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Chapter 2 - Scientific Management
B-Com Part 2 Management Notes

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03-31-2010, 10:30 AM

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Tanha Karim
Mind Reader

Chapter 2 - Scientific Management

1. Definition of Scientific Management Frederick Taylor Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the . OR Discuss the contribution of Frederick W.389 Country: Sponsored Links 03-31-2010.Scientific Management * Main elements of Scientific Management * Various techniques of Scientific Management * Basic Philosophy of Scientific Management __________________ Join Date: May 2009 Location: █║▌│█│║▌║ Age: 26 Posts: 49.Scientific Management Q.Chapter 2 . What is Scientific Management? Discuss the main elements of Scientific Management. 10:30 AM #2 (permalink) Tanha Karim Mind Reader Re: Chapter 2 . Taylor to the theory of Management.

He wrote five books and four papers Shop Management is his important book. and the results of these efforts. Kimball and Kimball An attitude that aims to replace (I think with I know). cause and effect relationships) i. Taylor Taylor started his career as an apprentice (labourer) in a small machine shop in Philadelphia in 1876. the organizations of departments. the elimination of wastes and increase of efficiency in all phases of industrial administration where experience and date are applicable.e. he joined the Midvale Steel Works in 1878 as a machinist and then became a foreman and later rose to the position of the chief engineer. materials. the character of methods and processes. scientific management represents a body of knowledge that is concerned primarily with the discovery of casual relationships (i. with special emphasis on the discovery of the best method in the light of the available man-power. Frederick W. In a nutshell. It points out the method of intelligently directing the construction and arrangement of factory buildings. Join Date: May 2009 Location: █║▌│█│║▌║ Age: 26 Posts: 49.389 Country: Peter F.best and the cheapest way. Drucker The operational study of work. cause and effect relationship between the efforts expended for a given objective. In the later part of his career. he worked as . the analysis of work into its simplest elements and the systematic improvement of worker's performance of each element. and technology.e. Owing to his sincerity of purpose and devotion to duty.

Development of a true science for each element of a man's job to replace the old rule of thumb method. not discord. education. • • • . Maximum output in place of restricted output. management entrusted with the planning of work and workmen to look after the execution of plans. The scientific selection. training and development of workers for every job. Intimate. An almost equal distribution or work and responsibility between management and workmen.management consultant of a steel company. not rule of thumb (i. 1. 2. Principles of Scientific Management Taylor's concept of scientific management consisted especially of a scientific approach to management.. not individualism. Harmony. friendly cooperation between management and workers to ensure that work is done in accordance with the principles of the science which have been developed in accordance with the planned jobs and tasks. not methods based no practical sense and experience rather than exact rulers or calculations). The aims of concepts of scientific management may be summed up as follows: • Science.. Its primary objective was to replace methods based on trail and error and rule of thumb (i.e. The principles of scientific management may be listed as follows. practical sense and experience rather than exact rules or calculations).e. Cooperation. 3. 4.

• Development of each individual to his greatest efficiency and prosperity. equipments. Describe the various techniques or elements of scientific management? Techniques or Elements of Scientific Management In addition to the above principles and concepts.2. and decide on the best way of doing the job. Taylor developed several techniques or elements.389 Country: . 3. Taylor suggested the use of time study to lay down a fair day's work so as to avoid guesswork and uncertainty in the effort and productivity expected of each worker. materials.Scientific Management Q. 10:30 AM #3 (permalink) Tanha Karim Mind Reader Re: Chapter 2 . Motion Study It is systematic and critical study of the movements of both the worker and the machine so as to identify and eliminate unnecessary and wasteful movements. 03-31-2010. method. It involves analysis of a job into its constituent elements and recording the time in performing each element. Some important of these techniques or elements may be listed as follows: 1. Time Study Time study or work measurement is designed to establish the standard time required to carry out a job under specified conditions. Standardization and Simplification Under scientific management the third element of technique is to lay down the predetermined standards regarding the task. 2. which provide the mechanism for implementing his principles. Join Date: May 2009 Location: █║▌│█│║▌║ Age: 26 Posts: 49.

Four of them i. Functional Foremanship According to Taylor one supervisor cannot be an expert in all aspects of work supervision. i.. gang boss. he suggested that a direct link should be created between remuneration and productivity for motivating workers.. Wage Plan with Differential Piece Rate System Taylor emphasized the need for scientific determination of remuneration for workers. speed boss. quality and cost and working conditions standardization helps to simply work. time and cost clerk and shop disciplinarian. . For this purpose. 6. he developed the differential piece rate system of wage payment. And the other four. Each operation is to be performed at the optimum efficiency. route clerk. Scientific Task Planning It is the technique of forecasting and designing ahead or in advance every step in a long series of separate operations. He suggested the system of functional foremanship in which eight supervisors supervise a worker's job. 4. In this connection. are concerned with the planning of work in the factory office.e.time. 5. where it is to be done and when it is to be done. Scientific task planning provides answer to the questions like what work is to be done. Incentive. More efficient routing systems and works scheduling were developed for effective planning of work. repair boss and inspector are involved in the execution of work at the shop flour.e. ensure interchangeability to parts to ensure uniformity of operations and facilitate comparisons of efficiency. instruction card clerk. how is to be done. Each step is to be taken in the right place of the right degree and at the right time.

Mental Revolution Taylor testifies that in order for the principles of scientific management to succeed. low rate for those who fail to achieve the standard output and the second higher rate for those who achieve or exceed the standard output. Describe the basic philosophy of scientific management? Basic Philosophy of Scientific Management . Rather than quarrel over profits. Adoption of Exception Principle Taylor recommended adoption of exception principles which means that the management reports should be condensed into comparative summaries giving in detail only the exception to the past standards or average both the especially good and the especially had exceptions. He writes that in its essence. 7. a complete mental revolution on the part of the management and workers was required. 10:31 AM #4 (permalink) Tanha Karim Mind Reader Re: Chapter 2 .3.which he called mutuality of interest. He believed that the management and labour had a common interest in increasing productivity . 03-31-2010. scientific management involves a Join Date: May 2009 Location: █║▌│█│║▌║ Age: 26 Posts: 49. Taylor pleaded for double mental revolution.Scientific Management Q. they should try to increase production. two piece rates are laid down one.Under this system. The basic philosophy of Taylor's scientific management lies in the need for a fundamental change of attitudes on the part of both managers themselves as partners in the joint endeavor rather than adversaries.389 Country: .

Hence he is known as the father of scientific management. the workers trust the managers and cares for the interests and goals of the organisation. Taylor says that the great revolution that takes place in the mental attitude of the two parties under scientific management is that both sides take their eyes off i.complete mental revolution on the part of the workingmen engaged in any particular establishment or industry. Taylor believes that without this complete mental revolution on both sides scientific management does not exist. Such a revolution should be brought about concerning their duties toward their fellow workers in the management toward their workmen and toward all of their daily probelems. He pleaded for equal mental revolution on the part of management . He presented his ideas as a systematic body of thought.e. .the owner of the business and the board of directors. Such a revolution should be brought about concerning their duties towards their work. His main contribution to management practices included the following aspects.. toward their fellowmen and toward their employers. away from the division of the surplus as the all-important matter and they together turn their attention towards increasing the size of the surplus. Critical Evaluation Taylor's scientific management may be critically examined as follows: (a) Contribution to Management Thought Taylor was the first person to develop a systematic and scientific study of management. Scientific management exist when the management cares for the interest and goals of the workers and on the other hand.

Emphasizing the aim of management to the maximum prosperity of the employer along with the maximum welfare of each employee. specialization and division of labour or work have bought about the second industrial revolution.• To emphasize the importance of applying scientific methods of enquiry. It is mechanistic approach ignoring human element in the organisation . observation. (b) Criticism Or Limiatation Inspite of its great contributions.it is concerned with the efficiency of workers in the technical sense emphasizing production only and attaching no importance to the social and psychological need of the workers. Trade unions have opposed scientific management on the ground that it leads to autocratic management and . Moreover. It has also facilitated professionalisation of management. the scientific management approach has been criticized for its various limitations as follows: 1. 2. Stressing the separation of planning of work from its execution so as to enable workers to perform at his best and earn accordingly. He exhorted against the use of trial and error approach to industrial problems. experimentation and inferences to the problems of the management. In this context it has called unfair and undemocratic. Laying emphasis on the necessity of a complete mental revolution on the part of the both workmen and management in order to derive the benefits of scientific management through harmony and cooperation rather then individualism and discord. • • • The primary benefit of scientific management was criticized and proper use of energy ounce of energy.

It assumes that workers are inherently lazy and they require strict supervision and exercise of authority by management. 6 Some say that there is no one best way of doing a job as pleaded by Taylor. i. 4. his techniques continue in the name of work study in India and elsewhere.Scientific Management Thank u 4 sharing __________________ . It has been called by some critics as narrow. Conclusion Despite all criticism of Taylor's scientific management. 03-31-2010.also raises the workload of workers with a corresponding adverse impact on employment of men. 10:51 AM #5 (permalink) Samsoul PhooLon K! Khuw@Hish Re: Chapter 2 . it shall depend on different circumstances of each case. 5. money only. 3. impracticable and titled toward exploitation of workers. because what is the best way. It is said that this approach is primarily concerned with problems at operating level only and it hardly emphasizes the managerial organization and processes. It is also its wrong assumption that workers are motivated by material gains.e.

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