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(May 1979).



in Parallel Boiling

Channel Upflow

of Forced-Convection (III)
Two Channels









ARITOMI, Shigebumi

AOKI and Akira INOUE

Research Laboratory Tokyo Institute

for Nuclear Reactors, of Technology*

Received October 20, 1978 Revised February 16, 1979 The instabilities observed in a parallel-channel system carrying boiling fluid in forced upward flow have been studied theoretically and experimentally, using water as test fluid. The system, where the thermo-hydraulic flow conditions in two channels are different from each other, is studied theoretically and experimentally, in order to make clear the effects of the different conditions on the flow instabilities. The different conditions between parallel channels are made artificially by changing the entrance throttlings, the heater lengthes and the heat fluxes. Consequently, the instability in the system where the own characteristic frequencies are approximatelly equal in two channels almost agree with the one obtained under the uniform condition equivalent to the average operating condition in two channels, such as the different entrance throttlings and the different heater lengthes. On the other hand, the system, where the characteristic frequencies differ from two channels, becomes more stable with increasing the difference of flow condition, such as the different heat fluxes. KEYWORDS: boiling flow instability, parallel-channel system, stable region, unstable boundary, different flow condition, two phase flow, flow oscillation, instability, stability, eigenfreguency, heat flux I. INTRODUCTION

The thermo-hydraulic instabilities in parallel boiling channels have gained momentum in the last decade for their importance to the safety of fossil-fuel boilers, boiling water reactors, as well as steam generators of fast breeder reactors and advanced thermal reactors(1)~(5). Especially, the development of LMFBR becomes the pressing problem for the following energy source taking the place of oil energy, and the development of steam generators for LMFBR becomes one of the most important problem. The plants comprising parallel boiling channels are multifarious, and their operating conditions differ from each other, such as operating fluid, heating method, exit flow condition and system pressure etc. It becomes hence difficult to apply a common approach to the understanding of the thermo-hydraulic instabilities in every systems. The present work attempts to classify and to simplify the phenomena and mechanisms of their instabilities to faciliate their understanding. In companion paper(6)(7), the authors have been shown that the instabilities observed in boiling fluid in forced upward flow through twin parallel channels can be classified
* Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152. — 39 —

and a rofor oscilsec- flowmeter flow The been the that flow test deviced static is. since the details were reported in a companion paper(7). and it is not necessarily a good policy to design the plant with simular channel condition. Technol.. The instability being occurred through the interaction between channels have been taken up in particular. Figure 1 shows the schamatic diagram of the forced-convection water loop operated at atmospheric pressure. the flow conditions between channels are not exactly same.344 J. so as to bring out only the instability caused by the interaction between parallel channels. Studies on the instability under the different flow conditions between channels are only found out in Veziroglus' work(8). Consequently. and the effects of the difference of flow condition on the instabilities generated through the interaction between parallel channels have not been made clear. In their paper. In the plant with parallel boiling channels. The experimental results in two parallel channels with the uniform flow condition confirmed the analytical ones. tion to has suppress a heater. the tion type. The purpose of this paper is to understand these effects. A mathematical model well explained the this phenomenon was proposed. 1 Arrangement of flow loop — 40 — by head of so that oscilla- Ledinegg's only instability the interchanobFig. as (1) the entrance throttlings differ between two channels and (2) the heater lengthes or the heat fluxes differ. into four types. EXPERITENTAL A PPARATUS An outline of the experimental apparatus is mentioned here. It has been deviced to suppress flow oscillations in the loop itself. the mechanisms of these instabilities were not sufficiently understood. dynamic caused action nels served. instability. the above mentioned instabilities of four types were discussed using a common approach. 2 Test section the between has been . Figure mension the inlet of 2 is two the geometry channels plenums. and the instabilities appeared in a system comprising more than three channels showed a behavior quite simular to these in a two-channel system(6). Fig. and the between Each di- parallel the outlet and has channel electrodes tary measuring lation. II. Sci. The instabilities under the hydraulic or the thermal different condition are studied experimentally and theoretically. Nucl.

the initial conditions are solved statically by substituting UinI).Vol. c114. Later initial conditions were adopted in this paper. heat fluxes in two channels and two heater are arranged (2) is shortened as compared between two channels. The are identified. (1).. and uin). (1). so that the heat inputs differ effects of the different heater lengthes on the instability Further. 2. From the analytical results of procedures (1) and (2). The are observed. 2) was installed at the channel (2) to observe the effects of the different entrance The heated tube is made of thin stainless steel. Solving the equiliblium inlet velocity u(1'. and Uin into the continuity and energy equations in each channel. 1. switch (9) (shown in Fig. 1) are provided in parallel to the heater of channel (2). 2 and 5 m/s2 as du2. The resulting velocities re. Making use of this process.'. — 41 — .1dt is assumed by substituting the initial conditions into Eq. The effects of the different heat fluxes on the instability are observed. the heater in channel with the one in channel (1). We selected -5. where Pin Pout agrees in two channels through static analysis. 5 (May 1979) 345 An orifice (not shown in Fig. Initial Condition The continuity and energy equations are solved in each channel and the momentum equations are integrated with the proposal procedure. A revised point and its process are shown below.)(0)1 . since the resistance per unit length is uniform in a series.. du. the variable resistence (8) and a magnetic upstream of the flowineter in throttlings.„/dt is derived from Two procedures are examined to get the initial conditions. 16. 1. -1.) and u)' differ from each other under the different flow contions.). in order to get the different heat fluxes between two channels. III I The analytical ANALYSIS model used in this paper is essentially the same as the one in a com- panion paper(6). Phase Analysis From Eq. -2. In the second condition. cldd (2) The initial conditions are obtained in the same way as the proposal one using the average inlet velocity air. No. (1) The characteristic curves of the static pressure drop Pin-Pout to the inlet velocity are different between two channels. it was found that the instabilities are not dependent on the initial conditions and the magnitude of initial disturbance like the results under the same parallel channel condition(6)(7). as the initial inlet velocities in two channels.0.

( 8 ) agrees with the one of the following equations : because DPT(i-p/o) is occurred by it'/-. (14) of Ref.). The stable boundary and the period of flow oscillation in the unstable region are agree with the results obtained by the analytical model. The throttling coefficient in channel (1) was 110 kg. to observe different entrance throttlings between two channels on the instability. ( 3 ) becomes As the pressure drops from the inlet to the outlet in two for the equilibrium inlet velocity C' and u12. Equation ( 4 ) becomes channels state D are equal to that (5) Substituting for the first term of Eq. throttled flow. (6). is given z-i.)in Eq.s2/m4. (10) is equal to 180. 2) was proportional to the square of the inlet flow rate. Nucl. ( 6 ) We obtain The frequency response of Eq. ..' are calculated. since the pressure drop of the section Lt(in Fig. The amplitude ratio and shift of DPT for m(d/dt)itl.PT=DPTV). Effects of Different Entrance Throttlings between Two Channels A orifice was inserted at the upstream of flowmeter in channel (2) only. Eq. The following equation agrees with the results of Eq. Sci.. — 42 — .346 J.and that which corresponds to the characteristic freque ncy. Expressing perturbation terms.'. Now. since a orifice was not inserted but the flowmeter and the electrode etc.. That is exemplified in APPENDIX.. where the linear is kept. the proportional constant would represent the coefficient of entrance throttle pressure drop. The pulsating is flow with very small amplitude. and the former is called by gain |1G(i)| and the latter the shift in phase tT).6'.for up. and i.)in the steady P.( 8 ) We call "characteristic "characteristic gain" |c| frequency" fc that which tT of Eq..' shifted by 180. Technol. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS IV 1.

Vol. To compare with the result of Fig. boundary Fig. The results in the system with the identical entrance trottling in two channels are reploted from a companion paper(7) in the figure. 5 (May 1979) 347 The experimental and analytical results of the stable boundary are shown in Fig. a dashed line (1) represents the results in the system where the throttling coefficients in two channels are equal and the values adopted for the abscissa and a dashed line (2) represents the one in the system where the throttling coefficients are equal and 110kg. 3.s2/m4 in two channels. the average throttling coefficient channels is introduced as in two In as this a case. that is. 3 Stable boundary in reference different entrance throttlings to very the to solid which experimental With the the view of gaining of a better flow inoscil- sight lation. The experimental results are agree with the analytical ones. represents It becomes represents Fig. unstable curve. 4. into characteristics runs were further region The flow conducted by the were in the stability recorded indicated oscillations Fig. 4 Stable boundary in reference different entrance throttlings to 5 Variation oscillation different nature of flow in reference to entrance throttlings of — 43 — . Fig. dashed close the stable line in line results. No. 16. 3. The quantity adopted for the abscissa is the throttling coefficient in channel (2).

instabilities are nearly equivalent in equal. The amplitudes and periods of flow oscillations lie between the ones at CR=CR'=110 kg. to lengthes Even the and if the there different the the system agree average characteristic in the system in two channel condition almost the operating condition — 44 — . The stable boundaries obtained experimentally and analytically are shown in Fig. 6. Runs.s2/m4 and =298 kg.4 m and LB)=0. m and LB)=0. 5 at C. Both show between frequencies with channels. 2. of both with channels in Fig. the the results same two of same of trend channels. unstable curve. results heater good results lengthes agreement in the system.. 4 and 5. It of to 0. Sci. region The in the in were conducted by and are the the m as with heater The in the in the stability periods in Fig.s2/m4. Technol.4 To the m.3 system on it again the The oscillation condition(7) period independent confirm in equal channel The oscillation amplitude system different to flow the tween the ones in the =0. Close agreement is obtained between the experimental results and the analytical ones. Effects of Different Heater Lengthes between Two Channels Shortening the heater in channel (2) only. the instabilities in the system with the different entrance throttlings between two channels show a behavior simular to equal parallel channels with the average throttling coefficient of two channels. 6 Stable boundary in reference to different heater lengthes different are where with entrance flow own one throttlings condition indicated amplitudes region the shown LB=0. The typical experimental results are shown in Fig.2s/m4.3 m mean the heater lengthes of channels (1) and (2) respectively. by oscillograph and the averages of 20~30 cycles were retained as data.4 m. the different input powers were artificially created between two channels in this case.s2/m4 and C7= 298 kg.3 m and =0.348 J.P=110kg. From the results in Figs.35 m. The results(7) in the system with the same entrance throttling in two channels are replotted. Nucl. to average heater is introduced The analytical the equal shows Fig. each flow the of LB=LB heater oscillation. 6. well the as was same length present different lies beFig. The stable boundaries obtained in the system with the same heater length are shown in the figure at LB=0. consider the results length shown in Fig. in which the average inlet velocity of both channels are used and LB)=0.3 m and 0 . 6. are results further. the shown where are 7. observed 8 at the heater almost results lengths.4 lengthes.

Fig. 9. 1) arranged in parallel to the heater in channel (2). resistence with the fact (8) (in Fig. and analytically ones. that the amplitude are the of heat These heat fluxes and the amplitude are shown ratio same decreases trends as the with ratios of heat flux. conducted in the results in Fig. the heat flux of channel (2) differed from the one of channel (1). As parameter expressing the magnitude of the different heat fluxes between two channels. analytical may be In this important obtained 10. and figure of more in Fig. which is defined by This The The age value was varied boundary results with the variable agree flux. 1). Effects of Different Heat Fluxes between Two Channels By contacting a magnet switch (9) (shown in Fig. 7 Stable boundary heater in reference lengthes to different 8 Variation oscillation different of nature of flow in reference to heater lengthes 3.Vol. ascertain same creases Runs oscillations The typical comes flux and clear the analytically heat aforementioned as the condition. very are shown case. a rate Rq of heat flux was introduced. The difference of thermal conditions was articially created between two channels. It bethe average boundary. 11. No. the stable useful shows flux 9. the The ratio and averwith for to the in- stable flux the The the in this were tendency obtained almost heat boundary in the experimentally increases That and The condition experimental heat at the ratio stable stable of boundary one and the system in Table 1 was in Fig. 5 (May 1979) 349 Fig. in Fig. heat stable — 45 — . is shown stabilization region unstable and the amplitudes periods of flow were observed in various average experimental results of oscillation from ratio the figure flux. with becomes increasing design. 16.

11 Flow oscillation of heat with flux change in ratio Fig. Fig.. preheating results time 12. preheating heat fluxes cases region between with other in two two channels channels. passage system required The results affects through an account the preheating that the region time shown required through with the The from is each region heat required in the fluxes for cases from characteristic frequency different times other between passage of the the channels. Nucl.350 J. 12 Period of flow oscillation in reference to time required for passage through predheating region — 46 — . differ This through different significant difference afore-mentioned different conditions. of oscillation for passage induce mainly both period fall along a single line when in two for of the arranged channels. Sci. All using as experimental the average in Fig. 9 Stable boundary heat in reference fluxes of loop operation Fig. 10 Analytical boundary different results of stable in reference to heat fluxes to different Table 1 Standard conditions Fig. Technol.

instability. DISCUSSION As a result of studying the effects of three kinds of different thermo-hydraulic conditions between two channels on the instability. The difference of flow distribution between two channels are about 6%.Vol. The effects of the heater length on the instability show almost the same trend as the ones of flow distribution. using on is two kinds magnet the of transient in response order condiand the to Based experiment study tion.305 and the other conditions in Table 1. Transient on as the Experiment stability in of heat the Fig. (2) Transient time is within 5 s. V..23 m/s. as had discussed in it. 16. and the system with the different heat fluxes does to type (2). when the heat fluxes differ between two channels. (1) The figure of transient inlet velocity change does not reappear. 5 (May 1979) 351 4. the generated phenomena are classified into two types : (1) (2) The generated instability is simular to the one in the system with the same conditions equivalent to the average conditions in two channels. effects the history are equal velocity The A" fluxes channels. that is. as shown in Fig. 9. the when shown switch. The following became clear through two kinds of the transient experiment. The gain curves move parallel and the shift curves of phase almost agree for this extent of flow distribution. curve 13 obtained were of in examined the two inlet in Fig. To study the system with the different heater lengthes concerning type (1) phase analysis was applied to two operating conditions in Table 2. owning to the phase of flow oscillation when step change added and to the heterogeneity of two-phase flow. Consequenly. The system becomes more stable as increasing the difference of the operating conditions between two channels. 14 replotted from a companion paper(7). situated in the unstable region. The transient response experiments were carried out at Ft. The characteristic gain and frequency of the system and the shifts in phase of each channel are shown in Table 3. Rq=0. 13 Operating transient obtained condition experiment in of conclusion not on companion and the the disturbance conditions. the stability curve agrees well with the one in Fig. (4) The amplitudes and periods of flow oscillation agree with the ones in Figs. called "Condition one.= 0. The above-mentioned and the the inlet results instability velocity but coincide in only the on with system the the depends opperating papers(6)(7) history of Fig. No. 11 and 12 within the experimental errors after a short interval from the step change added. — 47 — . The system with the different entrance throttlings or with the different heater lengthes corresponds to type (1).. (3) The instability depends not on the history of the inlet velocity but on the opperating conditions. is called "Condition B". by 9.

2 Operating to different conditions heater in reference lengthes Table 3 Analytical results adoped for Table 2 Table the difference of the shift in phase is slight and the characteristic gain of the system almost agree with the arithmetic sum of the gains of two channels. The characteristic gains and frequencies of the system and the shifts were obtained in Table channel (1). Table 4 Operating to differents conditions heat in reference fluxes Table 5 Analytical results adopted for Table 4 Fig. the instability in the system with the different entrance throttlings or with the different heater lengthes almost agrees with the one in the system with the same condition equivalent to the average condition in two channels.and the gain decreases with increasing the frequency. To study the system with the different heat fluxes concerning type (2). (14) The gain and the own characteristic frequency in channel (2) with lower heat flux are lower than these in channel (1). in comparison with the own characteristic gain of channel (1) . phase analysis is applied to two operating conditions in Table 4 situated in the unstable region.053 in case (i) and 1. the following equation is established : G'" Isin . Regarding frequency in the system. For this reason. | — 48 — . Consequently.. The system with the different heat fluxes is more stable than the one with the same heat fluxes. The characteristic gain is 1. On the other hand. 14 Frequency by gain and response shift shown in phase The reasons the characteristic for decreasing of the characteristic gain was investigated . (14) and |1G("I>G(2)|. Technol.|1G(2)| becomes fairly lower than the own characteristic gain of channel (2). Sci. because of Eq. The shift in phase increases sharply above 180.352 J.61)+1 Gm sin 71)=0 .138 in case (ii). the shift in phase decreases G(1)| increases slightly slightly from 180. Nucl.

and the system becomes stable.Vol.073 and the one of |G'(i)|1. Since the following equation G As increasing the difference than the arithmetic average The gains |G(1)| shown in |G(2)| surpasses the increase in |G(1)| . IGe I becomes lower of |G(1)| and |G(2)|. becomes more stable with increasing the difference of flow condition. 5 (May 1979) 353 For these reason. (9) ). In parallel-channel boiling system. The reliability of the analytical model and the generality of the experimental results are confirmed. masses it was found term that between the two different channels characteristic stabilize the frequencies system. It is made clear that the phase analysis is applicable to the instability in the system with the different thermo-hydraulic conditions between two channels. From the are almost equal each other.113. The difference term. on Table 5 Table 6 Analytical results adopted for Table 4 were obtained by using the average mass of inertia term m (Eq. such as in the different entrance throttlings and heater lengthes. the instability almost agrees with the one in the system with the same flow condition equivalent to the average operating condition of two channels. and the system is most unstable when the flow conditions are equal in two channels. of boiling boundary in two channels causes the different masses of inertia Both heat results flux. This conclusion may be interesting stable. — 49 — for designing the system to be . and the system gain is established concerning the characteristic 1 cl-=—2I G'" Icos z-'71'+I G(2' Icos r7(15) of shift in phase between two channels. 16. In the different flow conditions where the own characteristic frequencies are approximatelly equal in two channel. and of inertia VI. particularly possessing two parallel channels. CONCLUSIONS Close agreement between the experimental results and the analytical ones is obtained in regard to the stable boundary. such as the system with the different heat fluxes. the decrease becomes more stable. as shown in Table 6. a characteristic oscillation is independent of the magnitude and nature of initial disturbance and of the history of inlet velocity without reference to the existence of the different conditions between two channels. whereas the gains |G'(i)| were obtained by using m(i) at fc. On the other hand. No. where the flow conditions as well as the characteristic frequencies and the masses of inertia term differ from two channels. The results through phase analysis agree with the analytical ones of proposal model as for the stable boundary and the oscillation periods in the unstable region. the system. The arithmetic average of |G(i)| is 1. and ZB becomes lower with increasing the afore-mentioned the different discussion.

Symp. p.P. et al. Fig.34x106 Fig. (5) CROWLEY.: ibid. Ser. Sci.H. Ser. A1 as compared with the ones obtained through the analytical model. 1255~1266 (1967). VEZIROGLC.: ibid... The characteristic gain of the system corresponds to the characteristic frequency. et al. (1964). see Eq. hoven. Proc. R. and were obtained using the average heat flux in two channels as parameter. 85.. J.N.(6) Subscripts Pressure (kg/m') in: Inlet. p. A1 Characteristic in reference gain and frequency to heat flux — 50 — A2 Comparison between phase analysis and mathematical model for values of oscillation period .L. 14(2). Eind- [APPENDIX] The results obtained through the phase analysis are compared with the ones obtained through the analytical model. Nucl.F. (14) in Ref. 86. 64 WA/FE-28.. J. C.D. A. where unity..: ibid.see Eq...H.E. T.. which is shifted by 180. POTTER. Technol.: ibid.. on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics. CR: g: G| : Gc|: LB: m: P: PT : [NOMENCLATURE] Throttling coefficient (kg•s2/m4) q": Heat flux (kcal/m2•h) Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) u : Velocity (m/s) Gain ZE: Boiling boundary (m) | Characteristic gain gl: Density of liquid |(kg/m3) Heater length (m) tT Shift in phase Mass of inertia term (kg•s2/m3). (6) ARITONII. Technol. 1173~1223. ROSE. (2) MEYER..: J. 1132~1171. (4) D'ARCY. 22~30 (1977). p. (3) DAVIES.(6) REFERENCES - (1) STENNING. 213~217 (1964).. 14(1). : ASME Pap. M. The characteristic gain increases with the teristic increasing average gain heat the average flux. 1~9 (1963). (8) STENNING. et al..: Trans. in order to examine the reliability of phase analysis. ASME. The results are shown in Fig.through phase analysis. out: Outlet Total pressure drop (kg/m2).: EURATOM Rep.354 J. D. R.. becomes heat the flux. (14) D in Ref. A. Nucl. (7) ARITOMI. 88-96 (1977). and charac- is 0. Sci. M. D. A.

On the other hand.Vol.35 x 10' kcal/m2. No. 16. 10 indicate that the average heat flux above 0. The oscillation periods obtained through the analytical model are compared with the reciprocals of the characteristic frequency based on phase analysis.325 x10' kcal/m2 •h in the stable region. the results obtained through the analytical model shown in Fig. Figure A2 shows both results and they are agree within 2%. 51 .h is lain in the unstable region and the one under 0. The stable boundary obtained through the phase analysis agrees thus with the one obtained through the analytical model. 5 (May 1979) 355 kcal/m2.h.