episode
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Note: If part of an ongoing
series, list the episode title first,
then the program/series name.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of
episode’, Title of program,
television episode, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of
episode’, Title of program,
season number, episode
NINE Network 2008, ‘Are you fit enough?’,
TODAY, television episode, Channel 9 TV,
Sydney, 5 April, viewed 17 May 2008,
<http://channelnine.ninemsn.com.au/oursho
ws.aspx?letter=A>.
Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008,
‘Adverse events’, House, season 5, episode
3, television episode, FOX, USA, 30
September, viewed 2 October 2008,
<http://www.fox.com/fod/>.
Food allergies (NINE Network 2008) are becoming
a big problem in …
NINE Network’s (2008) episode of TODAY, ‘Are you
fit enough?’, is a good reminder …
Social problems are common themes in television
First in-text citation:
dramas and the latest episode of House, ‘Adverse
events’ (Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008),
is a good example.
A Guide to Referencing 31
A Guide to Referencing 32
Format Reference List In-text Citation
number, television episode,
Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast, day
month of broadcast, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
The Fox Broadcasting Company’s (FOX) (2008)
latest episode of House, ‘Adverse events’, is a
good example of …
Subsequent in-text citations:
The latest episode of House, ‘Adverse events’
(FOX 2008), is …
Television
interview
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of
episode’, Title of program,
television interview, Name
of Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast, viewed
day month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2004, ‘Top heads’, Enough rope with
Andrew Denton, television interview, ABC
TV, Sydney, 17 April, viewed 13 May 2004,
<http://abctv.au.online.stream>.
First in-text citation:
Andrew Denton is a highly engaging and sensitive
interviewer as is demonstrated by his careful
managing of the interview with Raelene Boyle
(Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004).
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC)
(2004) interview series, Enough rope with Andrew
Denton, is an example of ...
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ABC (2004) is …
Television
program
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, Title of program,
television program, Name
of Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast, viewed
day month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2005, The 7.30 report , television program,
ABC TV, Sydney, 20 November, viewed 26
March 2006, TVNews database.
First in-text citation:
When interviewed on the ABC TV’s, The 7.30
report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2005), the Treasurer said ...
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC)
(2005) program, The 7.30 report , is a …
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ABC (2005) is …
FOX (2008) is …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Thesis/Dissertation Family Name of Author,
Initial(s) Year of completion
of thesis/dissertation, ‘Title
of thesis/dissertation’,
Award, Name of Institution,
Location of Institution,
viewed day month year,
Database Name or <URL>.
La, KV 2005, ‘Customer loyalty in web-
based retailing’, PhD thesis, RMIT University,
Melbourne, viewed 14 November 2007,
ADT database.
La, KV 2005, ‘Customer loyalty in web-
based retailing’, PhD thesis, RMIT University,
Melbourne, viewed 14 November 2007,
<http://adt.lib.rmit.edu.au/adt/uploads/
approved/adt-VIT20070108.150426/public
/02whole.pdf>.
Retailing of goods on the Internet has increased
significantly in recent years (La 2005).
La (2005) explores the relationship between ...
Retaining customer loyalty is essential for retail
success (La 2005).
La (2005) maintains that …
Transcript
radio program/episode
with presenter(s)
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s), Initial(s) Year
of broadcast, ‘Title of
episode’, Title of program,
radio episode transcript,
Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast,
day month of broadcast,
viewed day month year,
Database Name or <URL>.
Mascall, S 2005, ‘Are we hardwired for
creativity?’, The nature of innovation, radio
episode transcript, ABC Radio Australia,
Melbourne,14 February, viewed 3 February
2010,
<http://www.abc.net.au/ra/innovations/stories
/s1302318.htm>.
Mascall (2005) stated that in 1967 Edward de Bono
invented the term ‘lateral thinking’.
Lateral thinking is ‘where the brain jumps from main
tracks of thought to sidetracks’ (Mascall 2005).
Transcript
radio program/episode
without presenter(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, Title of program,
radio program transcript,
Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast, day
month of broadcast, viewed
day month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
British Broadcasting Commission (BBC)
2006, BBC classical music, radio program
transcript, BBC Radio, London, 16 October,
viewed 27 October 2006,
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/b00ny6lv/BB
C_Radio>.
First in-text citation:
A variety of music available on radio (British
Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006) is a great
resource for …
The British Broadcasting Commission’s (BBC)
(2006), music program, BBC classical music, has
proved to be very popular with the over 65s.
Subsequent in-text citations:
A recently broadcast program (BBC 2006) shows
how ...
A Guide to Referencing 33
A Guide to Referencing 34
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Transcript
speech on radio
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s)/Author(s),
Initial(s) Year of broadcast,
‘Title of speech’, Title of
program, speech transcript,
Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast, day
month of broadcast, viewed
day month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
broadcast, viewed day
broadcast, viewed day
month year, Database Name
or <URL>.
Nguyen, TA 2008, ‘Vietnam in the 21
st
century’, 2UE talks, speech transcript,
Radio 2UE, Sydney, 5 January, viewed 7
February 2008,
<http://www.vietnam/today/txt.htm>.
A prominent Vietnamese academic (Nguyen 2008)
The BBC (2006) recently broadcast a program
about …
has strongly disagreed with …
Nguyen (2008) strongly disagrees with …
Transcript
television program/
episode
with presenter(s)
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s), Initial(s) Year
of broadcast, ‘Title of
episode’, Title of program,
television episode
transcript, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
Watson, G 2004, ‘Cyclone Tracy’, Natural
disasters of the twentieth century, television
episode transcript, ABC TV, Sydney, 28
December, viewed 2 March 2005,
<http://www.abc.net.au/tv/rewind/txt/s12
33697.htm>.
Cyclone Tracy is one of the worst cyclones ever to
hit Australia (Watson 2004).
Watson (2004) maintains that Australians will never
be able to erase Cyclone Tracy from their collective
memory.
Transcript
television program/
episode
without presenter(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, Title of program,
television program
transcript, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)
2005, The 7.30 report, television program
transcript, ABC TV, Sydney, 20 November,
viewed 26 March 2006, TVNews database.
First in-text citation:
On ABC TV’s, The 7.30 report (Australian
Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005), the
Treasurer said ...
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s
(ABC) (2005) program, The 7.30 report , is a …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Subsequent in-text citations:
A recently broadcast program (ABC 2005) indicates
that ...
The ABC (2005) broadcast a program about …
Video recording
with presenter(s)
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s), Initial(s) Year
of recording, Title of
video/series, video
recording, day month of
recording, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Collins, A 2009, My big fat wedding, video
recording, 23 November, viewed 26
November 2009,
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo-
UKCxCglg>.
The video, My big fat wedding, on YouTube (Collins
2009), is …
Collins (2009) has created a highly entertaining
video …
Video recording
without presenter(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
recording, Title of
video/series, video
recording, Publisher/
Distributor, Place of
Recording, day month
of recording, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994,
Accounting for the environment, video
recording, EMA, South Melbourne, 12 May,
viewed 29 September 1995, Videos2Day
database.
First in-text citation:
The problems of pollution and land use in Australia
(Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994) need to
be ...
The video produced by Educational Media Australia
(EMA) (1994) should be shown to all school children
so that ...
Subsequent in-text citations:
An informative video recording (EMA 1994) shows ...
EMA’s (1994) video recording displays …
A Guide to Referencing 35
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
A Guide to Referencing 36
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Note: If the video recording
is part of a series, list the
episode title first, then the
series name.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
recording, ‘Title of episode’,
Title of video/series, video
recording, Publisher/
Distributor, Place of
NSW Health Department (NSWHD) 2006,
‘You are what you eat!’, A healthy diet for
the busy person, video recording, NSWHD,
Canberra, 18 June, viewed 21 October
2006,
<http://www/healthdeptnsw.net.au/healthy
diet/275649860.html>.
First in-text citation:
One’s health is based on many things (NSW Health
Department (NSWHD) 2006) and …
The NSW Health Department’s (NSWHD) (2006)
video recording, ‘You are what you eat!’, is a very …
Subsequent in-text citations:
Health issues need to be at the forefront of
government policy making (NSWHD 2006).
The NSWHD (2006) is determined to …
Vodcast
(video podcast)
with presenter(s)
Family Name(s) of
Presenter(s), Initial(s) Year
of broadcast, ‘Title of
vodcast’, Title of
program/series, video
podcast, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
original program, retrieved
day month year, <URL>.
Barrage, Z & Bells, E 2009, ‘The funniest
thing you’ve ever seen’, Hilarious episodes
in the workplace, video podcast, ABC TV,
Melbourne, 1 November, retrieved 10
December 2009,
<http://www09.abctv.com.au/podcast/>.
The workplace is occasionally the scene of some
unexpected hilarity (Barrage & Bells 2009) and …
Barrage and Bell’s (2009), ‘The funniest thing you’ve
ever seen’, provides a good example of …
Vodcast
(video podcast)
without presenter(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of vodcast’,
Title of program/series,
video podcast, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
original program, retrieved
day month year, <URL>.
SBS TV 2009, ‘The state of the economy’,
Vincent Ward talks, video podcast, SBS,
Sydney, 7 July, retrieved 18 July 2009,
<http://www20.sbs.com.au/podcast/>.
A video podcast of Vincent Ward talks (SBS TV
2009) demonstrates a high level of …
An example of a podcast taken from SBS TV (2009)
demonstrates how …
Recording, day month
of recording, viewed day
month year, Database
Name or <URL>.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Weblog
(blog)
Note: A blog is not likely to
be a reliable source of
academic information.
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
posting, Blog Name, blog,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
Webber, S & Boon, S 2006, Information
Literacy Blog, blog, viewed 10 January
2008, <http://information-literacy.Blog
spot.com>.
Some people are just way behind the times when it
comes to being information literate (Webber & Boon
2006).
Webber and Boon (2006) imply that …
Weblog post
(blog post)
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
posting, ‘Title of post’, Blog
Name, blog post, day
month of posting, viewed
day month year, <URL>.
Webber, S 2008, ‘Events from CILIP’,
Information Literacy Blog, blog post, 9
January, viewed 11 January 2008,
<http://information_literacy.blogspot>.
Webber’s blog post (Webber 2008) is an excellent …
Webber (2008) calls on us to …
Note: A weblog post is not likely to be a reliable source of
academic information.
Weblog post
(blog post)
without author(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Note: A weblog post is not
likely to be a reliable source
of academic information.
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of posting,
‘Title of post’, Blog Name,
blog post, day month of
posting, viewed day month
year, <URL>.
Australian Water Conservation Foundation
(AWCF) 2008, ‘Australia is getting low on
water’, Australian Water Conservation
Foundation Portal, blog post, 15 December,
viewed 2 January 2009,
<http://waterconservation.info/>.
First in-text citation:
A search online about water conservation (Australian
Water Conservation Foundation (AWCF) 2008)
shows that it is becoming …
The Australian Water Conservation Foundation
(AWCF) (2008) stipulates that …
Subsequent in-text citations:
A recently published document (AWCF 2008)
indicates that ...
The AWCF (2008) brought out a document that
says …
A Guide to Referencing 37
A Guide to Referencing 38
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Website article/
Website article/
document
without author(s)
website name and
authoring organisation
are the same
document
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym,
if applicable) Year of article/
document, ‘Title of article/
document’, Website Name,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
Telstra n.d., ‘Audit governance and financial
reporting’, Telstra, viewed 1 December 2005,
<www.telstra.com.au/abouttelstra/audit_
governance.cfm>.
Although the Telstra Act makes the Auditor-General
of Australia responsible for auditing Telstra, certain
functions are carried out by an agent (Telstra n.d.).
Telstra (n.d.) reports that …
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
article/document, ‘Title of
article/document’, Website
Name, Name of Authoring
Organisation (if applicable),
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
Cherniss, C 2000, ‘Emotional intelligence:
what it is and why it matters’, The
Consortium for Emotional Intelligence,
viewed 27 August 2007,
<http://www.eiconsortium.org/reports/what
_is_emotional_intelligence.html>.
It seems that the concept of emotional intelligence is
often misunderstood (Cherniss 2000).
Cherniss (2000, p. 78) argues that 'emotional
intelligence has as much to do with knowing when
and how to express emotion as it does with
controlling it'.
Website article/
document
with author(s)
website name
and authoring
organisation are
different
Family Name(s) of
Author(s), Initial(s) Year of
article/document, ‘Title of
article/document’, Website
Name, Name of Authoring
Organisation, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
Bergells, L 2006, ‘Banner ads: size,
placement, effectiveness’,
WebsiteTips.com, SKDesigns, viewed 29
April 2009,
<http://websitetips.com/articles/marketing/
bannerads>.
Banner ads should be highly effective but research
would indicate otherwise (Bergells 2006).
According to Bergells (2006), in the US, ‘banner ad
click-through rates are less than 1%’.
Note: Some documents on websites do not have pages
numbers and, as is the case in the above example, you will
then not be able to include the page number(s) in the in-text
citation.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Website article/
document
without author(s)
website name and
authoring organisation
are different
Name of Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of article/
document, ‘Title of article/
document’, Website Name,
viewed day month year,
<URL>.
National Institute of Health (NIH) 2007,
‘Acoustic neuroma’, MedlinePlus, viewed 10
May 2007, <http://www.nlm.nih/medlineplus/
acousticneuroma.html>.
First in-text citation:
Recent research on acoustic neuroma (National
Institute of Health (NIH) 2007) has shown …
The National Institute of Health (NIH) (2007)
suggests that …
Subsequent in-text citations:
A recently published document (NIH 2007) indicates
that ...
The NIH (2007) brought out a document which
says …
Website article/
document
without author(s)
without an authoring
organisation
‘Title of article/document’
Year of article/document,
Website Name, viewed day
month year, <URL>.
‘The Amish & the Plain People’ n.d., PA
Dutch Country Welcome Center, viewed
29 December 2009, <http://www.800padutch.
com/amish.shtml>.
The Amish do not allow ‘electricity or telephones in
their homes’, do not own automobiles or tractors,
and forbid the ‘taking of photographs where someone
is recognizable’ (‘The Amish & the Plain People’ n.d.).
According to ‘The Amish and the Plain People’ (n.d.),
the Amish are very religious and are devoted to their
families and communities.
A Guide to Referencing 39
Wiki article/entry
Note: A wiki article/entry is
not likely to be a reliable
source of academic
information. Ask your
lecturer before using a wiki
article/entry in your
assignment.
‘Title of article/entry’ Year
of posting, Wiki Name, wiki
article/entry, day month of
post, viewed day month
year, <URL>.
Note: As wikis are a
collaborative source, usually
there is no named author.
Note: Cite articles from
Wikipedia or similar sources as
an online encyclopaedia, not as
a wiki entry.
‘The exponential power of connectedness’
2007, Connectedintelligence, wiki
article/entry, 20 September, viewed 11
November 2007,
<http://www.connectedintelligence.wikispac
es.com/Exponential+Power+of+Connectedn
ess>.
Being connected with others is a basic need for all
human beings (‘The exponential power’ 2007).
The wiki article, ‘The exponential power of
connectedness’ (2007), contends that ...
A Guide to Referencing 40
BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS
BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND
MATERIALS
A Guide to Referencing 41
BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Book
one author
Family Name of Author, Initial(s) Year
of publication, Title of book, edition,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: The edition should not be included for
a 1
st
edition.
Shannon, JP 2003, A companion to
business statistics, 2
nd
edn, Pearson,
Frenchs Forest, NSW.
A recent business statistics study (Shannon 2003)
demonstrates that …
Shannon (2003) states that …
Book
two or three authors
Family Names of Authors, Initials
Year of publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A
2003, Research methods for business
students, 3
rd
edn, Pearson Education,
Essex.
Note: The names of all authors are used for
the in-text citations and the reference list.
Some experts (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill 2003)
indicate that …
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003) state that …
Book
four or more authors
Family Names of Authors, Initials
Year of publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Kotler, P, Brown, L, Adam, S & Strong,
G 2004, Marketing, 6
th
edn, Prentice
Hall, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Note: Write the names of all the authors in
the reference list.
A relevant publication (Kotler et al. 2004) suggests that ...
Kotler et al. (2004) suggest that …
Note: The family name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ is
used for all the in-text citations.
Book
without author(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of book, edition,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Australian Professional Development
Council (APDC) 2004, Development
issues in South-East Asia, APDC,
South Australia.
First in-text citation:
Significant issues were raised (Australian Professional
Development Council (APDC) 2004) and …
Australian Professional Development Council (APDC)
(2004) raised important points when discussing …
A Guide to Referencing 42
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Subsequent in-text citations:
Development issues in South-East Asia are of major
interest to all countries in the region (APDC 2004).
The APDC (2004) stated that …
Book
without author(s)
without an authoring
organisation
Title of book Year of publication,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: Where there is no clear author and no
obvious authoring organisation enter the
source in the reference list under the title of
the book.
Style manual for authors, editors and
printers 2002, 6
th
rev. edn, John Wiley
& Sons, Australia.
There are particular rules to follow when abbreviating
words (Style manual for authors 2002).
Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002)
prescribes …
Book
edited (one editor)
Family Name of Editor, Initial(s) (ed.)
Year of publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Cortada, J (ed.) 1998, Rise of the
knowledge worker, 2
nd
edn,
Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
Best practise indicators (ed. Cortada 1998) are …
Cortada (ed. 1998) indicates that …
Rise of the knowledge worker, edited by Cortada (1998),
posits that …
Book
edited (more than
one editor)
Family Names of Editors, Initials
(eds) Year of publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Cope, B & Mason, D (eds) 2001, C-2-
C: creator to consumer in a digital age,
6
th
edn, Common Ground Publishing,
Altona, Victoria.
Much has been written about this topic (eds Cope &
Mason 2001) and …
Cope and Mason (eds 2001) state that …
C-2-C: creator to consumer in a digital age, edited by
Cope and Mason (2001), demonstrates how …
Book
second or later
edition
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: The edition should not be included for
a 1
st
edition.
Peters, Z 2003, The silly things in life,
2
nd
edn, Macmillan, Adelaide, SA.
One prominent author (Peters 2003) discusses this …
Peters (2003) maintains that …
A Guide to Referencing 43
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Book
chapter/article in a
book with different
author(s) for each
chapter/article
Family Name(s) of Author(s) who
wrote the chapter/article, Initial(s) Year
of publication, ‘Title of chapter/article’,
in Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Editor(s)
(ed./eds), Title of book, edition,
Publisher, Place of Publication, page
number(s) for the entire chapter/article.
Note: The initial(s) of the editor(s) come(s)
before the family name(s).
Ahmadjian, CL 2006, ‘Japanese
business groups: continuity in the face
of change’, in S Chang (ed.), Business
groups in East Asia, 3
rd
edn, Oxford
University Press, UK, pp. 29-52.
Research done by an expert in the field (Ahmadjian
2006) would indicate that …
Ahmadjian (2006) observes that …
Book
corporate author
which is also the
publisher
Name of Corporation (Acronym, if
applicable) Year of publication, Title of
book, edition, Publisher, Place of
International Development Research
Centre (IDRC) 1998, Biodiversity,
equity and the environment: a review
of research for development, IDRC,
Ottawa.
First in-text citation:
One famous research centre (International Development
Research Centre (IDRC) 1998) has indicated that …
The International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
(1998) has shown that …
Subsequent in-text citations :
The IDRC (1998) maintains …
An earlier study (IDRC 1998) demonstrates that …
Book
several books by the
same author(s) and
published in the
same year
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication a/b/c, Title of book,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: Publications which have the same
author(s) and the same year of publication
should be ordered alphabetically by title, and
the letters a/b/c should be added to the year
of publication.
Shannon, JP 2003a, A companion to
business statistics, 2
nd
edn, Pearson,
Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Shannon, JP 2003b, Business
statistics the easy way, 3
rd
edn, Riley
& Sons, Melbourne, Victoria.
A study (Shannon 2003a) shows that …
The main issues relating to business statistics (Shannon
2003a, 2003b) are reportedly …
Shannon (2003b) states that …
Publication.
A Guide to Referencing 44
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Book
translated, compiled
or revised
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication,
edition, trans. Initial(s) Translator’s
Family Name, Publisher, Place of
Publication, original work published
Year of original publication.
Title of book,
Smithson, I 2005, A unique history of
the world, trans. D Dicks, Angus &
Robertson, Adelaide, original work
published 1902.
Note: Use the following abbreviations in the
list of references only:
trans. (translated)
comp. (compiled)
rev. (revised)
A recently translated book on the subject (Smithson
2005) shows that …
A famous publication by Smithson (2005) indicates …
Book
multi-volume
publication with all
volumes produced in
the same year
Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s),
Initial(s) (ed./eds) Year of publication,
Title of book(s), edition, volume
Brinks, S, Nguyen, M & Marx, AD (eds)
1984, Fiction writers of the nineteenth
century: a collection of essays, vols 1-
4, Collins Publishing House, Rome.
Gadsworth, C 1935, World War I: the
war to end all wars, 1914-1918, vol. 2,
Oxford University Press, London.
Fiction writers in the nineteenth century were a mixed
group (eds Brinks, Nguyen & Marx 1984).
Brinks, Nguyen and Marx (eds 1984) state that …
According to Gadsworth (1935), …
Book
multi-volume
publication produced
over several years
Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s),
Initial(s) (ed./eds) Years of publication,
Title of book(s), edition, volume
number(s), Publisher, Place of
Publication.
Brown, ZA 1999-2006, Doing business
in Asia, vols 1-3, McGraw Hill, London.
Tilly, P 2001-, Restaurants of the
world, Emu Press, Brisbane, Australia.
Note: The above example indicates that the
author will develop further volumes to add to
the series but these volumes have not been
written/published yet.
Brown (1999-2006) confirms that …
Certain restaurants in Vietnam are of a world-class
standard (Tilly 2001-).
number(s), Publisher, Place of
Publication.
A Guide to Referencing 45
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Brochure
corporate author
and publisher are
the same
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of brochure,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
RMIT University 2008, IT services &
rules of use, RMIT University, Vietnam.
The regulations pertaining to the use of IT facilities at
both RMIT campuses in Vietnam (RMIT University 2008)
state …
RMIT University’s (2008) brochure states that …
Chart/Table/Graph/
Map/Image
Note: For information on citing and
referencing charts/tables/graphs/maps
and images, see pages 65-69 of this guide.
Company/Industry
document/
information/
annual report
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, Title of
document/information/annual report,
Name of Company/Industry/Authoring
Organisation, Publisher, Place of
Publication.
Wilkins, RL 1996, Australia at the
ready!, Australian War Memorial &
Department of Defence, Australian
Government Publishing Service,
Canberra, Australia.
A combined Australian War Memorial and Department of
Defence paper (Wilkins 1996) shows how …
Wilkins (1996) stipulates that …
Company/Industry
document/
information/
annual report
without author(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Company/Industry/Authoring
Organisation (Acronym, if applicable)
Year of publication, Title of
document/information/annual report,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Coles Myer Ltd 2005, Corporate social
responsibility report, Coles Myer,
Tooronga, Victoria.
A 2005 report on corporate social responsibility (Coles
Myer Ltd 2005) articulates how ...
Coles Myer’s (2005) Corporate social responsibility report
shows how …
A Guide to Referencing 46
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Company/Industry
document/
information/
annual report
with corporate
author(s)
draft, unpublished,
commissioned report
Name of Commissioned Body
(Acronym, if applicable)/Family
Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year report was completed,
Title of document/information/
annual report, unpublished draft
report, commissioned by Name of
Commissioning Body.
CHL Consulting Co. Ltd 2003,
A tourism development strategy
for North Tipperary, unpublished
draft report, commissioned by
North Tipperary County Council.
A draft report (CHL Consulting Co. Ltd 2003) was tabled
and …
CHL Consulting Co. Ltd (2003) reported that …
Conference/
Seminar/Forum
paper/presentation
published
Note: The initial(s) of the
editor(s) go(es) in front
of the family name(s).
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of paper/
presentation’, in Initial(s) Family
Name(s) of Editor(s) (ed./eds),
Name of Conference/Seminar/Forum,
Location of Conference/Seminar/
Forum, day(s) month year held,
Publisher, Place of Publication,
page number(s) for the entire paper/
presentation.
Dong, Y 2001, ‘The Chinese
experience’, in P Drysdale (ed.), The
New Economy in East Asia and the
Pacific: Proceedings of the 27
th
Pacific
Trade and Development Conference,
Australian National University,
Canberra, 20-22 August 2001,
Routledge Curzon, New York, pp. 130-
139.
A paper presented at the 27
th
Pacific Trade and
Development Conference (Dong 2001) recalls how ...
Dong (2001), at a conference, said that …
Conference/
Seminar/Forum
paper/presentation
unpublished
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year paper was presented, ‘Title of
paper/presentation’, day month paper
was presented, unpublished paper
presented to Name of Conference/
Seminar/Forum, Location of
Conference/Seminar/Forum, day(s)
month year held.
Pannan, L, van der Craats, C &
McGovern, J 2002, ‘Multi-level
stepwise approach to engaging all
academic staff in on-line delivery’, 24
October, unpublished paper presented
to 2
nd
RMIT Teaching and Learning
Forum, Melbourne, 24 October 2002.
An unpublished conference paper (Pannan, van der
Craats & McGovern 2002) confirms that ...
Pannan, van der Craats and McGovern (2002)
describe …
A Guide to Referencing 47
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Dictionary
Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s),
Initial(s) (ed./eds) Year of publication,
Title of dictionary, edition, Publisher,
Place of Publication.
Smytheson, C 2006, Macquarie
concise dictionary, 6 edn,
Macquarie Dictionary Publishers,
Sydney.
Note: A dictionary must be cited in the text,
but it does not need to appear in the
reference list. However, further details may
be given in the reference list if you wish the
reader to be able to follow up the source, or if
your lecturer requires such an entry.
The Macquarie concise dictionary (Smytheson 2006)
defines …
Smytheson’s (2006) sixth edition of the Macquarie
concise dictionary is a good example of …
Note: An in-text citation is required.
Encyclopaedia
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s),
Initial(s) (ed./eds) Year of publication,
Title of encyclopaedia, edition, volume,
number, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Ugall, Z (ed.) 1923, The encyclopaedia
of modern prosthetics, 4
th
edn, vol. 9,
Prastique Publishers, Prague.
Note: An encyclopaedia must be cited in the
text, but it does not need to appear in the
reference list. However, further details may be
given in the reference list if you wish the
reader to be able to follow up the source, or if
your lecturer requires such an entry.
The prosthetics used at the beginning of the twentieth
century were rather odd (ed. Ugall 1923).
Ugall’s (ed. 1923) publication includes rather odd images
of …
Note: An in-text citation is required.
Government
document
Name of Government Department
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of document,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Department of Finance and
Administration (DOFA) 2006,
Delivering Australian government
services: managing multiple channels,
First in-text citation:
There is a real need to deliver e-services using multiple
channels (Department of Finance and Administration
(DOFA) 2006) and …
th
A Guide to Referencing 48
Format Reference List In-text Citation
department/
government
organisation is the
author
without identifying
numbers
Note: This includes
departmental reports,
reports and commissions
of enquiry, committees of
review and committees of
parliament.
Note: Government publications can be
reported in a variety of ways. See, Snooks &
Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors
and printers, in the Beanland Library (ILC),
for further examples.
Commonwealth Publishing, Canberra,
Australia.
The Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA)
2006) stipulates that …
Subsequent in-text citations:
Availability of finance is closely connected to the level of
services provided (DOFA 2006).
DOFA (2006) indicates that …
Government
document
government
department/
organisation is the
author
with identifying
numbers
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of document,
document/report/catalogue number,
month of publication, Publisher, Place
of Publication.
Name of Government Department
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of document,
document/report/catalogue number,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Administrative Review Council (ARC)
1998, The contracting out of
government services: report to the
Attorney-General, report no. 42,
August, ARC, Barton, ACT.
Department of Foreign Affairs and
Trade (DFAT) 2003, Agricultural
practices in the South Pacific,
cat. no. 1632.8, DFAT, Canberra,
Australia.
First in-text citation:
First in-text citation:
Contracting services out is becoming very common
(Administrative Review Council (ARC) 1998) and …
Subsequent in-text citations:
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ARC (1998) found that …
The government document (DFAT 2003) goes on to state
that ...
The publication by the Department of Foreign Affairs and
Trade (DFAT) (2003), Agricultural practices in the South
Pacific, should be compulsory reading for all posted
officers.
Government
legislation
Act, Ordinance or
Regulation
Note: The first in-text citation of an Act,
Ordinance or Regulation must always include
the Short Title (in italics). The jurisdiction
must be made clear, either by including it in
the body of the text or in brackets after the
title.
Note: Usually no reference is needed.
Note: Only include an entry in the list of
references for legislation (Regulations,
Ordinances, Acts of Parliament, and so on) if
your lecturer tells you to, and then put it in a
First in-text citation:
The Trade Practices Act 1974 (Commonwealth of
Australia) provides that …
A Guide to Referencing 49
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Subsequent in-text citations may refer to it
by an undated, descriptive title and NOT in
italics.
separate list headed ‘Legislation’ at the end
of the list of references.
Subsequent in-text citations:
One of the shortcomings of the Trade Practices Act is …
First in-text citation:
In Victoria this is covered by the Fair Trading Act 1999.
Subsequent in-text citations:
The Fair Trading Act covers …
Government
legislation
legal case
Note: To fully cite legal authorities list Name
of Case (date) or volume number, or both;
and abbreviated name of report series; and
beginning page number.
Note: If you have been instructed by your
lecturer to use footnotes in your referencing,
ask your lecturer for guidance on this.
Note: Usually no reference is needed.
Note: Only include an entry in the list of
references for legal cases if your lecturer
tells you to, and then put it in a separate list
headed ‘Legal Case(s)’ at the end of the list
of references.
Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd v. Amadio (1983) 151
CLR 447 …
This case appeared in 1983 in the Commonwealth Law
Reports, volume 151, starting on page 447.
Handbook Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, Title of handbook,
edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Mahon, TK 1954, Handbook for
housekeepers: a guide for domestic
staff in diplomatic residences, Phoenix
Publishing, Rome.
Appropriate protocols for domestic staff (Mahon 1954)
are important if …
Mahon (1954) alleges that …
Patent Family Name(s) of Inventor(s), Initial(s),
Name(s) of Assignee(s), Patent title,
patent number, day month year of
registration of patent.
Wilmott, JM & Znaiden, AP, Avon
Products Inc., Cosmetic preparation
incorporating stabilised ascorbic acid,
US patent 4,983,382, 8 January 1991.
The cosmetic industry is set to benefit from the patented
concept of incorporating stabilised ascorbic acid into the
preparation of cosmetics (Wilmott & Znaiden 1991).
Wilmott and Znaiden’s (1991) patented idea will ...
Study materials
lecture notes
Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s), Initial(s)
Year notes were distributed, ‘Title of
lecture notes’, lecture notes distributed
in Course Code Course Name, day
month of distribution, Name of
Institution, Location of Institution.
Bales, Y 2005, ‘Accountancy and the
bottom line’, lecture notes distributed in
ACCT2162 Ethical Issues in
Accountancy, 24 November, RMIT
University, Melbourne.
The lecturer (Bales 2005) stated that …
Bales (2005) suggests that …
A Guide to Referencing 50
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Study materials
reading brick
Note: A reading brick is a
collection of hardcopy
materials photocopied
from academic sources
and supplied to students
by lecturers.
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of reading
brick’, Name of Journal the source
originally came from, month of
publication, volume, number/issue,
page number(s) for the entire article,
Brick of readings distributed for
Course Code Course Name, Name
of Institution, Location of Institution.
Weber, T 1999, ‘Gandhi, deep
ecology, peace research and Buddhist
economics’, Journal of Peace
Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 349-361,
Brick of readings distributed for
ECON1192 Macroeconomics, RMIT
University, Melbourne.
Buddhist economics (Weber 1999) stipulates …
Weber (1999) explains that …
Study materials
study guide
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, Title of study
guide, Name of Centre/Faculty/Unit,
Name of Institution, Location of
Institution.
Barries, L, Chen, S & Davidovic, A
2006, Management theory &
practice: study guide, Centre for
Planning & Developmental Studies,
University of Kansas, Kansas City,
USA.
Management theory (Barries, Chen & Davidovic 2006)
underlines the importance of …
Barries, Chen and Davidovic’s (2006) management
theory and practice study guide states that …
Study materials
workshop/tutorial
handout
‘Title of handout’ Year distributed,
Course Code Course Name,
workshop/tutorial handout, day
month distributed, Name of Institution,
Location of Institution.
‘Definitions of economic terms’ 2009,
ASPG1001 Academic Skills Program,
workshop handout, 2 April, RMIT
University, Vietnam.
The Academic Skills Program handout (‘Definitions of
economic terms’ 2009) provides …
The handout, ‘Definitions of economic terms’ (2009),
defines …
Thesis/
Dissertation
unpublished
Family Name of Author, Initial(s) Year
of completion of thesis/dissertation,
‘Title of thesis/dissertation’, Award,
Name of Institution, Location of
Institution.
Baxter, JS 2001, ‘Rural land use and
value in Northern Victoria 1880-1960’,
PhD thesis, RMIT University,
Melbourne.
Rural land use in the 1890s (Baxter 2001) was ...
Baxter (2001) investigated …
A Guide to Referencing 51
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Thesis/Dissertation
abstract
Family Name of Author, Initial(s) Year
of completion of thesis/dissertation,
‘Title of thesis/dissertation’, Journal
Name, month of publication, volume,
number/issue, page number(s) for the
entire abstract.
Keech-Marx, U 2008, ‘West Timor:
food security and food aid’,
Dissertation Abstracts International,
vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 142-143.
The world’s aid agencies and NGOs have a case to
answer in West Timor (Keech-Marx 2008).
Keech-Marx (2008) implies that ...
A Guide to Referencing 52
PERIODICALS
PERIODICALS
(Paper Journals, Newspapers,
Magazines and Newsletters)
A Guide to Referencing 53
PERIODICALS (Paper Journals, Newspapers, Magazines and Newsletters)
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Journal article
with author(s)
with month
with volume and
number/issue
Note: Journals are
designated by any one,
or a combination of, the
following: season,
month, volume, number
or issue. Use whatever
information is available
for your entry in the list
of references.
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of article’,
Journal Name, month of publication,
volume, number/issue, page number(s)
for the entire article.
Sloman, SA, Over, D, Slovak, L &
Stibel, JM 2003, ‘Frequency illusions
and other fallacies’, Organisational
Behaviour and Human Decision
Processes, April, vol. 91, issue 2,
pp. 296-309.
Weber, T 1999, ‘Gandhi, deep ecology,
peace research and Buddhist
economics’, Journal of Peace
Research, January, vol. 36, no. 3,
pp. 349-361.
Boswell, Z & Tyrell, P 2007, ‘Scams on
the increase’, Internet International,
March, p. 19.
Lencioni, PM 2002, ‘Make your values
mean something’, Harvard Business
Review, July, p. 113.
Spinello, R 2005, ‘Cyberethics:
morality and law in cyberspace’,
Journal of Information Ethics, Spring,
vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 70-90.
Other older studies (Sloman et al. 2003) seem to say …
Sloman et al. (2003) seem to be saying that ...
Research (Weber 1999) indicates that ...
According to Weber (1999) …
Scams are on the increase (Boswell & Tyrell 2007)
and …
Lencioni (2002) reported that …
Spinello (2005) maintains that …
A Guide to Referencing 54
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Newsletter
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, Title of newsletter,
Name of Authoring Organisation,
volume, number/issue, day month of
publication.
Len, Y 2003, Environmental issues,
Earth Watch, vol. 51, no. 4, 12 April.
Environmental issues are of paramount concern
throughout Asia (Len 2003).
Len (2003) portrays a sad picture when writing about the
condition of the environment at the start of the century.
Newsletter
without author(s)
with an authoring
organisation
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication, Title of newsletter, volume,
number/issue, day month of
publication.
NSW Bushwalker 2007, The best
walks in the Blue Mountains, vol. 4,
no. 1, 17 May.
It is astonishing to see how many beautiful walks there
are in the Blue Mountains (NSW Bushwalker 2007).
The NSW Bushwalker’s newsletter (2007), The best
walks in the Blue Mountains, demonstrates that …
Newspaper/
Magazine article
with author(s)
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of article’,
Newspaper/Magazine Name, day
month of publication, page number(s)
for the entire article (Name of section,
if applicable).
Kemp, S 2003, ‘Leak pushes AMP to
record low’, The Age, 7 August, p. 1
(Business section).
Isikoff, M 2005, ‘Leak investigation: an
oversight issue?’, Newsweek, 15
August, p. 6.
A report (Kemp 2003) shows how much ...
Kemp (2003) reported that …
An investigation into the information leak out of the White
House (Isikoff 2005) emphasises …
Isikoff (2005) reminds us that …
A Guide to Referencing 55
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Newspaper/
Magazine article
without author(s)
Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of
publication, ‘Title of article’, day month
of publication, page number(s) for the
entire article (Name of section, if
applicable).
Note: A newspaper/magazine article which
does not have an identifiable author should
be cited in the text, but it does not need to
appear in the reference list. However, further
details may be given in the reference list if
you wish the reader to be able to follow up
the source, or if your lecturer requires such
an entry.
The Shanghai Daily 2009, ‘Our Earth is
already overpopulated’, 21 September,
pp. 3-4.
Forbes Magazine 2005, ‘Advertising on
demand’, 25 July, p. 72.
It would seem that the Earth is in trouble (The Shanghai
Daily 2009) and that we …
The Shanghai Daily (2009) estimates that …
New legal requirements in the world of advertising seem
to have sent the advertising giants into a rage (Forbes
Magazine 2005).
Forbes Magazine (2005) sets out ...
Newspaper/
Magazine article
with author(s)
article is not on
continuous pages
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication, ‘Title of article’,
Newspaper/Magazine Name, day
month of publication, page number(s)
for the entire article but separated
with a comma to indicate which pages
the article actually appears on (Name
of section, if applicable).
Thompson, A 2007, ‘Water shortages
across the world’, Sydney Morning
Herald, 24 September, pp. 5-6, 8.
Water is becoming a significant problem right across the
globe (Thompson 2007).
Thompson (2007) argues that …
Newspaper/
Magazine editorial
without author(s)
Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of
publication, ‘Title of editorial’, day
month of publication, page number(s)
for the entire editorial (Name of section,
if applicable).
The Australian Grazier 2005, ‘The front
paddock’, 16 August, p. 2 (Editorial).
The drought is now hitting very hard across much of the
eastern seaboard (The Australian Grazier 2005).
The editorial in The Australian Grazier (2005)
emphasises how …
A Guide to Referencing 56
MULTIMEDIA SOURCES
MULTIMEDIA SOURCES
MULTIMEDIA SOURCES
Note: If you cannot find a particular source type in the Multimedia Sources section, check the Online Sources section.
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Artwork
painting/sculpture/
other
Family Name(s) of Artist(s), Initial(s)
Year of completion, Title of artwork,
materials used, Name of Institution
where the artwork can be viewed,
Location of Institution.
Montesorina, A 1839, Woman with child,
oil on canvas, National Gallery of
Australia, Canberra, ACT.
The beautifully executed work, Woman with child
(Montesorina 1839), is one of the most …
Montesorina’s (1839) Woman with child is …
Audio cassette
Note: Also see Music
on page 59 of this
guide.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
publication/recording, Title of audio
cassette/cassette series, audio
cassette, Publisher, Place of
Publication.
BBC Books 1984, Buongiorno Italia! A
BBC course for beginners in Italian:
programmes 15-20, audio cassette,
BBC Worldwide Publishing, London.
Those wanting to learn Italian would be well advised
to use a recognised audio cassette series (BBC
Books 1984) or a quality video.
The BBC’s Buongiorno Italia! (1984) audio cassette
series for learning Italian, is excellent for …
CD-ROM
with author(s)
Note: Also see Music
on page 59 of this
guide.
Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)
Year of publication/recording, Title of
CD-ROM, edition, CD-ROM,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
DeBolt, V 2007, Mastering integrated
HTML and CSS, 2
nd
edn, CD-ROM,
Wiley Publishing, Indianapolis, USA.
Young, B & Heath, J 2000, Wheater’s
functional histology: a text and colour
atlas, 4
th
edn, CD-ROM, Churchill
Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Mastering integrated HTML and CSS (DeBolt 2007)
indicates how ...
DeBolt (2007) believes that …
Wheater’s functional histology: a text and colour atlas
(Young & Heath 2000) shows how …
Young and Heath (2000) demonstrate how …
A Guide to Referencing 57
A Guide to Referencing 58
Format Reference List In-text Citation
CD-ROM
without author(s)
without an authoring
organisation
Title of CD-ROM Year of
publication/recording, CD-ROM,
Publisher, Place of Publication.
Note: Also see Music on page 59 of this
guide.
Best practice in sport and recreation for
tourism development within APEC
economies 2001, CD-ROM, Blackwell
Publishers, Singapore.
Guidelines for developing sporting facilities in the
region (Best practice in sport 2001) are …
Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism
development within APEC economies (2001)
demonstrates how ...
Chart/Table/Graph/
Map/Image
Note: For more information on citing and
referencing charts/tables/graphs/maps and
images, see pages 65-69 of this guide.
Lecture Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s),
Initial(s) Year lecture was delivered,
‘Title of lecture’, lecture in Course
Code Course Name, day month
lecture was delivered, Name of
Institution, Location of Institution.
Hopkins, A 2008, ‘Auditing today’,
lecture in ACCT2161 Auditing, 5
November, RMIT University, Melbourne.
Note: Lectures should be cited in the text, but
do not need to appear in the reference list.
However, further details may be given in the
reference list if you wish the reader to be able
to follow up the source, or if your lecturer
requires such an entry.
During a lecture on 5 November 2008 in ACCT2161
Auditing at RMIT University, Melbourne, the lecturer,
Andrew Hopkins, said that ...
Andrew Hopkins, lecturer at RMIT University,
Melbourne, in a lecture on 5 November 2008,
commented that …
Motion picture
(movie/film)
Title of motion picture Year of release,
motion picture, Name of Film Studio,
Location of Film Studio, Initial(s)
Family Name(s) of Producer(s),
Producer(s), Initial(s) Family Name(s)
of Director(s), Director(s).
Amelie 2001, motion picture, UGC,
Toulouse, France, J Deschamps & C
Ossard, Producers, J Jeunet, Director.
The main characters in one of the movies (Amelie
2001) are …
The film, Amelie (2001), is an example of …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Music
one song/track on a
CD/album
one section of a
longer work
Family Name(s) of Artist(s), Initial(s)/
Name of Band or Group Year of
recording/distribution, ‘Title of track’,
Title of album, audio CD/MP3/
cassette/other, Publisher/Recording
Studio, Place of Publication/
Recording.
Dylan, B 2004, ‘Tangled up in
blue’, Blood on the tracks, audio
CD, Sony, New York.
The occasion featured ‘Tangled up in blue’ from Blood
on the tracks (Dylan 2004) and other …
Dylan’s (2004) rendition of …
Music
entire CD/album
Family Name(s) of Artist(s), Initial(s)/
Name of Band or Group Year of
recording/distribution, Title of album,
audio CD/MP3/cassette/other,
Publisher/Recording Studio, Place of
Publication/Recording.
Basement Jaxx 2009, Scars,
audio CD, XL Recordings,
London.
Scars (Basement Jaxx 2009) is an album which comes
to mind when …
Amongst the new releases, Scars, the fifth studio album
from Basement Jaxx (2009), stands out.
Personal
communication
- interview
- conversation
- text message
(sms)
- telephone call
- facsimile
- letter
- oral
presentation
delivered by
student(s)/
non-expert(s)
- other
Family Name(s) of Author(s)/
Speaker(s), Initial(s) Year of
communication, interview/text
message/other, day month of
communication.
Note: Information obtained from these
sources might not be credible and thus
might not be accepted in an academic
paper.
Bethons, F 2009, text message,
25 November.
Note: Personal communications should
be cited in the text, but do not need to
appear in the reference list. However,
further details may be given in the
reference list if you wish the reader to
be able to follow up the reference, or if
your lecturer requires such an entry.
WARNING: To avoid breaching privacy
you MUST obtain permission from the
person before including details such as
an email address, mobile phone
number, and so on, in the text of your
assignment or in the reference list.
In a text message from Frank Bethons (25 November
2009), he stated that …
When interviewed on 14 March 2009, Sara Jones,
Manager of VEG, stated that ...
When interviewed, Sam Keech-Marx (14 March 2009),
President of the ANU Mountaineering Club, stated
that ...
During a conversation on 6 July 2009, Lisa Hamilton,
owner of LES, reported that ...
The table showing the increase in Vietnam’s GDP, in
Mr Nguyen Thai Minh’s presentation on 15 August
2009, confirms that …
A Guide to Referencing 59
A Guide to Referencing 60
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Radio
interview
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of interview’, Title
of program, radio interview, Name
of Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast.
Australian Broadcasting
Corporation (ABC) 2006,
‘Interview with Scott Baker’,
Mornings with Margaret Throsby,
radio interview, ABC Radio,
Sydney, 18 September.
First in-text citation:
A recent interview on ABC Radio, Mornings with
Margaret Throsby (Australian Broadcasting Corporation
(ABC) 2006), gives cause for concern.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2006)
interview with Scott Baker on Mornings with Margaret
Throsby, is definitely …
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ABC (2006) interview series is a good example
of …
Radio
program/episode
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of episode’, Title
of program, radio program/
episode, Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast, day month of
broadcast.
British Broadcasting Commission
(BBC) 2006, ‘Music deli’, BBC
classical music, radio episode,
BBC Radio, London, 16 October.
First in-text citation:
The wide variety of music available on radio (British
Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006) is a great
resource for …
A British Broadcasting Commission’s (BBC) (2006)
music program, ‘Music deli’, has proved to be very
popular with the over 65s.
Subsequent in-text citations:
The BBC (2006) has some very popular programs.
Sheet music Family Name(s) of Composer(s),
Initial(s) Year of publication, Title
of piece, sheet music, Publisher,
Place of Publication.
Scarlatti, D 2004, 200 sonatas
(piano) volume 2, sheet music,
Editio Musica, Budapest.
Pieces used for the Associated Board’s piano
examinations are often taken from 200 sonatas (piano)
volume 2 (Scarlatti 2004) which is available from …
Scarlatti’s (2004) collection, 200 sonatas (piano)
volume 2, is …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Speech
formal, delivered by
expert(s)
Family Name(s) of Presenter(s),
Initial(s) Year speech was
delivered, ‘Title of speech’,
speech, Name of Forum/
Occasion at which speech was
delivered, Name of Institution
where speech was delivered,
Location of Institution, day
month delivered.
Nguyen, TA 2008, ‘Vietnam in
the 21 century’, speech,
Opening Address at the Asia
Today Forum, Australian National
University, Canberra, ACT, 5
January.
A prominent Vietnamese academic (Nguyen 2008) has
strongly disagreed with …
Nguyen (2008) disagrees with …
Television
advertisement
Name of Product Year of
publication/broadcast, ‘Title/
Message of advertisement’,
television advertisement, Name of
Company/Authoring Organisation,
Place of Broadcast.
PuraMilk 2008, ‘You deserve the
best diary product’, television
advertisement, Pura Pty Ltd,
Hamilton, NZ.
One particular television advertisement (PuraMilk 2008)
is …
The PuraMilk (2008) advertisement is …
Television
episode
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Note: If part of an ongoing
series, list the episode title
first, then the program/series
name.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of episode’, Title
of program, television episode,
Name of Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of episode’, Title
of program, season number,
episode number, television
episode, Name of Broadcaster,
Place of Broadcast, day month of
broadcast.
NINE Network 2008, ‘Are you fit
enough?’, TODAY, television
episode, Channel 9 TV, Sydney,
5 April.
Fox Broadcasting Company
(FOX) 2008, ‘Adverse events’,
House, season 5, episode 3,
television episode, FOX, USA,
30 September.
Food allergies (NINE Network 2008) are becoming a big
problem in …
NINE Network’s (2008) episode of TODAY, ‘Are you fit
enough?’, is a good reminder …
First in-text citation:
Social problems are common themes in television
dramas and the latest episode of House, ‘Adverse
events’ (Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008), is a
good example.
The Fox Broadcasting Company’s (FOX) (2008) latest
episode of House, ‘Adverse events’, is a good example
of ...
A Guide to Referencing 61
st
A Guide to Referencing 62
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Television
interview
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, ‘Title of episode’, Title
of program, television interview,
Name of Broadcaster, Place of
Broadcast, day month of
broadcast.
Australian Broadcasting
Corporation (ABC) 2004, ‘Top
heads’, Enough rope with Andrew
Denton, television interview, ABC
TV, Sydney, 17 April.
First in-text citation:
Andrew Denton is a highly engaging and sensitive
Subsequent in-text citations:
The latest episode of House, ‘Adverse events’ (FOX 2008),
is …
FOX (2008) is …
interviewer as is demonstrated by his careful managing
of the interview with Raelene Boyle (Australian
Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004).
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2004)
interview series, Enough rope with Andrew Denton, is
an example of ...
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ABC (2004) is …
Television
program
Note: For direct quotations,
go to the television
channel’s website and use
the transcript, if it is
available.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
broadcast, Title of program,
television program, Name of
Broadcaster, Place of Broadcast,
day month of broadcast.
Australian Broadcasting
Corporation (ABC) 2005, The
7.30 report, television program,
ABC TV, Sydney, 20 November.
First in-text citation:
When interviewed on the ABC TV’s, The 7.30 report
(Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005), the
Treasurer said ...
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2005)
program, The 7.30 report , is a …
Subsequent in-text citations:
The ABC (2005) is …
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Video recording Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
recording, Title of video/series,
video recording, Publisher/
Distributor, Place of Recording,
day month of recording.
Note: If the video is part of a series, list
the episode title first, then the series
name.
Name of Authoring Organisation
(Acronym, if applicable) Year of
recording, ‘Title of episode’, Title
of video/series, video recording,
Publisher/Distributor, Place of
Recording, day month of
recording.
Educational Media Australia
(EMA) 1994, Accounting for the
environment, video recording,
EMA, South Melbourne, 12 May.
NSW Health Department
(NSWHD) 2006, ‘You are what
you eat!’, A healthy diet for the
busy person, video recording,
NSWHD, Canberra, 18 June.
First in-text citation:
The problems of pollution and land use in Australia
(Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994) need to be ...
The video produced by Educational Media Australia
(EMA) (1994), should be shown to all school children so
that ...
Subsequent in-text citations:
An informative video recording (EMA 1994) shows
how ...
EMA’s (1994) video recording displays …
First in-text citation:
One’s health is based on many things (NSW Health
Department (NSWHD) 2006) and …
The NSW Health Department’s (NSWHD) (2006) video
recording, ‘You are what you eat!’, is a very …
Subsequent in-text citations:
Health issues need to be at the forefront of government
policy making (NSWHD 2006).
The NSWHD (2006) is determined to …
A Guide to Referencing 63
A Guide to Referencing 64
CHARTS, TABLES, GRAPHS, MAPS AND IMAGES
CHARTS, TABLES, GRAPHS,
MAPS AND IMAGES
A Guide to Referencing 65
Charts, Tables, Graphs, Maps and Images
Rules
i Charts, tables, graphs, maps and images must be cited and referenced along with all other information you use in your assignment.
i Label all charts, tables, graphs, maps and images with Figure 1/2/3 in the order they appear in your assignment. Put this Figure Number immediately
beneath each chart, table, graph, map or image.
i Use the Figure Number when referring to the charts, tables, graphs, maps and images you have included in your assignment.
i Note that you must refer, in the text of your assignment, to all charts, tables, graphs, maps and images you have included. They must not be included for
decorative purposes only.
i The in-text citation should appear immediately beneath each chart, table, graph, map and image, and after the Figure Number. Note that you do not put
these in-text citations in brackets.
i Use the phrase ‘Reproduced from’ in the in-text citation if you do not change the chart, table, graph, map or image.
i Use the phrase ‘Adapted from’ in the in-text citation if you change the formatting or paraphrase or summarise the text.
i If you want to reproduce a chart, table, graph, map or image, it is best to copy it as an image and then paste the image into your assignment.
i Include the source in the list of references.
Reproducing a chart, table, graph, map or image
This is similar to quoting text (direct quotation) from an article. You want to show the reader that you have not changed the material.
If you want to use this information from a website: Include it in your assignment this way:
… matched to the results of the other tests, as can be seen in this chart
from the IELTS Australia website:
Figure 1. Reproduced from: IELTS Australia n.d.
As Figure 1 shows, …
Your own writing
Add the chart to your paper
Put the following under the
chart/table/graph/map/image:
Figure 1. Reproduced from: …
Your own writing
Reference
IELTS Australia n.d., ‘Common European framework’, table, IELTS, viewed 12 October 2007, <http://www.ielts.org/researchers/common_european_framework.aspx>.
Add an entry to your reference list
A Guide to Referencing 66
A Guide to Referencing 67
Adapting a chart, table, graph, map or image
This is similar to paraphrasing or summarising. You want to show the reader that you are using another author’s ideas, but you have changed the words or
formatting to suit your paper.
If you want to adapt this information from a website: Include it in your assignment this way:
… correlation between the IELTS score and the Cambridge testing suite,
as can be seen from information from the IELTS Australia website:
IELTS Cambridge
Tests
high score CPE
medium score CAE, FCE
low score PET, KET
Figure 2. Adapted from: IELTS Australia n.d.
As Figure 2 shows, …
Your own writing
Add only the information you need for
your paper
Put the following under the
chart/table/graph/map/image:
Figure 2. Adapted from: …
Your own writing
Reference
IELTS Australia n.d., ‘Common European framework’, table, IELTS, viewed 12 October 2007, <http://www.ielts.org/researchers/common_european_framework.aspx>.
Add an entry to your reference list
Citing a chart, table, graph, map or image from an online source
Note: An image is cited in the same way as a chart, table, graph or map.
Figure 3. Reproduced from: Showaa 2007
Reference
Showaa, J 2007, ‘My tree at dusk’, image, Flickr, 17 September, viewed 1 December 2009, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/joiseyshowaa/1400175456/>.
A Guide to Referencing 68
Add an entry to your reference list
A Guide to Referencing 69
Citing a chart, table, graph, map or image from a hardcopy source
Format Reference List In-text Citation
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image
hardcopy (book)
author(s)/creator(s) of chart/table/
graph/map/image, and the author(s)/
editor(s) of the book, are different
Family Name(s) of
Author(s)/Creator(s), Initial(s)
Year of completion, ‘Title of
chart/table/graph/map/image’,
chart/table/graph/map/image,
in Initial(s) Family Name(s) of
Author(s)/Editor(s) (ed./eds),
Title of book, edition,
Publisher, Place of
Publication, page number(s)
on which the chart/table/
graph/map/image appears.
Appleton, U 1908, ‘The
maiden’, image, in P Hollis,
Art of the early twentieth
century, McGraw Hill,
London, p. 57.
Immediately beneath the chart/table/graph/map/image:
Figure 1. Reproduced from: Appleton 1908
In the text of your assignment:
Figure 1 exhibits evidence of …
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image
hardcopy (journal article)
author(s)/creator(s)of chart/table/
graph/map/image, and the author(s)
of the journal article, are the same
Family Name(s) of
Author(s)/Creator(s), Initial(s)
Year of completion/
publication, ‘Title of chart/
table/graph/map/image’,
chart/table/graph/map/image,
Journal Name, month of
publication, volume number,
number/issue, page
number(s) on which the
chart/table/graph/map/image
appears, page number(s) for
the entire article.
Plous, S 1991, ‘An attitude
survey of animal rights
activists’, graph,
Psychological Science, May,
vol. 2, no. 3, p. 199, pp. 194-
201.
Immediately beneath the chart/table/graph/map/image:
Figure 3. Adapted from: Plous 1991
In the text of your assignment:
Figure 3 clearly shows that …
A Guide to Referencing 70
KEY INFORMATION COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS REFERENCES
KEY INFORMATION FOR IN-TEXT
CITATIONS AND THE LIST OF
REFERENCES
COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS
REFERENCES
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A Guide to Referencing 71
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A Guide to Referencing 76
www.rmit.edu.vn

A GUIDE TO REFERENCING
with examples in the Harvard style
RMIT International University Vietnam

2010 Edition 1

Learning Skills Unit RMIT International University Vietnam 702 Nguyen Van Linh Blvd. District 7, HCMC, Vietnam Tel: +84 8 3776 1300 Fax: +84 8 3776 1399 Website: www.rmit.edu.vn

Acknowledgements
The following RMIT Vietnam lecturers and staff assisted with this project: Christopher Barker Christopher Leute David Feliz Dominic Mahon Robert Hollenbeck Oanh, Pham Thi Hoang Tin, Nguyen Minh Tri Thuy, Le Mong Thank you very much for giving so generously of your time. Robyn Keech Coordinator, Learning Skills Unit February 2010

A softcopy of this referencing guide is available on Blackboard.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..…………….… 5
I. Which referencing style should I use?........................................................................... 5 II. Why must I cite and reference my sources?.................................................................. 5 III. What is plagiarism?........................................................................................................ 5 IV. Is there plagiarism in sources on the Internet?.............................................................. 6 V. What is paraphrasing?................................................................................................... 6 VI. What is summarising?.................................................................................................... 6

3. PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST……………………………………………….… 13

-

The difference between a reference list and a bibliography………………………..... 13 The first few words of the source in the reference list must match the in-text citation…………………………………………………………………………………....... 13 Each source in the reference list must begin with the name(s) of the author(s), if the author(s) is/are given……………………………………………………….…….... 13 Name(s) of the author(s) in the reference list must be correctly referenced and correctly spelt…………………………………………………………………………….... 14 The reference list must be in alphabetical order……………………………………..... 14 Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication……………….... 15 Titles starting with ‘A’ or ‘The’………………………………………………………….... 15 The reference list must be correctly formatted……………………………………….... 15

GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES…………..…. 7
1. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PARAPHRASES……………………….…….. 7

-

Using correct grammar……………………………………………………………….……….. 7 The use of ‘&’ and ‘and’……………………………………………………………….………. 7 Author prominent OR information prominent?................................................................. 7 Collectively citing several sources…………………………………………………………… 8 Citing oneself…………………………………………………………………………………… 8 The author(s) is/are not known ………………………………………………………………. 8 Shortening long titles for in-text citations…………………………………...……………….. 9 The authors have the same family name……………………………………………………. 9 Year of publication is not known……………………………………………………………… 9 There is only an approximate year of publication…………………………………………... 9 Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication……………………… 9 Secondary citations………………………………………………………………….……….. 10 Punctuation…………………………………………………………………………….……… 10

ONLINE SOURCES…………………………………………………………….……17
Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image…………………………………………………….…… 17, 65 Company/Industry document/information/annual report…………………………………. 17 - on a website or in a database…………………………………………………… 17 Conference/Seminar/Forum paper/presentation.…………………………………………. 17 - published………………………………………………………………..………… 17 Dictionary……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Discussion forum post (online discussion forum)…………………………………….…… 19 E-book.…………………………………………………………………………………..……. 20 - a scanned (paper) book viewed online or downloaded in page image format (pdf)……………………………………………………………………..… 20 - an e-book formatted for reading online………………………………………… 20 Encyclopaedia……………………………………………………………………………….... 21 - without author(s), without an authoring organisation…………………………. 21 Government document…………………………………………………………………….… 22 Handbook………………………………………………………………………….………….. 22 - with a corporate author………………………………………………………….. 22

2. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR DIRECT QUOTATIONS………….………… 11

-

Formatting rules……………………………………………………………………….…....... 11 Making minor changes to direct quotations…………………………………….……......... 12 Page numbers for direct quotations…………………………………………………........... 12

A Guide to Referencing

1

…………..without author(s).without presenter(s).with author(s) using a Vietnamese pen name………………………. with an authoring organisation……………. 37 .company/organisation…………………………………………………………… 22 . news website name and authoring organisation are different…………………………………………………………………….………. without presenter(s).……………………………………………………………….…. 33 .. 37 ..………….video recording of course lecture………………………………….……… 29 Study materials on RMIT Blackboard……………………………………………….…………. publications and achievements………………………………………………….a website showcasing a professional’s/academic’s qualifications.. 33 .……………. 34 Video recording………………………………………………………………………….without author(s).…… 36 . 31 . 34 .……. other……………………………………………………………….…..……… 28 ..….… 30 .interview………………………………………………………………..……….. with an authoring organisation…………………. website name and authoring organisation are different….online...……….….….….with author(s).……………………………… 38 .…… 35 .……….. with an authoring organisation………………….…………….without author(s)………………………………………………………….……………. 27 .. with an authoring organisation……………………………………………….with presenter(s)………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…….in a database as page image format (pdf)………………………………….…… 35 . 33 Transcript…………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………….. 32 Thesis/Dissertation………………………………………………………………. without author(s)……………………………………….video recording of course lecture…………………………………….…….……….in a database as a webpage………………………………………………….. 38 ..without presenter(s).………… 29 . 23 . with an authoring organisation………………….with presenter(s)……………………………………………………….…… 28 News website editorial. website name and authoring organisation are different……..program……………………………………………………………….in a library database.………….television program/episode.………… 27 .… 23 .with presenter(s).. 37 Website article/document……………………………………. without presenter(s).. 38 . with presenter(s)………………………….…. 27 .. 25 .….. 32 .…….….speech on radio………………………………………………………. 33 . 26 News website article………………………………………………………………………….…….…………….. 23 .without author(s)………………………………………………………….with author(s)………………………………………………………………. 34 .………………. 29 .……….in a library database.email.. with an authoring organisation…………….………….. 31 .. 36 Weblog (blog)…………………………………………………………………... with author(s)……………………………………………. 28 Podcast……………………………………………………………………………….……. 35 Vodcast (video podcast)……………………………………………………………..…… 24 Newspaper/Magazine article………………………………………………………………… 25 .. 22 ..without author(s).episode………………………………………………………………. 38 . with an authoring organisation...………… 30 Study materials from the Internet………………………………….…… 36 .……… 29 .without author(s).. with presenter(s)…………………….. 23 Journal article………………………………………………………………………………. 28 Personal communication……………………………………………………………. 31 Television………………………………………………………………………….. 39 ..…………. not in a database…………………………………………………….. 37 Weblog post (blog post)……………………………………………………….... 27 .…. 28 ..television program/episode.with author(s)…………………………………………………….…………..with author(s)………………………………………………………………... website name and authoring organisation are the same.radio program/episode.A Guide to Referencing 2 Homepage…………………………………………………………………………………….without presenter(s)..with author(s).without author(s).. 29 .……….……………….radio program/episode.with author(s)……………………………………………………………………… 27 .………. news website name and authoring and sponsoring organisations are different…………………….…………… 31 ... without an authoring organisation…………………….

. draft.………. 53 Journal article………………………………………………………………………….without author(s).……. 46 PERIODICALS (Paper Journals.….. Magazines and Newsletters)……………………….….. 49 Handbook……………………………………………………………………………. 54 A Guide to Referencing 3 .without author(s). 42 .………………. with volume and number/issue………………. Ordinance or Regulation………………………………………….………. 45 .…… 39 Wiki article/entry……………………………………………………………………………… 39 Dictionary………………………………………………………………………………….study guide……………………………………………………………………….multi-volume publication produced over several years.government department/organisation is the author.………………….…… 49 Study materials………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………… 45..…. 53 Newsletter…………………………………………………………………………………… 54 .workshop/tutorial handout……………………………………………………… 50 Thesis/Dissertation………………………………………………………………………….published…………………………………………………………………………. with an authoring organisation………………. 43 ..edited (more than one editor)………………………………………………….. 41 .. 47 .without author(s)..lecture notes…………………………………………………………………….edited (one editor)………………………………………………………………..…... with month.chapter/article in a book with different author(s) for each chapter/article…... 45 . 46 .. 45 . 42 . with identifying numbers………………. 47 .. 54 . 47 Government document……………………………………………………………………..two or three authors………………………………………………………….corporate author and publisher are the same…………………………….with author(s)…………………………………………………. 43 ..……………………………………………………….………………………………………………… 44 ...... 50 .multi-volume publication with all volumes produced in the same year……..……………….. compiled or revised. 41 . 49 . 47 ..…….with corporate author(s). 42 ..……… 48 . 47 Encyclopaedia……………………………………………………………………………. 49 .. 50 .unpublished……………………………………………………………………… 50 ..... unpublished.corporate author which is also the publisher………………………………….legal case………………………………………………………………….government department/organisation is the author..several books by the same author(s) and published in the same year….with author(s)……………………………………………………………………… 45 . with an authoring organisation…………………………… 54 Newspaper/Magazine article……………………………………………………………… 54 ..with author(s)…………………………………………………………………….….four or more authors……………………………………………………….. without an authoring organisation………………………… 42 .……………………… 44 Brochure………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 .41 Book……………………………………………………………………………….……….……. Newspapers.translated.…………………………………………………………. with an authoring organisation……………………………. without identifying numbers…………………………………………………………………………. 65 Company/Industry document/information/annual report…………………………………. 48 Government legislation………………………………….reading brick…………………………………………………………….with author(s).. 46 .with author(s)………………………………………………….Act.second or later edition..abstract…………………………………………………………………………… 51 BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS…………………….. commissioned report………… 46 Conference/Seminar/Forum paper/presentation………………………………………….…… 45 Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image.. 43 ..…… 48 .without author(s).without author(s). 50 ..…..unpublished…………………………………………………………………….………………………….……… 49 Patent………………………………………………………………………………….. 41 . 41 . without an authoring organisation……………………..……... 44 .…… 41 ..one author…………………………………………………………………….

graph.…… 69 KEY INFORMATION FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS AND THE LIST OF REFERENCES………………………………………. GRAPHS. 71 ... without an authoring organisation………………………… 58 Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image………………………………………………………….conversation……………………………………………………………………….…… 75 .. 59 . graph.………… 68 Citing a chart.oral presentation delivered by student(s)/non-expert(s)……………….……….…. table. 61 .facsimile…………………………………………………………………………….A Guide to Referencing 4 Newspaper/Magazine article (cont.. 65 Lecture ………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 Motion picture (movie/film)………………………………………………………………..without author(s).……………………… 57 Artwork (painting/sculpture/other)………………………………………. 55 Sheet music…………………………………………………………………………………… 60 Speech ………………………………………………………………………………………… 61 . 71 .…. TABLES..……… 61 Television……………………………………………………………………………………… 61 . 59 . 57 .interview…………………………………………………………………………… 60 .interview…………………………………………………………………………….entire CD/album………………………………………………….text message (sms)………………………………………………………………. 59 . 62 Video recording………………………………………………………………………….………………… 55 Newspaper/Magazine editorial…………………………………………….... map or image from an online source…………….………………….formal.. table. article is not on continuous pages………….…… 57 Audio cassette……………………………………………………………………….In an American Book………………………………………………………………….telephone call……………………………………………………………………… 59 .. 59 .... graph. 57 CD-ROM……………………………………………………………………………………….…. map or image from a hardcopy source………………. 73 COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS…………………….……………….letter………………………………………………………………………………… 59 .without author(s)………………………………………………. map or image……………………………………. MAPS AND IMAGES………….……………… 59 Personal communication…………………………………………………………………….In an Australian Book……………………………………………………………….… 55 ...with author(s)……………………………………………………………………. 59 Radio…………………………………………………………………………………………… 60 ..…… 67 Citing a chart. map or image………………………………………… 66 Adapting a chart. table. 71 .In a British Book……………………………………………………………………….. 59 .….……………. 72.…….. graph..…………... one section of a longer work ……………….………. table..)…………………………………………….. 63 MULTIMEDIA SOURCES………………………………….……..program…………………………………………………………………………….. 74 REFERENCES……………………………………………….without author(s)………………………………………………………………….with author(s).……………. 65 - Rules…………………………………………………………………………………………… 65 Reproducing a chart.one song/track on a CD/album.advertisement……………………………………………………………………… 61 . 55 .….………. delivered by expert(s)…………………………………………….. 58.interview…………………………………………………………………………….other………………………………………………………………………………..… 59 .episode……………………………………………………………………………. 57 .program/episode…………………………………………………………………. 58 Music…………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 . 60 CHARTS. 71 News websites…………………………………………………………………. 55 ... 59 .…………… 71 Books…………………………………………………………………………………………. 62 ..….

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION .

.

5 line spacing. To lend support to your own ideas. II. Never mix two (or more) referencing styles in an assignment. For example. Check with each lecturer to see which he/she prefers. your assignment must have double or 1. When you prepare A Guide to Referencing 5 . To avoid committing plagiarism. It is likely that sometimes you will want to reference an item that you cannot find in this guide. To allow the reader to check that you have paraphrased and summarised appropriately and quoted correctly. To allow the reader to locate and read your sources and to read the material in the original context. To strengthen your argument/thesis/point of view. the Harvard style. Whichever style you use. No referencing guide can cover every possible type of source you may want to use. The main business of Western universities is dealing with ideas. Whichever referencing style you use. each with different origins and features. the Vancouver style is commonly used in sciences (especially the health sciences). you must remain accurate and consistent to that style throughout your assignment.INTRODUCTION I. The Learning Skills Unit staff can help you with this. the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) style is widely used in the fields of modern literature and linguistics. To avoid stealing other people’s ideas. To demonstrate to the reader that you have read and understood relevant sources of information. What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is when you pretend that the ideas. when they are not. If you fail to do this. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is used in electrical engineering and computer sciences. This guide contains examples from one of the most commonly-used ‘author-date’ referencing styles. III. However. Most courses at RMIT International University Vietnam use the Harvard style but you should always check with your lecturer to see what style he/she wants you to use. you can use the basic rules displayed in this guide to construct an accurate and consistent citation/reference. and the American Psychological Association (APA) style is favoured by many of the social sciences. Which referencing style should I use? There is a wide range of referencing styles. Certain disciplines traditionally use particular styles. you may be penalised. written text or images contained in your assignment are your own. Why must I cite and reference my sources? To provide authority for what you have written.

until you feel you really understand what the author is saying. while noting down the main points. tables. put the original text aside and. V. many of the ideas should come from the work of experts in your field of study. the Internet is full of plagiarised material. you must acknowledge this by providing a citation in the text of the assignment and by including full referencing details in the reference list. theories. Paraphrases usually do RMIT has a strict policy on plagiarism and this can be found on the RMIT University Vietnam website. You must acknowledge that these ideas are not your own. You will often find identical material on several websites. If you copy. If you do not. The best way to summarise is to read the whole text first. and so on. or in any other way use someone else’s ideas. Paraphrasing is when you write an author’s idea(s) in your own words. opinions. videos. one paragraph at a time. 2. Looking at the date that each website posted the material is a good way to start. stealing someone else’s ideas. properly cite and reference whichever source you believe is the original one. write about the idea(s) in your own words. A summary needs to have an in-text citation with the family name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. examples. paraphrase. Is there plagiarism in sources on the Internet? Yes. You must make a concerted effort to find the original source of the material. You must. A paraphrase needs to have an in-text citation with the family name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication. none of which cites each other. Then. What is paraphrasing? University students need to be able to paraphrase. you are committing plagiarism because you are. Lecturers prefer you to paraphrase rather than to use many direct quotations in your assignments as this shows that you really do understand what the author is saying. findings. in effect. *** . without looking at it. graphs. VI. not need a page number in the in-text citation but check with each lecturer to see if he/she requires this. DVDs. conclusions. chapter or book. passage. You may use this material yourself without fear of plagiarising if you follow these two guidelines: 1. IV. It always has significantly fewer words than the original text. of course. and re-read. and then re-read it. pictures. What is summarising? A summary consists of the main points in an article.A Guide to Referencing 6 your university assignments. Summaries usually do not need a page number in the in-text citation but check with each lecturer to see if he/she requires this. The best way to do this is to read. summarise.

GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES .

+ CLAUSE. note the following correct and incorrect grammatical structures. Example Cope and Mason (2001) maintain that … sentence. 6 edn. cite the author(s) in the text of the The use of ‘&’ and ‘and’ ‘and’ is used when the names are used as part of the sentence. When writing an assignment you will sometimes want to make the author more prominent and sometimes the information will need to be emphasised. more prominent. A Guide to Referencing 7 . Entz (2009) states that many aspects … This is NOT correct as you cannot combine them: Example ‘According to’ + AUTHOR (YEAR) + VERB + CLAUSE.C-2-C: creator to consumer in a digital age. many aspects … AUTHOR (YEAR) + VERB ‘&’ is used when the names are within the brackets of an in-text citation. However. Common Ground Publishing. These are correct: ‘According to’ + AUTHOR (YEAR) + . + CLAUSE. and in the reference list. Example Smith (2006) states that globalisation affects culture. According to Entz (2009). Reference Example th Cope. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR PARAPHRASES Using correct grammar There are several correct ways to use the name of the author in the text of a sentence. or the information. B & Mason. In-text Citation Example Business today is reliant on computers and associated technology (Cope & Mason 2001). Victoria. Author prominent OR information prominent? In-text citations can make the author. Altona. cite the author(s) in brackets. To make the information stand out more.GENERAL CITING AND REFERENCING GUIDELINES 1. According to Entz (2009) states that many aspects … Globalisation affects culture (Smith 2006). To make the author(s) more prominent. D (eds) 2001.

Vietnam. Commonwealth Publishing. organisation. viewed 27 August 2007. Delivering Australian government services: managing multiple channels. . with the earliest date coming first. The Consortium for Emotional Intelligence. List different authors alphabetically and list the same authors by publication dates (separated by a comma). ‘Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters’. Lewis and Thornhill (2003). 2003b). In-text Citation Example As mentioned in a previous assignment for Introduction to Organisational Behaviour (Nguyen 2009). the in-text citation and the entry in the reference list should begin with the name of the authoring organisation.html>. Shannon (2003a. 2003b. there are several different types of organisational behaviours. paper submitted 16 August for BUSM2301 Introduction to Organisational Behaviour. but it does have an authoring Citing oneself If you want to re-use material from a previous assignment. Subsequent in-text citations: … (DOFA 2006) … Canberra. If the source does not have an author(s). RMIT University. LT 2009..org/reports/what_is_ emotional_intelligence. Smith & Smith 2009) suggests we should … Cope and Mason (2001). In-text Citation Examples The cyclical process (Cope & Mason 2001.eiconsortium . ‘Individual paper part 1’. Lewis & Thornhill 2003. Australia. In-text Citation Example Emotional intelligence (Cherniss 2000) seems to be … Reference Example with an Author Cherniss. Shannon 2003a. Reference Example Nguyen. Saunders. and Smith and Smith (2009) all suggest that we should … The author(s) is/are not known If the author(s) is/are given. C 2000. the in-text citation and the entry in the reference list must begin with the family name(s) of the author(s). you must cite yourself in the same way you would for any other author. Note: Check with your lecturer to see if he/she requires an entry in the list of references.A Guide to Referencing 8 Collectively citing several sources Each source must be listed in the in-text citation and be separated by a semi-colon. In-text Citation Example First in-text-citation: Managing government services (Department of Finance & Administration (DOFA) 2006) is … Reference Example without an Author but with an Authoring Organisation Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006. <http://www. Saunders.

Adelaide. Angus & Robertson..’ which stands for the Latin word ‘circa’. In-text Citation Example Note: You must put the full title in the list of references. Reference Example Browne. New York. and it has a long title. <http://www.’ which stands for ‘no date’. meaning approximately/about. <http://news_africaonline /830785. viewed 12 November 2009.. There is only an approximate year of publication If the precise year of publication is not available. Year of publication is not known If the year of publication is not available. HP n. A quick guide . use ‘n. JA & Smith. the in-text citation and the entry in the reference list should begin with the title of the source. A Guide to Referencing 9 . viewed 10 December 2009.d. you must cite the family name twice because they are different people. Australia. In-text Citation Example Reference Example without an Author and without an Authoring Organisation The Earth is in big trouble (‘Climate change is upon us’ 2007) and … ‘Climate change is upon us’ 2007.. Young. you should shorten the title in the in-text citation to a meaningful short form (approximately the first four words). Economic indicators . Research made easy 2 nd edn. Reference Example ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009.stm>. … (Young 1988a) … … (Young 1988b) … In-text Citation Example Research can be made easy (Smith & Smith 2009) if one … Reference Example Smith.If the source does not have an author(s) or an authoring organisation. The authors have the same family name When a source has two authors with the same family name. JC 1988b. In-text Citation Example Modern forensic scientific processes are essential for accurate identification (Browne n. In-text Citation Example The Congo’s economy is faltering badly (‘Too big to fail’ 2009). 12 May. A recognised leader in the field (Smythe c.). Phoenix Publishing.d. 2nd edn. Modern forensic science.bbc.d. BBC. JC 1988a. Shortening long titles for in-text citations If you cite a source with no author(s) and no authoring organisation. use ‘c. AfricaNews. P 2009.1823) propounds that … Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication Publications which have the same author(s) and the same year of publication should be ordered alphabetically by title...newstoday/climatechange_html>. 4 April. and the letters a/b/c should be added to the year of publication. In-text Citation Example Reference Example Young.

Brown has cited Furneaux in Business in Asia. Punctuation Pay careful attention to correct punctuation in your in-text citations and reference list. Secondary Source There is a handout in the Learning Skills Unit about correct punctuation. *** . Brooks Cole. as primary sources are always preferred. However. so Brown is the secondary source and Furneaux is the primary source and thus the reference will look like this: Reference Example Brown. cited in Brown 2008) indicates that … In this example. cited in Brown 2008) found that … A recent study (Furneaux 2006. you must include the name and year of publication for both sources. If the original source is available. in the in-text citations. Primary Source Note: Only the source you have read appears in the reference list. A 2008. CA. In-text Citation Examples Furneaux’s 2006 study (cited in Brown 2008) found that … Furneaux (2006.A Guide to Referencing 10 Secondary citations A secondary citation is when you refer to the work of one author who has already been cited by another author. Failure to do this can result in a loss of marks. Business in Asia. San Francisco. you should use it. if you do not have access to the primary source and you use a secondary source.

However. p. One who argues against nuclear power is Smythe (2006. Example Nuclear power is being muted as a possible solution to the realities of global warming.Introduce the quotation with a colon. . The Manual is not too long.Start the quotation on a new line. while under the constant threat of terrorism. 31+ words . . However. . 6-7) who states that ‘the crux of the matter is whether or not any country should be allowed to have nuclear power’. a best way to do every single thing. . it would need an extra universe to accommodate it. pp. The issue of nuclear waste is another concern and many argue that we should have no nuclear power plants at all. down to the proverbial dotting of the “i”. . . It would be worth it. It is not long enough. Formatting rules Length of quotation 1 to 30 words Format . many remain nervous about more nuclear power plants being constructed. All students complain that books about citing and referencing are too difficult and too long. 5).Use single line spacing for the actual quotation. .Use one font size smaller than the rest of your assignment. .Do not use quotation marks around the quotation. in the same order as in the original text. .Use single quotation marks around the quotation. Some say … A Guide to Referencing 11 . There are different rules for direct quotations depending on how many words you copy. ‘Nuclear power is more important today than ever before’ (Nguyen 2008.120-121) points out that: Some people will complain that the new Chicago Manual is too long. It will never be long enough.Indent (on the left) one centimetre from the main text. if not a right way. ADDING IN-TEXT CITATIONS FOR DIRECT QUOTATIONS A direct quotation is when you directly copy the exact words of an author(s). Many would not agree with Menand’s call for such a volume.Ensure the direct quotation is EXACTLY the same wording as the original. These people do not understand the nature of style. .Include the page number(s) in the in-text citation.Ensure the direct quotation is EXACTLY the same wording as the original. The perfect manual of style would be like the perfect map of the world. There is. Menand (2003. pp.Include the direct quotation in the paragraph.2.Include the page number(s) in the in-text citation.

1. you must be very careful not to change the meaning of the original text. words into the direct quotation to make the meaning clearer. you must copy the direct quotation exactly as it appears in the original source (including the grammatical error) and then put ‘sic’ in brackets immediately following the incorrect part. you must put the changed or extra word(s) in square brackets [ ]. 3.A Guide to Referencing 12 Making minor changes to direct quotations There are rules to follow if you find it necessary to change a direct quotation in some way. Whatever you do. or different. Students must refer to the sources they have read. Page numbers for direct quotations Always provide the page number(s) when you quote directly from a source. p. [An] academic essay embodies … [a] student’s opinion about the topic’. 245-246). or to make it fit grammatically into your sentence. In-text Citation Examples Larsen (1971. ‘This research is flawed due to the obvious mistakes made in the gathering of data. An esteemed researcher should not make such a basic error as is displayed in this work’ (Larsen 1971. An ellipsis consists of three dots: … 2. p. 23) state that ‘ … students must present their own point of view (emphasis added) which [is] a synthesis of ideas gained from read (sic) the various texts. Example Bush and Smith (1994. If the source contains a grammatical error. *** . you can put the word(s) in italics and state in brackets immediately after the italicised word(s) that it is your emphasis and not the original author’s emphasis. it is accepted that you cannot include page numbers in those particular in-text citations. If you want to put extra. Note: When online sources do not have page numbers. 21) noted that ‘many of the facts in this case are incorrect’. If you leave out any part of the original text you must indicate this by using an ellipsis. If you want to emphasise certain words in the direct quotation. 4. pp.

0. Canberra.au>. p. Each source in the reference list must begin with the name(s) of the author(s). The Age. if the author(s) is/are given. P & Thornhill. you will not have cited all of these sources in your assignment. ask your lecturer. Reference Example with an Author Cherniss. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004.3. Essex.html>. but it does have an authoring organisation. If the source does not have an author(s). on the other hand. ‘Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters’. M. Delivering Australian government services: managing multiple channels. C 2000. The AMP has greatly suffered as a direct result of the recent information leak (Kemp 2003). Most lecturers require a list of references and NOT a bibliography. 1 (Business section).. Australia. Mental health in Australia: a snapshot. Canberra. Kemp. PREPARING A REFERENCE LIST The difference between a reference list and a bibliography A reference list (or list of references) only contains those sources which you have cited in your assignment. A bibliography.gov. In-text Citation Examples Some experts (Saunders. The first few words of the source in the reference list must match the in-text citation The in-text citation is a ‘key’ to the source listed in the reference list. Lewis. viewed 27 August 2007. ABS. <http://www. A Guide to Referencing 13 .001..abs.55. Then the reader can use the reference to find your original source.org/reports/what_is_emotional_intelligence. <www. Lewis & Thornhill 2003) indicate that … Reference Examples Saunders. Research methods for business students. The Consortium for Emotional Intelligence. the reference should begin with the name of the authoring organisation. If you are unsure about this. viewed 18 August 2005. 7 August.eiconsortium. Commonwealth Publishing. rd Figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2004) show . S 2003. 3 edn. no. ‘Leak pushes AMP to record low’. Reference Example without an Author but with an Authoring Organisation Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006. 4824. Pearson Education. A 2003. is a list of all the sources you have consulted in preparation for writing the assignment. cat. Your reader must be able to easily use the in-text citation to find the reference in the reference list. if the author(s) is/are given The reference should begin with the author(s).

. . … ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009. editors and printers 2002... the name before the comma is the family name... For authors with the same family name. For example: Name Bart Starr Park Ji Yoon Pham Tuan Reference Starr.. 4 April..A Guide to Referencing 14 If the source does not have an author(s) or an authoring organisation. Frogge. MH. JS 1995.. T 2010. AK 2004.. Goodman. A quick guide . alphabetise by the initial of their given name(s). Unlike in many Asian languages. In-text Citation Example Reference Example Duy Binh 2008. B 2009. Style manual for authors. Western names are written with the given name(s) first and the family name last. viewed 12 November 2009.. . Economic indicators . . Western or Asian. . For a Vietnamese pen name which leaves off the family name. B 1995. Yin. M & Groenwald. CZ & Singh. Park.stm>. AK 1990. If a Western name is written with a comma. Do this for all authors.. … (Duy Binh 2008) … The reference list must be in alphabetical order Sort the reference list alphabetically. … Jones.. followed by the initial(s) of the given name(s). S 2000. SL 2000. B 2003. JC 1988a. CS 2000.. S 2000. JY 2002. <http://news_africaonline /830785.. HK. … Young. Young.. Name Jones. CH. . Reference List Example Name(s) of the author(s) in the reference list must be correctly referenced and correctly spelt In the reference list.. Ahmadjian. the reference should begin with the title of the source. B & Reynolds. . … Stein. .. . AfricaNews. … Smith. Stein. JC 1988b.... CL 2006. . write the family name(s) first. … Smith.. Spike Spike Jones Reference Jones. use the full pen name for both the in-text citation and in the list of references. Stein. Lee.. … Yarbro. B. Jones.. Pham. … Reference Example without an Author and without an Authoring Organisation ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009.

In-text Citation Example … (Jones 2000) … … (Jones 1995) … Reference Example Jones. order the references alphabetically by the second author. JC 1988b. . CZ & Singh.Do not use numbers.. Yarbro. Yin. Lee. and the letters a/b/c should be added to the year of publication. B 1995. CS 2000. AK 2004. Yin. MH. … publication should be ordered alphabetically by title. ... A reference with a single author is entered before a reference with multiple authors that starts with the same name. In-text Citation Example … (Smith 1990) … … (Smith 2004) … Reference Example Smith.. Titles starting with ‘A’ or ‘The’ Many article and book titles begin with ‘A’ or ‘The’. Reference Example Stein. Reference List Example A short history of RMIT in Vietnam 2007... A quick guide . . Smith.Separate one item from the next item with double line spacing. Reference Example Stein. Stein.. B. HK. . editors and printers 2002.. bullets.. CS 2000. Keep ‘A’ or ‘The’ at the beginning of the title and alphabetise the reference list using the first letter (‘A’ or ‘T’) in the title... M & Groenwald. . . B. Young. … (single author) (multiple authors) Style manual for authors. Economic indicators . Frogge. … The game of cricket 2005. JC 1988a. In-text Citation Example … (Young 1988a) … … (Young 1988b) … Reference Example Young. B & Reynolds. AK 1990. smiley faces.Give each item single line spacing.. AB 2000. Stein.. … Jones. stars. If there is more than one work by the same author. The reference list must be correctly formatted . or anything else. before the name(s) of the author(s). . CZ & Singh.. . . SL 2000. Goodman. *** Publications with the same author(s) and same year of publication Publications which have the same author(s) and the same year of A Guide to Referencing 15 .. sort that author’s entries by year of publication with the earliest source appearing first.. . B 2003.... CH. If there is more than one work by the same author but with different coauthors. Lee. . HK.Put the heading ‘References’ at the top of the list of sources. JS 1995..

Queensland.au/2nkrhwuswrpq.edu. *** . edn.rtf>. 2002. Further advice on referencing online sources in the Harvard style used by RMIT can be found at <http://mams. John Wiley & Sons. 6th rev. Ho Chi Minh City. Style manual for authors. 6th edn. editors and printers. Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation in RMIT Business. Australia. RMIT University. RMIT University 2009. 3rd edn. Vietnam. Melbourne. Milton. RMIT University.rmit. CEP guide to Harvard-style referencing.A Guide to Referencing 16 The HARVARD section of this Referencing Guide draws on the following publications: RMIT University 2007. Snooks & Co.

ONLINE SOURCES ONLINE SOURCES .

ONLINE SOURCES
Note: Always choose page image format (pdf) files when this format is available. Using a pdf version allows you to cite and reference the source as if it were a hardcopy. Also, page numbers are usually available in pdf files for including in in-text citations for direct quotations. Some documents on websites do not have page numbers and you will then not be able to include the page numbers in th e in-text citation for those particular direct quotations.

Format
Chart/Table/Graph/ Map/Image
Note: For information on citing and referencing charts/tables/ graphs/maps and images, see pages 65-69 of this guide.

Reference List

In-text Citation

Company/Industry document/ information/ annual report on a website or in a database

Note: If the information is sourced from a library database, it is better to include the database name rather than the URL.

Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s)/Name of Company/Industry/ Authoring Organisation (Acronym, if applicable) Year of publication, Title of document/information/ annual report, Website Name, Name of Sponsoring Organisation (if different to website name/authoring organisation), viewed day month year, Database Name or <URL>. Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s) Year of publication, ‘Title of paper/presentation’, in Initial(s) Family Name(s)

IBISWorld Pty Ltd 2005, Wine manufacturing in Australia, IBISWorld, viewed 28 November 2005, <http://www.ibisworld.com.au>.

Although the domestic wine market is expected to be stagnant from 2006 to 2010, wine exports will continue to grow, albeit at a lower rate than previously (IBISWorld Pty Ltd 2005).

Datamonitor 2005, Westfield Group (Australia): company profile, Datamonitor, viewed 23 January 2006, Business Searching Interface (EBSCO) database.

The Westfield Group has interests in 129 shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and USA (Datamonitor 2005).

Conference/Seminar/ Forum paper/ presentation published

Jakubowicz, A 2002, ‘Race vilification and communal leadership’, in W Jonas (ed.), Beyond Tolerance: National Conference on Racism, Sydney, 12-13 March 2002, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities

Racism appears to be on the increase in Asia and the Middle East (Jakubowicz 2002). Jakubowicz (2002) argues that ...

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A Guide to Referencing

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Format
of Editor(s) (ed./eds), Name of Conference/Seminar/ Forum, Location of Conference/Seminar/ Forum, day(s) month year held, Publisher, Place of Publication, page number(s) for the entire paper, viewed day month year, Database Name or <URL>.

Reference List
Commission, Sydney, pp. 34-45, viewed 17 June 2002, <http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_dis crimination/beyond_tolerance/speeches/ jakubowicz.html>.

In-text Citation

Note: The editor’s initial(s) go(es) in front of the family name(s).

Dictionary

Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s), Initial(s) (ed./eds) Year of publication, Title of dictionary, edition, Publisher, Place of Publication, viewed day month year, Database Name or <URL>.

Carring, X & Carring, S (eds) 1992, th Dictionary of money and finance, 5 edn, Macmillan, Brisbane, Queensland, viewed 30 September 2000, DictionaryOnLine database.

Another dictionary (eds Carring & Carring 1992) defines ‘hedging’ as … Carring and Carring’s (eds 1992) Dictionary of money and finance defines ‘hedging’ as …
Note: An in-text citation is required.

Note: An entry in the list of references is not usually required for a dictionary. However, further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source, or if your lecturer requires such an entry.

Format
Discussion forum post (online discussion forum) Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s) Year of posting, ‘Title of post’, Course Code Course Name, discussion forum post, posted day month, viewed day month year, Blackboard@RMIT.
Note: If only the User Name(s) is/are available, then use that instead of the actual name(s) of the author(s).

Reference List
Nguyen, C 2007, ‘Ideas for PAP assignment’, OMGT2085 Introduction to Logistics & Supply Chain Management, discussion forum post, posted 11 June, viewed 20 June 2007, Blackboard@RMIT.

In-text Citation
Knowledge management for PAP is a significant problem (Nguyen 2007). Nguyen (2007) seems to agree with the lecturers on this matter.

Note: A discussion forum post may not be a reliable source of academic information.

User Name(s) of Author(s) Year of posting, ‘Title of post’, Website Name, discussion forum post, posted day month, viewed day month year, <URL>.

Black Goddess 2009, ‘Why I love Vietnam’, VietHol, discussion forum post, posted 24 March, viewed 18 July 2009, <http://viethol.org/infolist/new.org>.

Of all the countries in South-East Asia, Vietnam is one of the easiest to navigate (Black Goddess 2009). Black Goddess (2009) indicates that …

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Format
E-book a scanned (paper) book viewed online or downloaded in page image format (pdf) Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s) Year of publication, Title of book, edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Reference List
Zietlow, J, Hankin, JA & Seidner, AG 2007, Financial management for non-profit organisations: policies and practices, 4th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

In-text Citation
A recent policy and practices document for NGOs indicates that some things need to change as soon as possible (Zietlow, Hankin & Seidner 2007). Zietlow, Hankin and Seidner (2007, p. 78) report that ‘financial management reform is urgently needed in non-profit organisations’. A recent book about common sense (Paine 2009) claims that … Paine (2009) stipulates that …

Note: If an e-book is in a library database as a page image format (pdf), cite it as if it were a hardcopy book. Do not include the <URL> or database name.

Paine, T 2009, Common sense, 8th edn, Pearson, Alexandria, Virginia, viewed 6 July 2009, <http://www.google.com/books>.

Note: Many books found on Google Books at <http://www. google.com/books> are available only as previews. Reading a preview is not the same as reading the entire book or a complete chapter. If the preview contains one or more complete chapters, you can read and cite those as chapters in a book (see page 43). If you need the entire book, remember to look in the RMIT Vietnam Library catalogue or the e-book databases available through the Melbourne Online Library, as the complete book may be available there. You cannot consider a preview as the complete book if that is all you have found.

E-book an e-book formatted for reading online

Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s) Year of publication, Title of book, edition, Publisher, viewed day month year, Database Name.

Swich, E 2009, German demystified, McGrawHill, viewed 9 December 2009, Ebooks.com database.

The German language contains sounds which are difficult for Vietnamese speakers (Swich 2009). Swich (2009) examines …

Note: Where possible, always use the database name rather than the URL.

Family Name(s) of Author(s), Initial(s) Year of publication, Title of book, edition, Publisher, viewed day month year, <URL>.

McCreadie, K 2009, How to write a book in 33 days, Blackwell Publications, viewed 10 December 2009, <http://ebook.com/ebooks/Literature/How_ to_Write_a_Book_in_33_Days>.

Writing a book can be a tedious and demanding process (McCreadie 2009). McCreadie (2009) maintains that …

Online Books database. no. <http://anao. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004. viewed 9 December 2009. the free encyclopaedia. <http://en. edition. The Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) (2004) report indicates that … Subsequent in-text citations: A notable document (ABS 2004) indicates that . Reference List Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009. Title of document.abs. The ABS (2004) brought out a document which says … First in-text citation: Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) 2003. reports and commissions of enquiry. Publisher. Broadly speaking.001. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. ABS.55. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. Family Name(s) of Author(s). Place of Publication. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. is … Title of encyclopaedia Year of publication..au>. if applicable) Year of publication. viewed day month year. edition. committees of review and committees of parliament. <http://www. document/ report/catalogue number. viewed 4 August 2003.Format Encyclopaedia without author(s) without an authoring organisation Note: Wikipedia is not usually an acceptable source of academic information. Government document Note: This includes departmental reports. viewed 2 February 2009. Publisher.gov.au/WebSite/publications>. viewed day month year. <URL>.0. ‘Plagiarism’ 2004. Fraud control arrangements in the Australian Customs Service. day month of submission of entry.gov. First in-text citation: The rate of suicide among Australia’s young men continues to be far too high (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004). Note: An entry in the list of references is not usually required for an encyclopaedia. ANAO. there are two ways a student can plagiarise (‘Plagiarism’ 2004). ‘Title of entry’ Year of submission of entry. 4824. viewed day month year. Canberra. Initial(s)/Name of Authoring Organisation/ Government Department (Acronym. cat. in Title of encyclopaedia.. The Australian Customs Service (Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) 2003) proposes … A Guide to Referencing 21 . Mental health in Australia: a snapshot. Database Name or <URL>.org/wiki/Plagiarism>. in Wikipedia. In-text Citation Globalisation. 22 July. viewed 18 August 2005. Database Name or <URL>. However. as defined by the Encyclopaedia Britannica (2009)..wikipedia.

. Telstra 2005. A University of London (2007) handbook is very helpful when one is trying to choose what courses to take. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. <http://www.au/ courses/>. However. as in the following example: The Australian Government’s business gateway (2005). Many corporate websites. Name of Organisation responsible for publishing the site (often the same as the authoring organisation). Department of Innovation.au (2005). homepage. Title of handbook.au>.gov. Telstra (2005). Telstra.. Melbourne. Note: An entry in the list of references is not usually required for a homepage. the Australian Government’s business gateway. Homepage company/organisation Note: A homepage does not always have a title. <http://telstra.business. Note: Homepage addresses can be provided directly in the text. for example.A Guide to Referencing 22 Format Reference List In-text Citation The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) (2003) has … Subsequent in-text citations: A critical document (ANAO 2003) indicates that .gov.au 2005. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source.gov. if applicable) Year homepage was created/last updated. University of London 2007. Location of Organisation responsible for publishing the site. . <http://www. <URL>. Title (if any).gov.au/Business+EntryPoint>. viewed 6 June 2007. The ANAO (2003) brought out a document which says … Handbook with a corporate author Name of Corporate Author (Acronym. Name of Homepage/ Authoring Organisation (Acronym. business. <URL>.universityof london. provides information on starting or running a small business. viewed day month year.au/Business+Entr y+Point>. viewed day month year. Industry. are … business. <http://www. homepage. Course handbook for 2007. Science and Research.business.com. if applicable) Year of publication. provides information on starting or running a small business. homepage. Canberra. viewed 2 December 2005.edu. viewed 2 December 2005.

According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007. vol. Note: If a journal article is in a database as a page image format (pdf). Reference List Portal. <URL>. month. Note: If a journal article is in a library database and you read it as HTML or plain text. ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’. Database Name. In-text Citation Research in pure mathematics is at the cutting edge of mathematics (Portal 2007). viewed 17 November 2009. and achievements Homepage Note: A homepage does not always have a title.Format Family Name(s) of Author(s). then you must cite the viewed day month year and the database name. Initial(s) Year of publication. ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007. <http://math. Family Name(s) of Author(s). Use whatever information is available for your entry in the list of references. 32. the following: season. According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007.html>. 1. volume. month of publication. number or issue. posted professional’s/academic’s day month. 113-134. 32. P 2007. P & Sherriff. cite it as if it were a hardcopy. ‘Title of article’. page number(s) for the entire article. p. ‘Title of article’. 113). number/issue. Journal article in a database as a webpage Note: Cite articles found in e-journals the same way you cite journal articles found online.univlille1. posted 18 October. page number(s) for the entire article. Journal Name. ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’. Australian Journal of Management. publications month year. 113-134. p. 1. volume. viewed day qualifications. vol. Journal Name. ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’. Initial(s) Year of publication. p. number/issue. viewed day month year. G 2007. Title (if any). 113). 113). ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’. Dr Pierre Portal’s website (2007) gives access to … Journal article in a database as page image format (pdf) Note: Journals are designated by any one. G 2007.fr/~portal/index. Brewer. month of publication. Abstract mathematical theory. p. Family Name(s) of Author(s). Australian Journal of Management. Factiva database. Brewer. 113). no. P & Sherriff. viewed 11 November 2007. A Guide to Referencing 23 . pp. volume. ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007. no. Initial(s) Year of a website showcasing a article. or any combination of. pp.

‘Title of article’. viewed 11 November 2007. p.html>. not in a database Family Name(s) of Author(s). G 2007. viewed day month year. Initial(s) Year of publication. number/ issue.A Guide to Referencing 24 Format Journal article online. 113-134. Note: If a journal article has been located on the Internet and not in a database. 113). 113). According to Brewer and Sherriff (2007. <URL>. page number(s) for the entire article. In-text Citation ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’ (Brewer & Sherriff 2007. Journal Name.edu. pp. ‘Australian international trade is in for a major shakeup’. 32. . ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’.agsm. vol.au/~eajm/ 0706/06-brewersheriff. P & Sherriff. volume. 1. Note: Cite articles found in e-journals the same way you cite journal articles found online. you must add the viewed day month year and the <URL>. <http://www. Reference List Brewer. month of publication. p. no. Australian Journal of Management.

‘Title of article’. Newspaper/Magazine Name. ‘Lid stays on wages growth’. viewed day month year. An increase in the salaries for Cambodia’s public servants would go some way to curbing corruption in the country (Khadem 2007). ‘Title of article’. A Guide to Referencing 25 . p. N 2007. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. Initial(s) Year of publication. Newsweek. unfortunately. day month of publication.Format Newspaper/Magazine article in a library database with author(s) Note: If a newspaper/magazine article appears in a library database as page image format (pdf). Initial(s) Year of publication. Khadem. The Age. cite it in the same way as a hardcopy. 15 November. 15 August. p. 1 (Business section). M 2005. Database Name or <URL>. OVRC database. if applicable). An investigation into the information leak out of the White House (Isikoff 2005) emphasises … Isikoff (2005) reminds us that … Family Name(s) of Author(s). Khadem (2007) reports that. 6. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. if applicable). then you must cite the viewed day month year and either the database name or <URL>. viewed 16 November 2007. . ‘Leak investigation: an oversight issue?’.. Reference List In-text Citation Family Name(s) of Author(s). Isikoff.. Note: If a newspaper/magazine article is in a library database and is only available as HTML or plain text. day month of publication. Newspaper/Magazine Name.

‘Title of article’. ‘Advertising on demand’. ‘Our Earth is already over populated’. day month of publication. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. 3-4.A Guide to Referencing 26 Format Newspaper/Magazine article in a library database without author(s) Note: A newspaper/magazine article which does not have an identifiable author should be cited in the text. 21 September. Forbes Magazine 2005. but it does not need to appear in the reference list. Note: If a newspaper/magazine article is in a library database and is only available as HTML or plain text. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. New legal requirements in the world of advertising seem to have sent the advertising giants into a rage (Forbes Magazine 2005).. Forbes Magazine (2005) sets out . day month of publication. if applicable). Note: If a newspaper/magazine article appears in a library database as page image format (pdf). Reference List In-text Citation Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of publication. ‘Title of article’. pp. It would seem that the Earth is in trouble (The Shanghai Daily 2009) and that we … The Shanghai Daily (2009) estimates that … Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of publication. p. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. OVRC database. 72. if applicable). The Shanghai Daily 2009. cite it in the same way as a hardcopy. then you must cite the viewed day month year and the database name. However. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. viewed day month year. Database Name. . 25 July. viewed 28 July 2005..

. Pen Name(s) of Author(s) Year of publication. ‘Title of article’.. Dow Jones. day month of publication.uk/2/hi/asiapacific/6271103. BBC News . News website article with author(s) using a Vietnamese pen name Note: You must get prior permission from your lecturer to use sources which are not in English. viewed day month year. Website Name. 17 January. viewed 15 June 2007. <http://news. day 6 December 2009. month of publication. viewed day month year. <URL>. news website name and authoring and sponsoring <URL>. Initial(s) Year of publication. viewed 19 February 2007.bbc. D 2007. Website Name. Pacific News (2007) opposes the arrest of . viewed 15 June 2007. <URL>.stm>. Reference List Griffiths. org/news/view_article. day month of publication. <http://news. ‘Google lawyers pass YouTube baton to engineers’. New Zealand Media Inc. News website article with author(s) news website name and authoring organisation are different News website article Family Name(s) of Author(s). New America Media. Shinal. day month year. organisation day month of publication. ‘China's “cancer villages” pay price’.com/News/ Story/google-lawyers-pass-youtube-baton/ story. Initial(s) Year of publication.pacificnews. 18 April. Website Name. Shinal (2007) opposes the view that . According to Gia Linh (2008). J 2007.html?article_id=09f12 65e14a05f472d134bc0d3fa7242>. Vietnamnet. viewed day month year. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. viewed <http://vietnamnet.newamericamedia. viewed article’. <URL>. Name of Authoring Organisation. The latest legal battle over YouTube is set to cause upset once again (Shinal 2007)..co.aspx?>... MarketWatch. if applicable) Year of without author(s) publication. ‘Title of article’. Some teens cut themselves to get their parents’ attention (Gia Linh 2008). Griffiths (2007) has put the spotlight on a serious case of neglect in China.Format News website article with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). ‘Title of article’. It seems that the policing of media bosses in Korea is on the increase (Pacific News 2007). Website Name.marketwatch.vn/xahoi/2008/04/82/>. organisations are different Pacific News 2007 ‘Korean media sad and concerned over supervisor’s arrest’. <http://www. Name of with an authoring Sponsoring Organisation. In-text Citation The situation in some villages in China portrays a case of disgraceful neglect by government authorities (Griffiths 2007). 14 June. A Guide to Referencing 27 . some teens cut themselves to get their parents’ attention. 13 June. ‘Title of “hành xác”’.

in the text of your assignment or in the reference list.com. viewed 12 November 2009. <http://news_africaonline /830785. and so on. WARNING: To avoid breaching privacy you MUST obtain permission from the person before including details such as an email address. Initial(s) Year of communication. mobile phone number. but does not need to appear in the reference list.html?_r=1&ref=opinion>. <http://www. Family Name(s) of Author(s). Website Name. viewed day month year.costa@spacecraft. day month of communication. 9 December. viewed day month year. email/ other. tells of how … The issue of health care reform is becoming further mired in controversy (New York Times 2009) … The New York Times (2009) has joined in the health care reform debate. email. C 2007.A Guide to Referencing 28 Format News website article without author(s) without an authoring organisation News website editorial without author(s) ‘Title of article’ Year of publication. 5 November.com/2009/12/10/opinio n/10thu1. day month of publication. if applicable) Year of publication. Personal communication email other Costa. <sender’s e-mail address>/other. or if your lecturer requires such an entry.nytimes. However. ‘The non-public option’. It was confirmed in an email from Cathy Costa (2007) that … Note: Information obtained from these sources might not be credible and thus might not be accepted in an academic paper. ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ (2009). Website Name. <URL>. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. NewYorkTimes. 4 April. viewed 10 December 2009. Reference List ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009. New York Times 2009. AfricaNews. <URL>.au>. Note: Personal communication should be cited in the text. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. . <cathy. ‘Title of editorial’. day month of publication.stm>. In-text Citation Congo’s economy is in trouble (‘Too big to fail’ 2009) and … The article.

RMIT University. ‘Title of study materials’. First in-text citation: An increasing number of people today are listening to podcasts on MP3 players and it seems to be a good way to catch the news on the way home from work (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2008). Place of Broadcast.Format Podcast with presenter(s) Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). day month of original program. Smith (2005) states that … A Guide to Referencing 29 . Initial(s) Year of original broadcast. ‘Organisational behaviours and the workforce’. H 2005.chicagobooth. Name of Broadcaster. retrieved day month year. ABC Radio. Initial(s) Year of preparation of materials. <http://abc.au/news/subscribe/sml>. Name of Broadcaster. News and current affairs. audio podcast. Title of program/series. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2008. <URL>. Chicago booth podcast series. M 2009 ‘Why regulations must be consistent across financial and geographical borders’. Title of program/ series. regulations must be consistent (Knight 2009). course notes for BUSM2301 Introduction to Organisational Behaviour. <URL>. retrieved 10 December 2009. Reference List Knight. News and current affairs. retrieved day month year. is … Study materials on RMIT Blackboard with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). University of Chicago.net. Melbourne. audio podcast. Several different organisational behaviours can be identified (Smith 2005). 2 November. if applicable) Year of original broadcast. Chicago. Knight (2009) maintains that … Podcast without presenter(s) with an authoring organisation Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. ‘PM’. 4 May. Sydney.edu/multimedia/ podcast/>. Smith. retrieved 14 December 2008. audio podcast. ‘Title of podcast’. <http://www. Place of Broadcast. audio podcast. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) (2008) seems to support the view that … Subsequent in-text citations: A popular radio program (ABC 2008) has been … ABC’s (2008) program. In-text Citation In order to avoid major problems. ‘Title of podcast’. day month of original program.

viewed day month year. Initial(s) Year lecture was recorded. Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s). viewed day month year. ‘Title of study materials’ Year of preparation of materials. PowerPoint slides. Blackboard@RMIT. Blackboard@RMIT. and so on. viewed 7 December 2009. software engineering is a good career to be in as prospects for employment are excellent. Melbourne. viewed day month year. Location of Institution. said that … . and so on. RMIT University. Reference List viewed 19 April 2005. Andrew Hopkins. Name of Institution. 5 November. During a lecture on 5 November 2008 for ACCT2161 Auditing at RMIT University. lecture in Course Code Course Name. Study materials on RMIT Blackboard without author(s) Note: This includes course notes. lecture in ACCT2161 Auditing. A 2008. Location of Institution. Blackboard@RMIT. ‘Metadata’ 2004. course notes for ISYS2089 Software Engineering Fundamentals. day month lecture was recorded. As mentioned in the course notes for ISYS2089 Software Engineering Fundamentals (‘Metadata’ 2004). Name of Institution. Blackboard@RMIT. Name of Institution. Study materials on RMIT Blackboard video recording of course lecture Hopkins. Blackboard@RMIT. course notes/PowerPoint slides/other for Course Code Course Name. ‘Auditing today’. Melbourne. Location of Institution. China and Vietnam. especially in the developing economies of India. Melbourne. ‘Title of lecture’. PowerPoint slides. In-text Citation course notes/PowerPoint slides/other for Course Code Course Name.A Guide to Referencing 30 Format Note: This includes course notes. viewed 8 July 2005. the lecturer. Blackboard@RMIT. RMIT University.

au. if applicable) Year of broadcast.fox. Melbourne. Reference List Hopkins. First in-text citation: Social problems are common themes in television dramas and the latest episode of House.edu. FOX. season 5. In-text Citation Andrew Hopkins. in a lecture on 5 November 2008. USA. episode Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008. Name of Institution. ‘Adverse events’ (Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008).au/oursho ws. Title of program. 5 April. Place of Broadcast. television episode. ‘Are you fit enough?’.html>. viewed 17 May 2008. day month lecture was recorded. if applicable) Year of broadcast. viewed day month year. <URL>. list the episode title first. television episode. lecture in Course Code Course Name. Location of Institution. lecturer at RMIT University. <http://www. House.com/fod/>. ‘Auditing today’.ninemsn. lecture in ACCT2161 Auditing. viewed 2 October 2008. is a good reminder … Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Initial(s) Year lecture was recorded. ‘Title of episode’. episode 3. A 2008. Note: If part of an ongoing series. <http://channelnine./accounting/videolectures /auditingtoday. then the program/series name. ‘Adverse events’. commented that … Television episode Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. if it is available. 5 November. viewed 7 December 2009. season number. ‘Are you fit enough?’. <www. is a good example. ‘Title of episode’. A Guide to Referencing 31 .rmit.Format Study materials from the Internet video recording of course lecture Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s). RMIT University. Melbourne. Channel 9 TV.com. Name of Broadcaster. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. Note: For direct quotations. Title of program. day month of broadcast. <URL>. television episode. TODAY. NINE Network 2008. viewed day month year. 30 September. Sydney.aspx?letter=A>. ‘Title of lecture’. Food allergies (NINE Network 2008) are becoming a big problem in … NINE Network’s (2008) episode of TODAY.

Title of program. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004. day month of broadcast. The 7. ‘Adverse events’ (FOX 2008). is a … Subsequent in-text citations: Note: For direct quotations. if it is available. Place of Broadcast.. The 7.. day month of broadcast. Name of Broadcaster. Database Name or <URL>. Name of Broadcaster. television program. is a good example of … Subsequent in-text citations: The latest episode of House. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2004) interview series. Enough rope with Andrew Denton. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2005) program.A Guide to Referencing 32 Format number. Reference List In-text Citation The Fox Broadcasting Company’s (FOX) (2008) latest episode of House. Database Name or <URL>. <URL>. 17 April.30 report . television interview. <http://abctv. television program. ‘Title of episode’. The 7. ABC TV. if applicable) Year of broadcast. is an example of . television interview.. viewed day month year. ABC TV. the Treasurer said . television episode. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. First in-text citation: Andrew Denton is a highly engaging and sensitive interviewer as is demonstrated by his careful managing of the interview with Raelene Boyle (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004). if applicable) Year of broadcast. viewed day month year.. The ABC (2005) is … .au. First in-text citation: Television program When interviewed on the ABC TV’s. if it is available. Sydney. Sydney. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. Subsequent in-text citations: The ABC (2004) is … Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005. Title of program. Enough rope with Andrew Denton. is … FOX (2008) is … Television interview Note: For direct quotations. day month of broadcast. viewed 13 May 2004.online. Place of Broadcast.30 report .stream>. viewed day month year. TVNews database. viewed 26 March 2006. ‘Adverse events’. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. Name of Broadcaster. Place of Broadcast. 20 November. ‘Top heads’. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym.30 report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005).

radio episode transcript. viewed 27 October 2006. BBC classical music.htm>. Mascall.. day month of broadcast. KV 2005. viewed day month year. Location of Institution. BBC Radio. Name of Broadcaster. Database Name or <URL>.edu.Format Thesis/Dissertation Family Name of Author. Database Name or <URL>. London. ‘Customer loyalty in webRetaining customer loyalty is essential for retail based retailing’.lib. First in-text citation: A variety of music available on radio (British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006) is a great resource for … The British Broadcasting Commission’s (BBC) (2006). radio episode transcript. Name of Institution. <http://www. S 2005. ABC Radio Australia. Melbourne. radio program transcript. La. Lateral thinking is ‘where the brain jumps from main tracks of thought to sidetracks’ (Mascall 2005). Award.. radio program transcript. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. viewed 3 February 2010. Title of program.150426/public /02whole.14 February.uk/iplayer/b00ny6lv/BB C_Radio>. Initial(s) Year of completion of thesis/dissertation. Transcript radio program/episode without presenter(s) with an authoring organisation British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006.au/adt/uploads/ La (2005) maintains that … approved/adt-VIT20070108.au/ra/innovations/stories /s1302318. Place of Broadcast. RMIT University. Database Name or <URL>. PhD thesis. La (2005) explores the relationship between . viewed day month year.. day month of broadcast. Transcript radio program/episode with presenter(s) Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). Title of program. Melbourne. if applicable) Year of broadcast. Subsequent in-text citations: A recently broadcast program (BBC 2006) shows how . ‘Title of episode’.pdf>. Name of Broadcaster. RMIT University. KV 2005. has proved to be very popular with the over 65s. viewed 14 November 2007. viewed 14 November 2007. PhD thesis. Reference List In-text Citation La. ‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’. success (La 2005). The nature of innovation.. significantly in recent years (La 2005). Mascall (2005) stated that in 1967 Edward de Bono invented the term ‘lateral thinking’. ‘Title of thesis/dissertation’. Initial(s) Year of broadcast.bbc. <http://www. ADT database. A Guide to Referencing 33 . viewed day month year. 16 October. Place of Broadcast. ‘Customer loyalty in webRetailing of goods on the Internet has increased based retailing’.abc. Melbourne.co. music program. BBC classical music.rmit. <http://adt.net.

28 December. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Radio 2UE. ‘Vietnam in the 21st century’. Database Name or <URL>..A Guide to Referencing 34 Format Reference List In-text Citation The BBC (2006) recently broadcast a program about … Transcript speech on radio Family Name(s) of Presenter(s)/Author(s). speech transcript. Title of program.30 report .vietnam/today/txt. ‘Title of speech’. 5 January. 20 November. the Treasurer said . The 7. Cyclone Tracy is one of the worst cyclones ever to hit Australia (Watson 2004). if applicable) Year of broadcast. The 7. Name of Broadcaster. Title of program. viewed day month year.net. Name of Broadcaster. ‘Cyclone Tracy’. Sydney. Initial(s) Year of broadcast.abc. ABC TV. G 2004. day month of broadcast. viewed 7 February 2008. Database Name or <URL>. television program transcript. day month of broadcast. TVNews database. Name of Broadcaster. First in-text citation: On ABC TV’s. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2005) program. <http://www. Place of Broadcast. 2UE talks. Sydney. <http://www. television episode transcript. Natural disasters of the twentieth century. Initial(s) Year of broadcast..30 report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005). viewed 26 March 2006. Sydney. Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). ‘Title of episode’. The 7. television episode transcript.htm>. television program transcript. Watson (2004) maintains that Australians will never be able to erase Cyclone Tracy from their collective memory. ABC TV. Title of program. viewed day Nguyen. Transcript television program/ episode without presenter(s) with an authoring organisation Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005. is a … . TA 2008. day month of broadcast.au/tv/rewind/txt/s12 33697. A prominent Vietnamese academic (Nguyen 2008) has strongly disagreed with … Nguyen (2008) strongly disagrees with … Transcript television program/ episode with presenter(s) Watson. viewed 2 March 2005. speech transcript. Place of Broadcast. viewed day month year. Place of Broadcast.htm>.30 report.

Format month year. viewed day month year.. viewed 26 November 2009.. Videos2Day database. The video produced by Educational Media Australia (EMA) (1994) should be shown to all school children so that . The video. Database Name or <URL>. video recording. Database Name or <URL>. 23 November. <http://www. day month of recording. viewed 29 September 1995. Publisher/ Distributor.. day month of recording. is … Collins (2009) has created a highly entertaining video … Video recording without presenter(s) with an authoring organisation Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Title of video/series. video recording. My big fat wedding. video recording.com/watch?v=EoUKCxCglg>. video recording. EMA.. Title of video/series. if applicable) Year of recording.. on YouTube (Collins 2009). My big fat wedding. Initial(s) Year of recording. Accounting for the environment. Database Name or <URL>. South Melbourne. Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994. Collins. EMA’s (1994) video recording displays … A Guide to Referencing 35 . Place of Recording. Subsequent in-text citations: An informative video recording (EMA 1994) shows .. Reference List In-text Citation Subsequent in-text citations: A recently broadcast program (ABC 2005) indicates that .. The ABC (2005) broadcast a program about … Video recording with presenter(s) Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). First in-text citation: The problems of pollution and land use in Australia (Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994) need to be .youtube. 12 May. viewed day month year. A 2009..

<URL>. retrieved day month year.abctv. One’s health is based on many things (NSW Health Department (NSWHD) 2006) and … The NSW Health Department’s (NSWHD) (2006) video recording. ‘Title of vodcast’.A Guide to Referencing 36 Format Note: If the video recording is part of a series. The workplace is occasionally the scene of some unexpected hilarity (Barrage & Bells 2009) and … Barrage and Bell’s (2009). Z & Bells. day month of recording. Place of Recording. ‘Title of episode’. The NSWHD (2006) is determined to … Barrage. ABC TV.au/podcast/>. Place of Broadcast. if applicable) Year of recording. Canberra. Place of Broadcast. 7 July. viewed 21 October 2006. ‘You are what you eat!’.au/healthy diet/275649860. ‘The funniest thing you’ve ever seen’. Publisher/ Distributor. video podcast. if applicable) Year of broadcast. retrieved 10 December 2009. video podcast. A healthy diet for the busy person. day month of original program. ‘Title of vodcast’. Title of program/series. Name of Broadcaster. retrieved day month year. video podcast. Reference List NSW Health Department (NSWHD) 2006. ‘You are what you eat!’.sbs. Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). list the episode title first. video podcast. <http://www/healthdeptnsw.com.com. NSWHD. viewed day month year. ‘The funniest thing you’ve ever seen’. A video podcast of Vincent Ward talks (SBS TV 2009) demonstrates a high level of … An example of a podcast taken from SBS TV (2009) demonstrates how … . video recording. then the series name. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Melbourne. Sydney. Title of video/series. <URL>. 1 November. provides a good example of … Vodcast (video podcast) with presenter(s) Vodcast (video podcast) without presenter(s) with an authoring organisation SBS TV 2009. video recording.html>. Database Name or <URL>. E 2009.net. <http://www09.au/podcast/>. is a very … Subsequent in-text citations: Health issues need to be at the forefront of government policy making (NSWHD 2006). retrieved 18 July 2009. Hilarious episodes in the workplace. SBS. In-text Citation First in-text citation: Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. 18 June. Name of Broadcaster. Vincent Ward talks. Title of program/series. day month of original program. <http://www20. Initial(s) Year of broadcast. ‘The state of the economy’.

viewed day month year. Weblog post (blog post) without author(s) with an authoring organisation Australian Water Conservation Foundation (AWCF) 2008. S 2006. ‘Title of post’. 15 December. blog. viewed 10 January 2008. The AWCF (2008) brought out a document that says … A Guide to Referencing 37 . <URL>. Initial(s) Year of posting. ‘Title of post’. Webber. S 2008. blog post. viewed day month year. viewed day month year..Format Weblog (blog) Note: A blog is not likely to be a reliable source of academic information. Webber and Boon (2006) imply that … Family Name(s) of Author(s). blog post. Information Literacy Blog. Blog Name. <URL>. day month of posting. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym.Blog spot. Australian Water Conservation Foundation Portal. Weblog post (blog post) with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s).. In-text Citation Some people are just way behind the times when it comes to being information literate (Webber & Boon 2006). <URL>. viewed 11 January 2008. A recently published document (AWCF 2008) indicates that .info/>. Initial(s) Year of posting. blog post. Blog Name. ‘Events from CILIP’. 9 January. blog. Information Literacy Blog. day month of posting. <http://information-literacy. <http://information_literacy.com>. Blog Name. <http://waterconservation. Reference List Webber. viewed 2 January 2009. blog post. if applicable) Year of posting. S & Boon. Webber’s blog post (Webber 2008) is an excellent … Webber (2008) calls on us to … Note: A weblog post is not likely to be a reliable source of academic information. First in-text citation: A search online about water conservation (Australian Water Conservation Foundation (AWCF) 2008) shows that it is becoming … The Australian Water Conservation Foundation (AWCF) (2008) stipulates that … Subsequent in-text citations: Note: A weblog post is not likely to be a reliable source of academic information. ‘Australia is getting low on water’.blogspot>.

Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym.org/reports/what _is_emotional_intelligence. ‘Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters’.com. In-text Citation It seems that the concept of emotional intelligence is often misunderstood (Cherniss 2000). SKDesigns. <URL>. you will then not be able to include the page number(s) in the in-text citation. placement. Note: Some documents on websites do not have pages numbers and. Website article/ document with author(s) website name and authoring organisation are different Website article/ document without author(s) website name and authoring organisation are the same Bergells. viewed day month year. <URL>. <www. 78) argues that 'emotional intelligence has as much to do with knowing when and how to express emotion as it does with controlling it'. Website Name. ‘Title of article/document’.d. p.telstra.. Cherniss (2000. Telstra. ‘Banner ads: size.com/articles/marketing/ bannerads>. Website Name.). <http://www. ‘Title of article/ document’. ‘banner ad click-through rates are less than 1%’.) reports that … . as is the case in the above example.com. Website Name. Banner ads should be highly effective but research would indicate otherwise (Bergells 2006). ‘Title of article/document’. C 2000. effectiveness’. <URL>. According to Bergells (2006). viewed 29 April 2009. The Consortium for Emotional Intelligence.A Guide to Referencing 38 Format Website article/ document with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). Family Name(s) of Author(s). Telstra (n. viewed day month year. certain functions are carried out by an agent (Telstra n. L 2006. <http://websitetips. in the US. Initial(s) Year of article/document. of Australia responsible for auditing Telstra. WebsiteTips. Name of Authoring Organisation. viewed 1 December 2005. Initial(s) Year of article/document.cfm>.d. Reference List Cherniss.eiconsortium.html>. viewed day month year. if applicable) Year of article/ document. Telstra n. Name of Authoring Organisation (if applicable). ‘Audit governance and financial Although the Telstra Act makes the Auditor-General reporting’.au/abouttelstra/audit_ governance. viewed 27 August 2007.d.

<URL>.html>..d. Note: Cite articles from Wikipedia or similar sources as an online encyclopaedia. usually there is no named author. Note: A wiki article/entry is not likely to be a reliable source of academic information.nih/medlineplus/ acousticneuroma. ‘The exponential power of connectedness’ (2007). wiki article/entry.connectedintelligence. contends that . viewed day month year. viewed day month year.). MedlinePlus. day month of post.shtml>. Wiki Name. viewed 10 May 2007. The wiki article. Note: As wikis are a collaborative source. <URL>. and forbid the ‘taking of photographs where someone is recognizable’ (‘The Amish & the Plain People’ n. <http://www.d... if applicable) Year of article/ document. A Guide to Referencing 39 .Format Website article/ document without author(s) website name and authoring organisation are different Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. The Amish do not allow ‘electricity or telephones in their homes’. Being connected with others is a basic need for all human beings (‘The exponential power’ 2007).nlm. Website Name. Wiki article/entry ‘Title of article/entry’ Year of posting. In-text Citation First in-text citation: Recent research on acoustic neuroma (National Institute of Health (NIH) 2007) has shown … The National Institute of Health (NIH) (2007) suggests that … Subsequent in-text citations: A recently published document (NIH 2007) indicates that . According to ‘The Amish and the Plain People’ (n.). PA Dutch Country Welcome Center. Ask your lecturer before using a wiki article/entry in your assignment. Connectedintelligence. Website Name. viewed day month year.. viewed 29 December 2009.800padutch. com/amish. <http://www. not as a wiki entry. the Amish are very religious and are devoted to their families and communities. The NIH (2007) brought out a document which says … Website article/ document without author(s) without an authoring organisation ‘Title of article/document’ Year of article/document. ‘Title of article/ document’. 20 September.. ‘The exponential power of connectedness’ 2007.wikispac es. <URL>. ‘Acoustic neuroma’. do not own automobiles or tractors. wiki article/entry.d.com/Exponential+Power+of+Connectedn ess>. ‘The Amish & the Plain People’ n. Reference List National Institute of Health (NIH) 2007. viewed 11 November 2007. <http://www.

A Guide to Referencing 40 .

BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS .

Place of Publication. Title of book.. if applicable) Year of publication. 6th edn. 2nd edn.’ is used for all the in-text citations. South Australia. Place of Publication. NSW. APDC. A companion to business statistics. Title of book. (2004) suggest that … Note: The family name of the first author followed by ‘et al. Initials Year of publication. L. Saunders. Brown. edition. edition. Adam. Reference List Shannon. Title of book. edition. Marketing. Note: The edition should not be included for st a 1 edition. Lewis & Thornhill 2003) indicate that … Saunders. Publisher. Significant issues were raised (Australian Professional Development Council (APDC) 2004) and … Australian Professional Development Council (APDC) (2004) raised important points when discussing … A Guide to Referencing 41 . Research methods for business students. Australian Professional Development Council (APDC) 2004. Lewis and Thornhill (2003) state that … Book four or more authors Family Names of Authors.BOOKS AND OTHER BOUND MATERIALS Format Book one author Family Name of Author. Place of Publication. Prentice Hall. A 2003. S & Strong. In-text Citation A recent business statistics study (Shannon 2003) demonstrates that … Shannon (2003) states that … Book two or three authors Family Names of Authors. edition. Frenchs Forest. A relevant publication (Kotler et al. NSW. Initials Year of publication. P. P & Thornhill. Pearson Education. Kotler et al. 2004) suggests that .. M. Some experts (Saunders. Initial(s) Year of publication. Title of book. Essex. Publisher. Pearson. Place of Publication. Frenchs Forest. JP 2003. Note: Write the names of all the authors in the reference list. 3rd edn. Lewis. Development issues in South-East Asia. Kotler. G 2004. Note: The names of all authors are used for the in-text citations and the reference list. Publisher. First in-text citation: Book without author(s) with an authoring organisation Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Publisher.

Common Ground Publishing. Altona.) 1998. C-2C: creator to consumer in a digital age. Australia. Title of book. Adelaide. Title of book. 6th edn. Place of Publication.) Year of publication. Note: The edition should not be included for st a 1 edition. Initials (eds) Year of publication. edition. Cortada 1998) are … Cortada (ed. Initial(s) (ed. posits that … Book edited (more than one editor) Family Names of Editors. editors and printers (2002) prescribes … Family Name of Editor. edition. Best practise indicators (ed. Boston. Style manual for authors. Place of Publication. Title of book. Title of book Year of publication. Cortada. Publisher. Cope. John Wiley & Sons. Publisher. Butterworth-Heinemann. Macmillan. Place of Publication. Z 2003. editors and printers 2002. edition. Rise of the knowledge worker. B & Mason. Victoria. 2nd edn. edited by Cope and Mason (2001). Much has been written about this topic (eds Cope & Mason 2001) and … Cope and Mason (eds 2001) state that … C-2-C: creator to consumer in a digital age. Place of Publication. 6th rev. edited by Cortada (1998).A Guide to Referencing 42 Format Reference List In-text Citation Subsequent in-text citations: Development issues in South-East Asia are of major interest to all countries in the region (APDC 2004). There are particular rules to follow when abbreviating words (Style manual for authors 2002). One prominent author (Peters 2003) discusses this … Peters (2003) maintains that … . Publisher. demonstrates how … Book second or later edition Family Name(s) of Author(s). edition. The APDC (2004) stated that … Book without author(s) without an authoring organisation Book edited (one editor) Note: Where there is no clear author and no obvious authoring organisation enter the source in the reference list under the title of the book. D (eds) 2001. Peters. Publisher. 1998) indicates that … Rise of the knowledge worker. Initial(s) Year of publication. The silly things in life. 2nd edn. edn. SA. Style manual for authors. J (ed.

and the letters a/b/c should be added to the year of publication. in S Chang (ed. Reference List Ahmadjian. IDRC. ‘Title of chapter/article’. Biodiversity.Format Book chapter/article in a book with different author(s) for each chapter/article Family Name(s) of Author(s) who wrote the chapter/article.). Publisher. Business statistics the easy way. Pearson. 3rd edn. UK. JP 2003b. JP 2003a. International Development Research Centre (IDRC) 1998. In-text Citation Research done by an expert in the field (Ahmadjian 2006) would indicate that … Ahmadjian (2006) observes that … Book corporate author which is also the publisher Name of Corporation (Acronym. Publisher. Title of book. First in-text citation: One famous research centre (International Development Research Centre (IDRC) 1998) has indicated that … The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) (1998) has shown that … Subsequent in-text citations : The IDRC (1998) maintains … An earlier study (IDRC 1998) demonstrates that … Book several books by the same author(s) and published in the same year Family Name(s) of Author(s). 3rd edn. Title of book. Place of Publication. edition. Initial(s) Year of publication a/b/c. Frenchs Forest. A companion to business statistics. Melbourne. Place of Publication. equity and the environment: a review of research for development. in Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Editor(s) (ed. Note: Publications which have the same author(s) and the same year of publication should be ordered alphabetically by title. NSW. pp. page number(s) for the entire chapter/article. if applicable) Year of publication. edition. 29-52. Initial(s) Year of publication. Shannon. 2003b) are reportedly … Shannon (2003b) states that … A Guide to Referencing 43 . A study (Shannon 2003a) shows that … The main issues relating to business statistics (Shannon 2003a. Ottawa. Note: The initial(s) of the editor(s) come(s) before the family name(s). Riley & Sons. Shannon. Oxford University Press. Place of Publication./eds). CL 2006. 2nd edn. Business groups in East Asia. ‘Japanese business groups: continuity in the face of change’. Title of book. Victoria. edition. Publisher.

ZA 1999-2006. Publisher. Collins Publishing House. McGraw Hill. Place of Publication. Brinks. 2. World War I: the war to end all wars. Publisher. Initial(s) Translator’s Family Name. edition. … Book multi-volume publication produced over several years Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s). P 2001-. M & Marx. Restaurants of the world. S. Nguyen & Marx 1984)./eds) Years of publication./eds) Year of publication. Title of book(s). Title of book. vols 1-3. original work published Year of original publication. Note: The above example indicates that the author will develop further volumes to add to the series but these volumes have not been written/published yet. vols 14. trans. Reference List Smithson. (translated) (compiled) (revised) In-text Citation A recently translated book on the subject (Smithson 2005) shows that … A famous publication by Smithson (2005) indicates … Book multi-volume publication with all volumes produced in the same year Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s). Initial(s) (ed. edition. compiled or revised Family Name(s) of Author(s). Adelaide. Australia. Brisbane. Publisher. volume number(s). Angus & Robertson. Title of book(s). I 2005. Emu Press. Initial(s) (ed. London. D Dicks. According to Gadsworth (1935). vol. rev. volume number(s). London. Nguyen and Marx (eds 1984) state that … Gadsworth. Brinks. trans. Initial(s) Year of publication. original work published 1902. C 1935. A unique history of the world. AD (eds) 1984. Place of Publication. Fiction writers in the nineteenth century were a mixed group (eds Brinks. Fiction writers of the nineteenth century: a collection of essays. 1914-1918. Brown (1999-2006) confirms that … Certain restaurants in Vietnam are of a world-class standard (Tilly 2001-). Oxford University Press. edition. Brown. Doing business in Asia. Tilly. Nguyen. Note: Use the following abbreviations in the list of references only: trans. comp. .A Guide to Referencing 44 Format Book translated. Rome. Place of Publication.

Title of document/information/annual report. RL 1996. Publisher. Wilkins. Publisher. Tooronga. A combined Australian War Memorial and Department of Defence paper (Wilkins 1996) shows how … Wilkins (1996) stipulates that … Company/Industry document/ information/ annual report Name of Company/Industry/Authoring Organisation (Acronym. if applicable) Year of publication. RMIT University. Australian Government Publishing Service. Publisher. if applicable) Year of publication. In-text Citation The regulations pertaining to the use of IT facilities at both RMIT campuses in Vietnam (RMIT University 2008) state … RMIT University’s (2008) brochure states that … Chart/Table/Graph/ Map/Image Note: For information on citing and referencing charts/tables/graphs/maps and images. A 2005 report on corporate social responsibility (Coles Myer Ltd 2005) articulates how . IT services & rules of use. Australia. Place of Publication. see pages 65-69 of this guide. Australian War Memorial & Department of Defence. Vietnam.. Coles Myer. Place of Publication. Title of brochure. Victoria. Coles Myer’s (2005) Corporate social responsibility report shows how … without author(s) with an authoring organisation A Guide to Referencing 45 . Canberra. Reference List RMIT University 2008. Coles Myer Ltd 2005. Place of Publication.. Title of document/information/annual report.Format Brochure corporate author and publisher are the same Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Company/Industry document/ information/ annual report with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). Name of Company/Industry/Authoring Organisation. Corporate social responsibility report. Initial(s) Year of publication. Australia at the ready!.

A Guide to Referencing 46 Format Company/Industry document/ information/ annual report with corporate author(s) draft. An unpublished conference paper (Pannan. van der Craats and McGovern (2002) describe … . Family Name(s) of Author(s). commissioned by Name of Commissioning Body. unpublished paper presented nd to 2 RMIT Teaching and Learning Forum. Title of document/information/ annual report. said that … Conference/ Seminar/Forum paper/presentation unpublished Pannan. 24 October 2002. The New Economy in East Asia and the th Pacific: Proceedings of the 27 Pacific Trade and Development Conference.. Pannan. van der Craats. Ltd 2003. 24 October. Location of Conference/Seminar/ Forum. Australian National University. if applicable)/Family Name(s) of Author(s). Routledge Curzon. Place of Publication. ‘Multi-level stepwise approach to engaging all academic staff in on-line delivery’. In-text Citation A draft report (CHL Consulting Co. Dong (2001). New York. Name of Conference/Seminar/Forum. Family Name(s) of Author(s). L. Publisher. in Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Editor(s) (ed. C & McGovern.. unpublished paper presented to Name of Conference/ Seminar/Forum. unpublished draft report. commissioned report Name of Commissioned Body (Acronym. pp./eds). Initial(s) Year report was completed. at a conference. day month paper was presented. page number(s) for the entire paper/ presentation. J 2002. Initial(s) Year of publication. ‘The Chinese experience’. Melbourne.. unpublished draft report. commissioned by North Tipperary County Council. Dong. Initial(s) Year paper was presented. Location of Conference/Seminar/Forum. in P Drysdale (ed. 20-22 August 2001. day(s) month year held. Canberra. Y 2001. A tourism development strategy for North Tipperary. ‘Title of paper/presentation’. van der Craats & McGovern 2002) confirms that . Reference List CHL Consulting Co. Ltd (2003) reported that … Conference/ Seminar/Forum paper/presentation published Note: The initial(s) of the editor(s) go(es) in front of the family name(s).. ‘Title of paper/ presentation’. Ltd 2003) was tabled and … CHL Consulting Co. A paper presented at the 27th Pacific Trade and Development Conference (Dong 2001) recalls how . unpublished. day(s) month year held.). 130139.

The encyclopaedia Initial(s) (ed. In-text Citation The Macquarie concise dictionary (Smytheson 2006) defines … Smytheson’s (2006) sixth edition of the Macquarie concise dictionary is a good example of … Note: An in-text citation is required. Ugall 1923). if applicable) Year of publication. Note: A dictionary must be cited in the text. 6 edn. edition. Government document Name of Government Department (Acronym. Publisher. Publisher. Publisher. Place of Publication. Prastique Publishers. 9. However. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. of modern prosthetics. The prosthetics used at the beginning of the twentieth century were rather odd (ed. but it does not need to appear in the reference list. Note: An encyclopaedia must be cited in the text. 1923) publication includes rather odd images of … Note: An in-text citation is required. Initial(s) (ed. Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006. Place of Publication. Sydney. edition. number. 4th edn. First in-text citation: There is a real need to deliver e-services using multiple channels (Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006) and … A Guide to Referencing 47 .Format Dictionary Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of document. Ugall’s (ed. but it does not need to appear in the reference list. However. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. Prague./eds) Year of publication./eds) Year of publication.) 1923. Reference List Smytheson. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. Title of encyclopaedia. Title of dictionary. Z (ed. Delivering Australian government services: managing multiple channels. vol. volume. Macquarie th concise dictionary. Ugall. Encyclopaedia with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s). Macquarie Dictionary Publishers. Place of Publication. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. C 2006.

Canberra. Snooks & Co. August. Australia. 1632. Style manual for authors. Subsequent in-text citations: The government document (DFAT 2003) goes on to state that . report no. In-text Citation The Department of Finance and Administration (DOFA) 2006) stipulates that … Subsequent in-text citations: Availability of finance is closely connected to the level of services provided (DOFA 2006).. Ordinance or Regulation must always include the Short Title (in italics). and so on) if your lecturer tells you to. Note: Usually no reference is needed. month of publication. in the Beanland Library (ILC). Note: Only include an entry in the list of references for legislation (Regulations. Government legislation Act. Note: Government publications can be reported in a variety of ways. cat. First in-text citation: Contracting services out is becoming very common (Administrative Review Council (ARC) 1998) and … Subsequent in-text citations: The ARC (1998) found that … First in-text citation: The publication by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2003). document/report/catalogue number. The contracting out of government services: report to the Attorney-General. The jurisdiction must be made clear. should be compulsory reading for all posted officers. Title of document. 2002. if applicable) Year of publication. Place of Publication. DOFA (2006) indicates that … Government document government department/ organisation is the author with identifying numbers Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. editors and printers. ARC. Name of Government Department (Acronym. if applicable) Year of publication. Place of Publication. Agricultural practices in the South Pacific. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) 2003. Australia. Publisher. Title of document.A Guide to Referencing 48 Format government department/ organisation is the author without identifying numbers Note: This includes departmental reports. no.. 42. Publisher. Reference List Commonwealth Publishing. document/report/catalogue number. Barton.8. committees of review and committees of parliament. ACT. either by including it in the body of the text or in brackets after the title. reports and commissions of enquiry. Ordinance or Regulation Note: The first in-text citation of an Act. Ordinances. Administrative Review Council (ARC) 1998. for further examples. DFAT. Acts of Parliament. Canberra. and then put it in a First in-text citation: The Trade Practices Act 1974 (Commonwealth of Australia) provides that … . Agricultural practices in the South Pacific. See.

Place of Publication. volume 151. US patent 4. Initial(s) Year of publication. Study materials lecture notes Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s). Phoenix Publishing. AP. Title of handbook. or both. and abbreviated name of report series. edition. Wilmott and Znaiden’s (1991) patented idea will . RMIT University. Wilmott. Cosmetic preparation incorporating stabilised ascorbic acid. ‘Accountancy and the bottom line’. lecture notes distributed in Course Code Course Name. ‘Title of lecture notes’. descriptive title and NOT in italics. 24 November.Format Subsequent in-text citations may refer to it by an undated. Rome. Mahon. Initial(s) Year notes were distributed. The lecturer (Bales 2005) stated that … Bales (2005) suggests that … A Guide to Referencing 49 ...983. Name(s) of Assignee(s). Note: If you have been instructed by your lecturer to use footnotes in your referencing. TK 1954. Bales. patent number. lecture notes distributed in ACCT2162 Ethical Issues in Accountancy. Reference List separate list headed ‘Legislation’ at the end of the list of references. and beginning page number. day month of distribution. and then put it in a separate list headed ‘Legal Case(s)’ at the end of the list of references. Subsequent in-text citations: The Fair Trading Act covers … Government legislation legal case Note: To fully cite legal authorities list Name of Case (date) or volume number. day month year of registration of patent. 8 January 1991. Avon Products Inc. Patent title. Note: Usually no reference is needed. Initial(s). Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd v. JM & Znaiden. Note: Only include an entry in the list of references for legal cases if your lecturer tells you to. Amadio (1983) 151 CLR 447 … This case appeared in 1983 in the Commonwealth Law Reports. Handbook Family Name(s) of Author(s). Handbook for housekeepers: a guide for domestic staff in diplomatic residences. Name of Institution. Publisher. Y 2005. Location of Institution. Patent Family Name(s) of Inventor(s). ask your lecturer for guidance on this. Melbourne.. Appropriate protocols for domestic staff (Mahon 1954) are important if … Mahon (1954) alleges that … The cosmetic industry is set to benefit from the patented concept of incorporating stabilised ascorbic acid into the preparation of cosmetics (Wilmott & Znaiden 1991). In-text Citation Subsequent in-text citations: One of the shortcomings of the Trade Practices Act is … First in-text citation: In Victoria this is covered by the Fair Trading Act 1999.382. starting on page 447.

Name of Centre/Faculty/Unit.A Guide to Referencing 50 Format Study materials reading brick Note: A reading brick is a collection of hardcopy materials photocopied from academic sources and supplied to students by lecturers. T 1999. Name of Institution. In-text Citation Buddhist economics (Weber 1999) stipulates … Weber (1999) explains that … Family Name(s) of Author(s). day month distributed. Brick of readings distributed for Course Code Course Name. Chen and Davidovic’s (2006) management theory and practice study guide states that … Study materials workshop/tutorial handout ‘Title of handout’ Year distributed. workshop handout. deep ecology.. vol. Name of Journal the source originally came from. number/issue. Name of Institution. 349-361. A 2006. Kansas City. Location of Institution. ‘Gandhi. Initial(s) Year of publication.. Rural land use in the 1890s (Baxter 2001) was . Location of Institution. page number(s) for the entire article. Award. RMIT University. Chen & Davidovic 2006) underlines the importance of … Barries. JS 2001. Location of Institution. Chen. Location of Institution. S & Davidovic. volume. The Academic Skills Program handout (‘Definitions of economic terms’ 2009) provides … The handout. L. Management theory (Barries. ‘Title of reading brick’. defines … Thesis/ Dissertation unpublished Baxter. Name of Institution. Melbourne. Management theory & practice: study guide. Family Name(s) of Author(s). Journal of Peace Research. 3. peace research and Buddhist economics’. 2 April. pp. Title of study guide. University of Kansas. ‘Rural land use and value in Northern Victoria 1880-1960’. ‘Definitions of economic terms’ 2009. Initial(s) Year of completion of thesis/dissertation. workshop/tutorial handout. ‘Definitions of economic terms’ (2009). Study materials study guide Barries. RMIT University. Initial(s) Year of publication. Family Name of Author. Centre for Planning & Developmental Studies. Name of Institution. 36. Course Code Course Name. Vietnam. Melbourne. month of publication. PhD thesis. Reference List Weber. RMIT University. USA. ‘Title of thesis/dissertation’. ASPG1001 Academic Skills Program. Baxter (2001) investigated … . Brick of readings distributed for ECON1192 Macroeconomics. no.

vol. Keech-Marx (2008) implies that .Format Thesis/Dissertation abstract Family Name of Author. number/issue. Dissertation Abstracts International. Journal Name. no. ‘Title of thesis/dissertation’. Initial(s) Year of completion of thesis/dissertation. volume. pp. 142-143.. page number(s) for the entire abstract. month of publication. 167. Reference List Keech-Marx. U 2008. 4. A Guide to Referencing 51 .. ‘West Timor: food security and food aid’. In-text Citation The world’s aid agencies and NGOs have a case to answer in West Timor (Keech-Marx 2008).

A Guide to Referencing 52 .

Newspapers. Magazines and Newsletters) PERIODICALS .PERIODICALS (Paper Journals.

PERIODICALS (Paper Journals. or a combination of. 19. 70-90. 2003) seem to say … Sloman et al. ‘Gandhi. volume. 3. January. Newspapers. Weber. ‘Cyberethics: morality and law in cyberspace’. ‘Frequency illusions and other fallacies’. (2003) seem to be saying that . Research (Weber 1999) indicates that . the following: season. Internet International. Initial(s) Year of publication. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. P 2007. pp. month. 36. p. Over. T 1999. In-text Citation Other older studies (Sloman et al. Z & Tyrell. volume. Reference List Sloman. 296-309. month of publication. Use whatever information is available for your entry in the list of references. Journal of Information Ethics. vol. L & Stibel. number or issue. D. 349-361. March. 113. Scams are on the increase (Boswell & Tyrell 2007) and … Lencioni.. SA. number/issue. Journal Name. April. ‘Title of article’. Magazines and Newsletters) Format Journal article with author(s) with month with volume and number/issue Note: Journals are designated by any one. page number(s) for the entire article. Family Name(s) of Author(s). no. pp. 91. July. Harvard Business Review... p. peace research and Buddhist economics’. Journal of Peace Research. 14. Spinello.. R 2005. Spring. issue 2. no. PM 2002. According to Weber (1999) … Boswell. vol. deep ecology. pp. 1. JM 2003. Lencioni (2002) reported that … Spinello (2005) maintains that … A Guide to Referencing 53 . Slovak. ‘Make your values mean something’. ‘Scams on the increase’. vol.

. The Age. M 2005. 6. day month of publication. if applicable). p. Newsletter without author(s) with an authoring organisation Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Initial(s) Year of publication.. Reference List Len. Kemp (2003) reported that … Isikoff. 17 May. p. 1 (Business section). number/issue.A Guide to Referencing 54 Format Newsletter with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). volume. ‘Title of article’. day month of publication. Title of newsletter. ‘Leak pushes AMP to record low’. A report (Kemp 2003) shows how much . if applicable) Year of publication. The best walks in the Blue Mountains. Y 2003. An investigation into the information leak out of the White House (Isikoff 2005) emphasises … Isikoff (2005) reminds us that … . 51. The NSW Bushwalker’s newsletter (2007). 4. ‘Leak investigation: an oversight issue?’. Initial(s) Year of publication. no. Name of Authoring Organisation. 15 August. no. S 2003. Newspaper/Magazine Name. demonstrates that … Newspaper/ Magazine article with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). Kemp. Newsweek. NSW Bushwalker 2007. Earth Watch. volume. In-text Citation Environmental issues are of paramount concern throughout Asia (Len 2003). The best walks in the Blue Mountains. 1. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. vol. Len (2003) portrays a sad picture when writing about the condition of the environment at the start of the century. Title of newsletter. 12 April. Environmental issues. 4. day month of publication. 7 August. vol. It is astonishing to see how many beautiful walks there are in the Blue Mountains (NSW Bushwalker 2007). number/issue.

16 August. page number(s) for the entire article (Name of section. ‘Water shortages across the world’. page number(s) for the entire editorial (Name of section. publication. pp. New legal requirements in the world of advertising seem to have sent the advertising giants into a rage (Forbes Magazine 2005). if applicable). day month of publication. Water is becoming a significant problem right across the globe (Thompson 2007). Thompson. 21 September. if applicable). pp. 25 July. 2 (Editorial). 72. if applicable). further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. Forbes Magazine (2005) sets out . Newspaper/ Magazine article with author(s) article is not on continuous pages Family Name(s) of Author(s). ‘Title of article’. ‘Our Earth is already overpopulated’. ‘Title of article’. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. The editorial in The Australian Grazier (2005) emphasises how … A Guide to Referencing 55 .. day month of publication. 3-4. However. Newspaper/Magazine Name. Reference List The Shanghai Daily 2009. Thompson (2007) argues that … Newspaper/ Magazine editorial without author(s) Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of The Australian Grazier 2005. Initial(s) Year of publication. Sydney Morning Herald. but it does not need to appear in the reference list. 5-6. 8.. p. 24 September. Forbes Magazine 2005. A 2007. page number(s) for the entire article but separated with a comma to indicate which pages the article actually appears on (Name of section. ‘Title of editorial’. day month of publication. In-text Citation It would seem that the Earth is in trouble (The Shanghai Daily 2009) and that we … The Shanghai Daily (2009) estimates that … Note: A newspaper/magazine article which does not have an identifiable author should be cited in the text. ‘The front paddock’. The drought is now hitting very hard across much of the eastern seaboard (The Australian Grazier 2005).Format Newspaper/ Magazine article without author(s) Newspaper/Magazine Name Year of publication. ‘Advertising on demand’. p.

A Guide to Referencing 56 .

MULTIMEDIA SOURCES MULTIMEDIA SOURCES .

Mastering integrated HTML and CSS (DeBolt 2007) indicates how . USA. Publisher. materials used. Indianapolis. CD-ROM. Buongiorno Italia! A BBC course for beginners in Italian: programmes 15-20. A 1839. 2nd edn. Title of artwork. The BBC’s Buongiorno Italia! (1984) audio cassette series for learning Italian. CD-ROM. In-text Citation The beautifully executed work. BBC Books 1984. if applicable) Year of publication/recording. Those wanting to learn Italian would be well advised to use a recognised audio cassette series (BBC Books 1984) or a quality video. Canberra. BBC Worldwide Publishing. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. 4th edn. DeBolt (2007) believes that … Note: Also see Music on page 59 of this guide. Title of CD-ROM. Churchill Livingstone. Woman with child. Location of Institution. audio cassette. DeBolt.. London. National Gallery of Australia. Name of Institution where the artwork can be viewed. audio cassette. Format Artwork painting/sculpture/ other Family Name(s) of Artist(s). V 2007.. B & Heath. Title of audio cassette/cassette series. Mastering integrated HTML and CSS. ACT. Wheater’s functional histology: a text and colour atlas (Young & Heath 2000) shows how … Young and Heath (2000) demonstrate how … A Guide to Referencing 57 . Wheater’s functional histology: a text and colour atlas. is excellent for … CD-ROM with author(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s). CD-ROM. is one of the most … Montesorina’s (1839) Woman with child is … Audio cassette Note: Also see Music on page 59 of this guide. Publisher. Place of Publication. check the Online Sources section.MULTIMEDIA SOURCES Note: If you cannot find a particular source type in the Multimedia Sources section. Edinburgh. J 2000. Reference List Montesorina. Initial(s) Year of completion. Woman with child (Montesorina 1839). Young. edition. Initial(s) Year of publication/recording. Wiley Publishing. Place of Publication. oil on canvas.

motion picture. 5 November.A Guide to Referencing 58 Format CD-ROM without author(s) without an authoring organisation Title of CD-ROM Year of publication/recording. Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Director(s). but do not need to appear in the reference list. In-text Citation Guidelines for developing sporting facilities in the region (Best practice in sport 2001) are … Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism development within APEC economies (2001) demonstrates how . Director. commented that … Motion picture (movie/film) Title of motion picture Year of release. CD-ROM. said that . ‘Auditing today’. J Jeunet. Melbourne. lecturer at RMIT University. Chart/Table/Graph/ Map/Image Note: For more information on citing and referencing charts/tables/graphs/maps and images.. Amelie (2001). Director(s). Name of Institution. Amelie 2001. The main characters in one of the movies (Amelie 2001) are … The film. in a lecture on 5 November 2008. Lecture Family Name(s) of Lecturer(s). Andrew Hopkins. During a lecture on 5 November 2008 in ACCT2161 Auditing at RMIT University. Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Producer(s). Place of Publication. Name of Film Studio. motion picture. Publisher. A 2008. Initial(s) Year lecture was delivered. Melbourne. CD-ROM. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the source. Hopkins. lecture in ACCT2161 Auditing. Producer(s)... see pages 65-69 of this guide. is an example of … . Location of Institution. lecture in Course Code Course Name. or if your lecturer requires such an entry. Location of Film Studio. Melbourne. Note: Also see Music on page 59 of this guide. Reference List Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism development within APEC economies 2001. Producers. However. Andrew Hopkins. Toulouse.. Singapore. UGC. RMIT University. J Deschamps & C Ossard. Blackwell Publishers. ‘Title of lecture’. Note: Lectures should be cited in the text. day month lecture was delivered. France. the lecturer.

reported that . mobile phone number. Manager of VEG... in Mr Nguyen Thai Minh’s presentation on 15 August 2009.. Title of album. owner of LES. Family Name(s) of Author(s)/ Speaker(s). During a conversation on 6 July 2009.. Place of Publication/ Recording. Family Name(s) of Artist(s). B 2004. However. New York. Sam Keech-Marx (14 March 2009). audio CD. the fifth studio album from Basement Jaxx (2009). stands out. President of the ANU Mountaineering Club. Title of album. text message. Publisher/Recording Studio. Scars (Basement Jaxx 2009) is an album which comes to mind when … Amongst the new releases. Place of Publication/Recording. audio CD/MP3/cassette/other. In-text Citation The occasion featured ‘Tangled up in blue’ from Blood on the tracks (Dylan 2004) and other … Dylan’s (2004) rendition of … Basement Jaxx 2009.Format Music one song/track on a CD/album one section of a longer work Music entire CD/album Family Name(s) of Artist(s). XL Recordings. 25 November. Personal communication .letter oral presentation delivered by student(s)/ non-expert(s) . The table showing the increase in Vietnam’s GDP.. further details may be given in the reference list if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the reference. in the text of your assignment or in the reference list. Lisa Hamilton. Blood on the tracks. F 2009. Sony. confirms that … Note: Information obtained from these sources might not be credible and thus might not be accepted in an academic paper. stated that . or if your lecturer requires such an entry. Publisher/Recording Studio. Initial(s) Year of communication. interview/text message/other. audio CD/MP3/ cassette/other. London. Scars. Note: Personal communications should be cited in the text. ‘Title of track’. Initial(s)/ Name of Band or Group Year of recording/distribution. Initial(s)/ Name of Band or Group Year of recording/distribution. ‘Tangled up in blue’. Reference List Dylan. In a text message from Frank Bethons (25 November 2009)..other Bethons. stated that . he stated that … When interviewed on 14 March 2009. Scars.interview conversation text message (sms) telephone call facsimile . day month of communication. When interviewed. and so on. WARNING: To avoid breaching privacy you MUST obtain permission from the person before including details such as an email address. Sara Jones. but do not need to appear in the reference list. A Guide to Referencing 59 . audio CD.

radio interview.A Guide to Referencing 60 Format Radio interview Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. ABC Radio. Sydney. Title of program. radio program/ episode. ‘Title of interview’. Mornings with Margaret Throsby. Title of program. ‘Music deli’. BBC Radio. sheet music. day month of broadcast. Scarlatti. Editio Musica. Name of Broadcaster. ‘Title of episode’. is definitely … Subsequent in-text citations: The ABC (2006) interview series is a good example of … First in-text citation: Radio program/episode Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. 18 September. 200 sonatas (piano) volume 2. radio interview. Place of Broadcast. London. Place of Broadcast. Mornings with Margaret Throsby (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2006). gives cause for concern. British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2006) interview with Scott Baker on Mornings with Margaret Throsby. day month of broadcast. if applicable) Year of broadcast. is … . Title of piece. if applicable) Year of broadcast. ‘Music deli’. has proved to be very popular with the over 65s. 200 sonatas (piano) volume 2. ‘Interview with Scott Baker’. In-text Citation First in-text citation: A recent interview on ABC Radio. Budapest. radio episode. Place of Publication. Pieces used for the Associated Board’s piano examinations are often taken from 200 sonatas (piano) volume 2 (Scarlatti 2004) which is available from … Scarlatti’s (2004) collection. Reference List Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2006. Initial(s) Year of publication. D 2004. Sheet music Family Name(s) of Composer(s). 16 October. The wide variety of music available on radio (British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) 2006) is a great resource for … A British Broadcasting Commission’s (BBC) (2006) music program. sheet music. Publisher. BBC classical music. Name of Broadcaster. Subsequent in-text citations: The BBC (2006) has some very popular programs.

. USA. Hamilton. Name of Broadcaster. day month delivered. Australian National University. Food allergies (NINE Network 2008) are becoming a big problem in … NINE Network’s (2008) episode of TODAY. if applicable) Year of broadcast.Format Speech formal. Canberra. Place of Broadcast. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. FOX. Opening Address at the Asia Today Forum. speech. Location of Institution. television advertisement. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Sydney. is a good example. television episode. Channel 9 TV. is a good reminder … Note: If part of an ongoing series. ACT. Name of Forum/ Occasion at which speech was delivered. Name of Company/Authoring Organisation. ‘Title/ Message of advertisement’. NINE Network 2008. Title of program. ‘Are you fit enough?’. episode number. A Guide to Referencing 61 . 5 January. ‘Title of speech’. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. is a good example of . ‘Are you fit enough?’. ‘Adverse events’ (Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008). ‘Adverse events’. Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX) 2008. Pura Pty Ltd. television episode. day month of broadcast. Name of Institution where speech was delivered. then the program/series name. ‘Title of episode’. 30 September. day month of broadcast. TA 2008. First in-text citation: Social problems are common themes in television dramas and the latest episode of House. In-text Citation A prominent Vietnamese academic (Nguyen 2008) has strongly disagreed with … Nguyen (2008) disagrees with … Television advertisement PuraMilk 2008. TODAY. television advertisement. The Fox Broadcasting Company’s (FOX) (2008) latest episode of House. Place of Broadcast. Reference List Nguyen. list the episode title first. season number. ‘Title of episode’. if applicable) Year of broadcast. television episode. television episode. ‘You deserve the best diary product’. episode 3. Name of Broadcaster. season 5. speech. NZ.. Title of program. Place of Broadcast. 5 April. ‘Adverse events’. Name of Product Year of publication/broadcast. One particular television advertisement (PuraMilk 2008) is … The PuraMilk (2008) advertisement is … Television episode Note: For direct quotations. ‘Vietnam in st the 21 century’. delivered by expert(s) Family Name(s) of Presenter(s). House. if it is available. Initial(s) Year speech was delivered.

. Title of program. is … FOX (2008) is … Television interview Note: For direct quotations. if it is available. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. go to the television channel’s website and use the transcript. if applicable) Year of broadcast. is an example of . ‘Top heads’. Sydney. is a … Subsequent in-text citations: Note: For direct quotations. day month of broadcast. The 7. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2004) interview series. The ABC (2005) is … . day month of broadcast. 17 April. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s (ABC) (2005) program. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005. The 7. television interview..30 report. Place of Broadcast. First in-text citation: When interviewed on the ABC TV’s.. Name of Broadcaster. First in-text citation: Andrew Denton is a highly engaging and sensitive interviewer as is demonstrated by his careful managing of the interview with Raelene Boyle (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004). if it is available.30 report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2005). The 7. ABC TV. television interview.30 report. television program. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) 2004. if applicable) Year of broadcast..A Guide to Referencing 62 Format Reference List In-text Citation Subsequent in-text citations: The latest episode of House. Enough rope with Andrew Denton. Enough rope with Andrew Denton. ABC TV. Sydney. Title of program. Subsequent in-text citations: The ABC (2004) is … Television program Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. television program. Name of Broadcaster. ‘Adverse events’ (FOX 2008). the Treasurer said . 20 November. ‘Title of episode’. Place of Broadcast.

. Publisher/ Distributor. video recording. Title of video/series. is a very … Subsequent in-text citations: Health issues need to be at the forefront of government policy making (NSWHD 2006). Place of Recording. video recording. Title of video/series. NSWHD. NSW Health Department (NSWHD) 2006.. Publisher/Distributor. should be shown to all school children so that .. Subsequent in-text citations: An informative video recording (EMA 1994) shows how . ‘You are what you eat!’. ‘You are what you eat!’.Format Video recording Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. South Melbourne. day month of recording. Accounting for the environment.. ‘Title of episode’. Name of Authoring Organisation (Acronym. Canberra. if applicable) Year of recording. The video produced by Educational Media Australia (EMA) (1994). video recording. In-text Citation First in-text citation: The problems of pollution and land use in Australia (Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994) need to be . EMA’s (1994) video recording displays … Note: If the video is part of a series. EMA. day month of recording. if applicable) Year of recording. Place of Recording. First in-text citation: One’s health is based on many things (NSW Health Department (NSWHD) 2006) and … The NSW Health Department’s (NSWHD) (2006) video recording. Reference List Educational Media Australia (EMA) 1994. 12 May. list the episode title first. 18 June. video recording. The NSWHD (2006) is determined to … A Guide to Referencing 63 .. A healthy diet for the busy person.. then the series name.

A Guide to Referencing 64 .

GRAPHS. TABLES.CHARTS. MAPS AND IMAGES . GRAPHS. TABLES. MAPS AND IMAGES CHARTS.

Put this Figure Number immediately beneath each chart. maps and images with Figure 1/2/3 in the order they appear in your assignment. Use the Figure Number when referring to the charts. graphs. If you want to reproduce a chart. it is best to copy it as an image and then paste the image into your assignment. map or image. graph. map or image. graphs. in the text of your assignment. map or image. A Guide to Referencing 65 . graph. maps and images you have included. Note that you must refer. maps and images you have included in your assignment. tables. and after the Figure Number. graphs. graph. Tables. They must not be included for decorative purposes only.Charts. table. to all charts. Maps and Images Rules Charts. graph. table. Use the phrase ‘Reproduced from’ in the in-text citation if you do not change the chart. table. Include the source in the list of references. map and image. Graphs. Label all charts. table. graphs. The in-text citation should appear immediately beneath each chart. Use the phrase ‘Adapted from’ in the in-text citation if you change the formatting or paraphrase or summarise the text. tables. Note that you do not put these in-text citations in brackets. tables. tables. maps and images must be cited and referenced along with all other information you use in your assignment.

‘Common European framework’. Your own writing As Figure 1 shows.org/researchers/common_european_framework. table. Reproduced from: … Figure 1.d. graph. Reproduced from: IELTS Australia n. as can be seen in this chart from the IELTS Australia website: Your own writing Add the chart to your paper Put the following under the chart/table/graph/map/image: Figure 1.ielts. <http://www. You want to show the reader that you have not changed the material. IELTS.d.aspx>.. .A Guide to Referencing 66 Reproducing a chart. map or image This is similar to quoting text (direct quotation) from an article. … Reference Add an entry to your reference list IELTS Australia n. If you want to use this information from a website: Include it in your assignment this way: … matched to the results of the other tests. table. viewed 12 October 2007.

If you want to adapt this information from a website: Include it in your assignment this way: … correlation between the IELTS score and the Cambridge testing suite. <http://www.ielts. You want to show the reader that you are using another author’s ideas. Adapted from: … Figure 2.Adapting a chart. ‘Common European framework’. viewed 12 October 2007. A Guide to Referencing 67 . map or image This is similar to paraphrasing or summarising. but you have changed the words or formatting to suit your paper. as can be seen from information from the IELTS Australia website: Your own writing IELTS high score medium score low score Cambridge Tests CPE CAE. graph.aspx>. KET Add only the information you need for your paper Put the following under the chart/table/graph/map/image: Figure 2.d. … Reference Add an entry to your reference list IELTS Australia n. table..d. FCE PET. Adapted from: IELTS Australia n. table.org/researchers/common_european_framework. Your own writing As Figure 2 shows. IELTS.

image. table. Flickr. Reproduced from: Showaa 2007 Reference Add an entry to your reference list Showaa. J 2007.com/photos/joiseyshowaa/1400175456/>. ‘My tree at dusk’. <http://www.flickr. . Figure 3. 17 September. table. map or image from an online source Note: An image is cited in the same way as a chart. graph or map. graph.A Guide to Referencing 68 Citing a chart. viewed 1 December 2009.

Publisher. London. page number(s) for the entire article. Title of book. 194201. ‘The maiden’. p./eds). in Initial(s) Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Editor(s) (ed. pp. chart/table/graph/map/image. Initial(s) Year of completion. May. graph. Psychological Science. image. 2. Art of the early twentieth century. 3. Initial(s) Year of completion/ publication. ‘Title of chart/ table/graph/map/image’. edition. McGraw Hill. month of publication. are different Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Creator(s). and the author(s)/ editor(s) of the book. 57. page number(s) on which the chart/table/ graph/map/image appears. S 1991. map or image from a hardcopy source Format Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image hardcopy (book) author(s)/creator(s) of chart/table/ graph/map/image. U 1908. Adapted from: Plous 1991 In the text of your assignment: Figure 3 clearly shows that … A Guide to Referencing 69 . In-text Citation Immediately beneath the chart/table/graph/map/image: Figure 1. and the author(s) of the journal article. 199. volume number. Reference List Appleton. are the same Family Name(s) of Author(s)/Creator(s). p. table. number/issue. graph. ‘An attitude survey of animal rights activists’. in P Hollis. Immediately beneath the chart/table/graph/map/image: Figure 3. Plous. Place of Publication. page number(s) on which the chart/table/graph/map/image appears. Journal Name. ‘Title of chart/table/graph/map/image’. no. vol.Citing a chart. Reproduced from: Appleton 1908 In the text of your assignment: Figure 1 exhibits evidence of … Chart/Table/Graph/Map/Image hardcopy (journal article) author(s)/creator(s)of chart/table/ graph/map/image. chart/table/graph/map/image.

A Guide to Referencing 70 .

KEY INFORMATION FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS AND THE LIST OF REFERENCES COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS REFERENCES KEY INFORMATION COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS REFERENCES .

Sometimes people refer to this page as the ‘CatalogingIn-Publication’ or ‘CIP’ page.Key Information for In-text Citations and the List of References Books All the information you need to write a reference (except the page number) can be found on the title page at the front of the book. These examples show the information you need to write a reference. A Guide to Referencing 71 In an Australian Book Year of publication Author Publisher Title Place of publication Year of publication In a British Book Publisher In an American Book Publisher Place of publication Place of publication Year of publication Author Title .

Opening the ‘print’ or ‘printerfriendly’ view of an article can make it easier to find the key information. Use the ‘published’ date for the article date. A Guide to Referencing The author is at the top of the article. .72 News websites It is often difficult to identify which information to cite on a cluttered webpage.

The Boston Globe.Stockman. people who work at the newspaper called The Boston Globe. <http://www. not two. ‘For those excluded. This article has one author. The correct reference is: 73 . … The news website name may not be at the top left.com/news/world/articles/2006/10/10/for_those_excluded_loan _program_is_no_success>. loan program is no success’. A Guide to Referencing Pay careful attention to who wrote the article. F 2006. F & Staff. helped write the article.boston. NOT . 10 October. G 2006. ‘Globe Staff’ means. Sometimes it is near the title of the article.Stockman. viewed 17 November 2006.

p. ed.g./chs col./eds edn et al. cat. f./paras pt Pty pub.d./cols comp. e. Ltd n. art. ch.’. Inc. n. rev./ff. para. id./vols Limited no date (of publication) no place (of publication) number/numbers page/pages paragraph/paragraphs part Proprietary published revised supplement translated unpublished volume/volumes Incorporated the same that is figure/figures and others and the following page/and the following pages edition editor/editors for example compiled column/columns chapter/chapters compare catalogue Latin for ‘circa’./nos p. cf. vol. no. unpub. suppl.NOT ‘edn. which means ‘approximately’ article appendix Full Form . fig. trans. c./figs i.) A Guide to Referencing Abbreviation app.74 Commonly Used Abbreviations Note: Do not put a full stop/period after an abbreviation which ends with the last letter of the full version of the term you are using (for example: ‘edn’ for ‘edition’ .e./pp.

Harvard Business Review.au>.abs.au>. Mastering integrated HTML and CSS. pp. N 2007. Queensland. Khadem. La.gov. lecture in ACCT2161 Auditing. X & Carring. DeBolt. p. Macmillan.stm>. 15 November. no. <http://news_africaonline /830785. Wiley Publishing. ‘Make your values mean something’.). editors and printers 2002. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004. Oxford University Press. ‘Auditing today’. 3rd edn. posted 18 October.REFERENCES Ahmadjian. Tooronga. Dong. 1 (Business section). ABS. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009. p. Hopkins. AfricaNews.0. ‘Leak pushes AMP to record low’. ‘Lid stays on wages growth’. Melbourne. in P Drysdale (ed. 7 August. Coles Myer Ltd 2005. viewed 18 August 2005. 113. in S Chang (ed. John Wiley & Sons. ‘The Chinese experience’. 29-52. 4 April. Indianapolis.html>.. Routledge Curzon. viewed 17 November 2009.. A Guide to Referencing 75 . edn. ‘Emotional intelligence: what it is and why it matters’. 5th edn. Melbourne. <http://math.html>.univ-lille1. Victoria.55. viewed 2 February 2009. John Wiley & Sons. PM 2002. P 2007. USA. Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism development within APEC economies 2001. Corporate social responsibility report. 2nd edn.). S (eds) 1992. New Jersey. viewed 12 November 2009. G 2007. ‘Customer loyalty in web-based retailing’. RMIT University. pp. 1. Y 2001. Wine manufacturing in Australia. Australian Journal of Management. Hoboken. OVRC database.ibisworld. DictionaryOnLine database. no. Australian National University. KV 2005. Brisbane.fr/~portal/index. Dictionary of money and finance. ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’. viewed 30 September 2000. V 2007. <http://www. Portal. viewed 27 August 2007. UK. The Age. S 2003. 4824. P & Sherriff. viewed 14 November 2007. Australia. PhD thesis. vol.com. The Consortium for Emotional Intelligence.org/reports/what_is_emotional_intelligence. C 2000. Zietlow. Online Books database. Blackwell Publishers. Kemp. Style manual for authors. J. Inc. 32. <http://www. Mental health in Australia: a snapshot. p. 113-134. IBISWorld Pty Ltd 2005. Singapore. A 2008. pp. 20-22 August 2001. CD-ROM. New York. viewed 28 November 2005. 6th rev. Brewer. AG 2007. 1 (Business section). Lencioni. 4th edn. ADT database. Carring. cat. CL 2006. 130-139. 5 November. RMIT University. ‘Japanese business groups: continuity in the face of change’. The New Economy in East Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the 27th Pacific Trade and Development Conference. Abstract mathematical theory. CD-ROM. Hankin.eiconsortium. ‘Too big to fail: Congo’s faltering economy’ 2009.001. Coles Myer. JA & Seidner. The Age. viewed 16 November 2007. Business groups in East Asia. Cherniss. July. Canberra. Canberra. <http://www. Financial management for non-profit organisations: policies and practices. IBISWorld.

A Guide to Referencing 76 .

vn .edu.www.rmit.