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absorption: The reduction in strength of a radio signal due to refraction in the ionosphere.

active antenna: A physically short or small antenna with a high gain preamplifier; designed for use indoors or in limited space areas. active filter: A circuit that eliminates unwanted audio frequencies from the audio output of a receiver. address: The information in a packet specifying the intended receiving station. aeronautical station: A radio station aboard an airplane or a ground station that communicates with aircraft. AGC: Abbreviation for automatic gain control. amplitude modulation: A modulation technique that varies the power output of a transmitter in accordance with the variations in the modulating audio signal. AM: Abbreviation for amplitude modulation. amplification: The process of increasing the strength of a radio signal. AMTOR: Acronym for "amateur teleprinting over radio," a mode that uses FSK to send messages containing error detection capabilities and the ability request retransmission of missing or corrupted data. ANARC: Acronym for "Association of North American Radio Clubs," an association of radio listener clubs in the United States and Canada. antenna tuning unit: A device installed between a receiver or transmitter and the antenna to match the radio impedance to the antenna impedance for maximum power transfer.

ARQ: Abbreviation for automatic repeat request. In AMTOR, an ARQ is sent back to the transmitting station by the receiving station to request retransmission of missing or corrupted portions. ARRL: Acronym for "American Radio Relay League," the national association for ham radio operators in the United States. ASCII: Acronym for "American standard code for information interchange," a method of representing upper and lower letters in addition to numbers and special symbols. attended operation: Operation of a radio station with a human operator at the control point. attenuator: A circuit to reduce the sensitivity of a receiver in fixed steps measured in decibels. ATU: Abbreviation for antenna tuning unit. auroral propagation: Propagation of signals above 30 MHz via refraction by highly ionized regions around the Earth’s poles. automatic gain control: A receiver circuit that adjust the amount of amplification given to a received signal so that the volume from the speaker stays relatively constant. Top balun: A device used with to match an unbalanced feedline, like coaxial cable, to a balanced antenna, like a dipole. bandpass: The frequency range that a receiver is currently tuning or that a filter permits to pass through it. band pass filter: A filter that allows a certain range of frequencies to pass but which will reject frequencies below and above the desired range.

and SSB signals. Usually the ham bands were "spread" to achieve better frequency display accuracy than the main tuning dial could provide. or the input and output frequency pair used by a repeater station. The proper setting of the main dial was critical. base loading: Placing a loading coil at the base of an antenna in order to lower the antenna’s resonant frequency. carrier: The unmodulated output of a radio transmitter. . bank: A storage area for channels in a scanner radio. baud: The rate at which data is transmitted measured in bits per second. once contact is made. usually due to power supply problems. and propagation indication purposes. beam antenna: An outdoor antenna. BCB: Abbreviation for the AM "broadcast band" running from 540 to 1700 kHz." someone who listens to shortwave radio strictly for program content. BCL: Abbreviation for "broadcast listener. bandspread: A form of electronic (not mechanical) fine tuning common on tube-era general coverage receivers. bandwidth: The amount of frequency space occupied by a radio signal. Top calling frequency: An agreed-upon frequency where stations attempt to contact each other. beacon: A station making one-way transmissions for navigation. bureau: A clearinghouse for QSL cards sent to and received from ham operators in other countries. stations move to a working frequency. homing. burst: Reception of a signal for a few seconds via meteor scatter. that concentrates more transmitter power (or receives better) in a certain direction. call sign: A group of letters and numbers used to identify a station and the country authorizing its operation. circular polarization: An antenna design where polarization switches rapidly between horizontal and vertical. channel: The frequency on which a radio transmission takes place. chirp: Changes in the carrier frequency of a Morse code transmitter. beat frequency oscillator: A receiver circuit that generates a replacement carrier to enable intelligible reception of CW. birdie: A false or spurious signal in a receiver inadvertently produced by the receiver’s circuitry. BFO: Abbreviation for beat frequency oscillator. center loading: Placing a loading coil at the center of an antenna in order to lower the antenna’s resonant frequency. chief engineer: The person at a broadcasting station responsible for proper and legal operation of a station and maintenance of all required plan: A plan to allocate different frequencies within a range for specific purposes and users. usually mounted on a rotor. center frequency: The unmodulated carrier frequency of a FM transmitter. FSK.

coordinated universal time: An international time and date system derived from the 0 degree meridian at Greenwich. turning the station off and on. critical angle: An angle defined in reference to the Earth at which a radio signal is refracted in the ionosphere. control point: The physical location from which a radio station’s functions (setting frequency. . it fades away quickly after sunset and sometimes does not form at all on short winter days. cut numbers: A system of sending numbers via Morse code by substituting shorter letter characters for the longer number characters.) are controlled. 2) When a frequency can no longer support propagation to a desired station or location. the greater distance the radio signal will travel through ionospheric refraction. connected: Term used to describe a successful contact between two packet radio stations and exchange of packets between them. critical frequency: The frequency at or near the MUF at which the maximum sky wave propagation range is obtained. etc. The main impact of the D-layer on radio propagation is to absorb energy from signals passing through it.closed repeater: A repeater station that may be used only by stations belonging to a certain organization or group. Top D-layer: The lowest region of the ionosphere found approximately 25 to 55 miles above Earth. collision: When two or more packet radio stations simultaneously attempt to transmit on the same frequency. continuous wave: The constant output of a radio transmitter that can be periodically interrupted to send messages by Morse code. co-channel interference: Interference from stations on frequencies adjacent to the desired signal. crystal filter: A filter that uses a network of piezoelectric crystals to obtain high rejection of unwanted signals. access is usually restricted by tone access. The lower the angle. especially for repeater stations. Hams and other stations "call CQ" to indicate they will answer any station replies to their call. control operator: The person responsible for all functions and correct operation of a radio station. cutoff frequency: The frequency at which a filter will begin to reject signals. coordinator: A non-governmental group that works to voluntarily assign frequencies to users in order to prevent interference. coded access: A method of restricting access to a repeater station to stations that begin their transmission with a special sequence of tones. closing: 1) When a station ends its operations and shuts down. dead zone: A region where a radio signal cannot be received due to propagation difficulties. dB: Abbreviation for decibel. CW: Abbreviation for continuous wave. CQ: A general call sent by a station to any other station that may receive it.

DXpedition: An organized effort by ham radio operators to put a rare location on the air. exchange: The passing of all necessary information between two stations during a contact. it fades away a few hours after sunset. any measure of over 100 decibels is considered excellent. it transmits and receives in a figure-8 pattern. direct: To communicate with another station without using a repeater. Top E-layer: The region of the ionosphere found approximately 55 to 90 miles above Earth. "DX" is the old telegraph abbreviation for "distant. deviation: The change in the carrier frequency of a FM transmitter produced by the modulating signal. duplex: To transmit on one frequency while listening for replies on another. digipeater: A packet radio station that receives and retransmits packets intended for other stations. delay: How long a scanner radio pauses on a channel to await another transmission. effective radiated power: The output of a transmitter multiplied by the gain of an antenna." DXCC: Abbreviation for "DX Century Club.decibel: The ratio between two power levels on a logarithmic scale." an award given by the ARRL to hams who contact other hams in at least 100 different countries. although sporadic-E propagation makes possible distant communications on frequencies above 30 MHz. ERP: Abbreviation for effective radiated power. exalted carrier reception: A reception technique where the carrier produced by a receiver’s BFO circuit or product detector is used to replace the carrier of an AM signal for better reception. DX: Any station that is hard to hear or contact on a particular frequency. dipole: An antenna one half-wavelength long at the desired operation frequency that is divided into two quarter-wavelength sections. dynamic range: How well a receiver can handle strong signals with overloading. dummy load: A device used in transmitter testing and adjustment that dissipates the transmitter’s energy without radiating it. EME: Abbreviation for "Earth-Moon-Earth. The main impact of the E-layer on radio propagation is to absorb energy from signals passing through it. gradual change in the frequency of a transmitter or receiver. or a trip by shortwave listeners to a site for favorable DX reception. or is rarely heard or contacted on a particular frequency. eyeball: Slang for a face-to-face meeting between two ham radio operators or radio hobbyists. a 20 decibel increase is a power increase of 100 times." a method of communication on UHF frequencies by bouncing radio signals off the Moon. Elmer: An experienced ham radio operator who mentors new hams and prospective hams. . direct wave: A radio signal propagated via line of sight. drift: Slow. A 3 decibel increase is a doubling of power.

Top F-layer: The region of the ionosphere found approximately 90 to 400 miles above Earth and which is responsible for most long distance propagation on frequencies below 30 MHz. final: The last transmission by a station during a contact. the retransmission of it is ignored. Greenwich mean time: An international time and date system derived from the 0 degree meridian at Greenwich. fixed station: A station that always operates from a constant. Top gain: The apparent increase in the strength of a signal radiated or received by an antenna caused by the antenna having better performance in some directions than others. frequency modulation: A modulation technique that varies the carrier frequency of a transmitter in accordance with the variations in the strength of the modulating audio signal. like the Earth. gigahertz: Unit equal to 1000 megahertz or 1. ground: A connection to a point of zero voltage. CW.000. FM: Abbreviation for frequency modulation. During the daytime (especially in summer). FEC: Abbreviation for forward error correction. full quieting: A FM radio signal strong enough to completely quiet the receiver background noise. If the first character is received correctly. the F1-layer and the F2layer. flutter: The rapid variation in the signal strength of a station. ground wave: A radio wave propagated along the surface of the Earth. a FSK mode that transmits each character twice to avoid errors. usually due to propagation variations. FSK: Abbreviation for frequency shift keying. frequency shift keying: A mode that shifts the station’s carrier between two fixed frequencies to form characters. feedline: The cable connecting a radio to an antenna. frequency synthesis: A tuning method in transmitters and receivers which uses a few piezoelectric crystals to generate a wide range of frequencies. general coverage: A term used to describe receivers and transmitters covering at least the frequency range of 500 kHz to 30 MHz and capable of operation in several different modes. filter: A circuit or device that will allow certain frequencies to pass while rejecting others. and SSB. including AM.000 kilohertz GMT: Abbreviation for Greenwich mean time. GHz: Abbreviation for gigahertz. gateway: A node that is a part of more than one network and can be used to pass messages between those networks. specified land location. . solar heating can cause the Flayer to split into two separate layers. this has since been replaced by coordinated universal time. gallon: Slang for the maximum transmitter power authorized for ham radio operators. great circle route: The shortest path by radio between any two points on Earth. or the last amplifying stage of a radio transmitter.

although often used to refer to all frequencies from 1. noncommercial radio equipment. or receives best. intermod: Short for "intermodulation. homebrew: Slang term for home-built. harmonic: A frequency that is an integer multiple (two times. high pass filter: A filter that rejects all frequencies below a certain point but which allows all higher frequencies to pass.7 to 30 MHz. the impedance of an antenna. Top ID: Abbreviation for "identification. International Reply Coupon: A coupon that can be purchased at post offices which can be exchanged in foreign countries for return postage for a surface mail letter to the country that issued the coupon.) tuned by a receiver using frequency synthesis. indirect FM: A term used to refer to phase modulation. ionospheric storm: A disturbed condition in the ionosphere caused by release of charged particles by the Sun which results in high absorption and poor radio propagation on most frequencies." image: A false signal produced in the receiver’s circuitry. . etc. etc. ionosphere: The electrically charged region of the Earth’s atmosphere located approximately 40 to 400 miles above the Earth’s surface that refracts radio signals. hyperscan: A very high scanning rate in a scanner receiver.) of a lower frequency.Top hamfest: A large gathering of ham radio operators and other radio hobbyists. For best performance. the feedline. HF: Abbreviation for high frequencies. it is measured in ohms (W). handle: A radio operator’s name. The pitch of the "whistle" depends on the frequency difference between the carriers. increment steps: The discrete frequency steps (10 Hz. hollow state: A slang term for equipment that uses vacuum tubes. IRC: Abbreviation for International Reply Coupon. horizontal polarization: An antenna that radiates. three times." this means false or spurious signals produced by two or more signals mixing in a receiver or repeater station. input frequency: The frequency on which a repeater station listens for signals to retransmit. and the antenna connector on a radio should be approximately equal. Hz: Abbreviation for Hz. radio waves having their electric field parallel to the Earth’s surface. also called turboscan. impedance: The opposition to the flow of electric current and radio energy. high frequencies: Frequencies from 3 to 30 MHz. hertz: One complete cycle of a radio wave per second. heterodyne: A high pitched "whistle" sound caused by two carriers interfering with each other.

the lowest frequency that can support propagation between two points. lid: Slang for an incompetent.000 watts of transmitter power.Top junkbox: Slang for the collection of spare parts and miscellaneous items kept by a radio operator or hobbyist. although this term is often used to mean any radio signal in the AM broadcast band (540 to 1700 kHz). loop antenna: A physically small receiving antenna usually designed for indoor use and tuning frequencies below 5 MHz. unskilled radio operator. maritime station: A two-way radio unit aboard a ship or a station on land that communicates with ships. low pass filter: A filter that rejects all frequencies above a certain point but which allows all lower frequencies to pass. MCW: Abbreviation for modulated CW.000 hertz or 1000 kilohertz. Top kilowatt: Unit equal to 1000 watts of transmitter power. machine: Slang for a repeater station. . Propagation conditions improve with lower measurement numbers.000. landline: The telephone or a telephone call. line of sight: Communication between two radio stations that are in visual sight (even if telescopically) with each other. Colorado. longwave: Radio signals 300 kHz and lower in frequency.000. kHz: Abbreviation for kilohertz. lockout: To remove certain channels from the scanning sequence of a scanner. medium wave: Radio signals from 300 to 3000 kHz. LUF: Abbreviation for lowest usable frequency. kW: Abbreviation for kilowatt. although this term is often used to mean any radio signal lower than 540 kHz. mark frequency: In FSK. mechanical filter: A filter that uses a network of mechanical piezoelectric elements to obtain high rejection of unwanted signals. LSB: Abbreviation for lower sideband. megawatt: Unit equal to 1. lower sideband: The sideband lower in frequency than the transmitter’s carrier. it receives in a figure-8 pattern. kilohertz: Unit equal to 1000 hertz. K-index: A measure of the Earth’s magnetic field as measured at Boulder. the higher of the two frequencies used. megahertz: Unit equal to 1. major lobe: The direction of maximum radiation or received signal strength for a directional antenna. kerchunker: An operator that activates a repeater station by transmitting on its input frequency without speaking.

and authorizes stations to transmit. who calls the net to order. MW: Abbreviation for megawatt. plane. MUF: Abbreviation for maximum usable frequency. The net is organized and directed by a net control station.. boat. etc." an old radiotelegraph abbreviation for any radio operator (presumed to be male).000. modulated CW: Sending Morse code over an AM transmitter using an audio tone. multihop: A radio signal refracted more than one time between the transmitting and receiving stations. over: Spoken at the end of a transmission to indicate to the other station that it is their turn to transmit. monoband antenna: An antenna suitable for operation on just one band of frequencies. creating false "ghost signals" on various frequencies in the frequency range. recognizes stations entering and leaving the net. omnidirectional antenna: An antenna that transmits and receives equally well in all directions. output frequency: The frequency on which a repeater station will retransmit signals its hears on its input frequency.000 cycles per second. opening: When propagation is possible between two stations on the same frequency. moonbounce: Slang term for EME communication.000. and used while in motion or at various stops. noise blanker: A receiver circuit that reduces electrical noise by quieting the receiver during noise pulses. notch filter: A circuit that takes a small "slice" out of the bandpass tuned by a receiver. open repeater: A repeater station that can be used by anybody. In older publications it may show as Mc for megacycle or 1. multiband antenna: An antenna suitable for operation on several different bands of frequencies. now used to refer to any male radio operator or announcer. this is useful for reducing interference from narrow bandwidth signals.meteor scatter: Propagation of signals on frequencies above 25 MHz via ionized trails left by meteors burning up in the ionosphere. mobile station: A two-way radio unit installed in a car. the highest frequency that can support propagation between two points.000 Hz). overloading: When strong signals in a frequency range interfere with proper operation of a receiver. Top . MHz: Abbreviation for megaHertz (1. Top net: A group of stations that meet on a specified frequency at a certain time. out: Spoken at the end of a transmission to indicate that you have made your last transmission and that you expect no response. OM: Abbreviation for "old man. a carrier on its input frequency will automatically be retransmitted on its output frequency. modulation: The process of altering the output carrier of a transmitter in some way in order to convey information.

phase locked loop: a circuit that can generate w wide range of frequencies in discrete steps such as 10 Hz. preselector: A circuit that tunes a receiver’s signal amplifying circuitry for maximum sensitivity on a desired frequency range. Part 15: The section of the FCC’s rules that permits operation of low power transmitting devices without a license. priority channel: A channel a scanner will immediately switch to when a signal is present. patch: A connection between a two-way radio unit and the public telephone system. PLL: abbreviation for phase locked loop. phonetic alphabet: A standard set of words used to represent letters of the alphabet. polarization: Whether an antenna transmits or receives maximum radio energy in the horizontal or vertical plane. this modulation technique varies the carrier frequency of a transmitter in accordance with the strength and frequency of the modulating signal. product detector: A receiver circuit consisting of a beat frequency oscillator and additional circuitry for enhanced reception of SSB signals. picket fencing: A fluttering sound heard on a FM signal from a station on a moving vehicle. passband tuning: A receiver circuit that permits adjusting the bandpass for best reception under different interference conditions. propagation: The process of how a radio signal travels from a transmitting station to a receiving station.parasitics: Oscillations in a transmitter on frequencies other than the desired one. amplitude. such as an automobile." . pass: The period during which signals from an orbiting satellite can be heard at a ground location. phase modulation: Similar to FM. path: The route taken by a signal from the transmitting station to the receiving station. preamp: A receiving circuit that gives extra amplification to weak signals but at the cost of additional background noise and possible distortion. Top quad: A directional antenna consisting of two one-wavelength "squares" of wire placed a quarter-wavelength apart. QRL: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "this frequency is busy." QRN: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "static. phone: Radiotelephone operation. pulse modulation: A modulation method in which the timing." QRM: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "interference. ping: Brief reception of a radio signal via meteor scatter propagation. and/or spacing of pulses of a transmitter’s carrier are varied in order to convey information. these can produce spurious signals from the transmitter. PM: Abbreviation for phase modulation.

" QRZ: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "who is calling me?" It is also used to solicit the next contact in a series of contacts. receiver incremental tuning: A circuit that allows tuning between increment steps in a receiver using frequency synthesis. RST: A code used by ham radio operators to indicate a station’s readability." QRU: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "I have no messages for you." QST: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for a transmission directed to all ham radio operators." QRV: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "I am ready to communicate. numbers. QSL: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for "I confirm. RTTY: Abbreviation for radioteletype." QRX: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "wait. Top radioteletype: A mode that uses FSK to form letters." QRP: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "reduce transmitter power. rig: The main items of equipment used at a radio station.QRO: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "increase transmitter power. RIT: Abbreviation for receiver incremental tuning. and tone of its Morse code signals. repeater: A radio station that receives stations on a certain frequency and simultaneously retransmits them on another frequency." QRT: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "stop transmitting. Top . signal strength. ragchew: Slang for an informal conversation via radio. QTH: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for a station’s location." QRS: Radiotelegraph abbreviation meaning "send more slowly. rubber ducky: Slang for a shortened flexible antenna used with hand-held scanners and transceivers. real time: Communications that are taking place with no perceptible delay. QSY: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for "change frequency. reception report: A letter written to a radio station supplying details about a station’s signal and the programming heard in order to solicit a QSL from the station. resonant frequency: The frequency at which an antenna radiates or receives with maximum efficiency. QSO: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for a contact between two or more stations. RF gain: A control used to continuously vary the sensitivity of a receiver." it refers to a card or letter confirming that a contact did take place between two stations or that a listener did indeed hear a certain station. it is also the name of the ARRL’s monthly magazine. and special characters for display on a printer or video monitor.

skyhook: Slang for an antenna. skip zone: An area where a station being propagated via skywave cannot be heard because it is "skipping" off the ionosphere overhead. interference. propagation conditions. short skip: Propagation via the ionosphere over a distance of a few hundred miles or less. shortwave: Frequencies in the high frequencies region of 3 to 30 MHz. shack: The room or other location where a radio station is operated from. atmospheric noise. solid state: A circuit that uses no vacuum tubes---only transistors. single sideband: A modulation technique that suppresses one sideband and the carrier and transmits only the remaining sideband. sky wave: Radio signals propagated by refraction in the ionosphere. selectivity: How well a receiver can reject signals on frequencies adjacent to the one you want to tune. sensitivity: How well a receiver responds to weak signals. such as the 10 kHz spacing of AM broadcast band frequencies or coordinated repeater frequencies. the more sensitive the receiver. S-meter: A meter or bargraph that indicates the relative strength of a received signal. etc. simplex: To transmit and receive on the same frequency. the lower the number of microvolts indicated. and overall quality of reception on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). . search: A feature in certain receivers that will scan a frequency range at certain increments (such as 1 or 5 kHz) and pause on any frequency where a signal is present. but this term is often used to refer to frequencies from 1.scanner: A radio receiver which automatically tunes through a sequence of user-selected frequencies. scatter signals are usually weak. integrated circuits.7 to 30 MHz. SINPO: A code used in reception reports to rate the signal strength. space frequency: In FSK. It is indicated by a number of decibels rejection at a frequency point away from the desired signal. skip: Any type of sky wave propagation via ionospheric refraction. sideband: A signal equal to the bandwidth of the modulating frequency found above and below the carrier frequency in an AM signal. the lower of the two frequencies used. SHF: Abbreviation for super high frequencies. measured in microvolts (mV). split channel: A frequency located between standard frequency allocations. scatter: Propagation via random "scattering" of a signal directly off the ionosphere overhead. speech processing: A circuit that increases the average level of the modulating signal applied to a transmitter. sidewinder: Slang for a SSB station. shape factor: A receiver’s selectivity measured at the 6 and 60 decibel rejection points.

" SWLing: Abbreviation for "shortwave listening. synchronous detection: Similar to exalted carrier reception. terminal node controller: A device used to convert digital signals from a PC into an analog form that can be transmitted by radio and to convert received analog signals into digital form for display on the PC’s monitor. causing a repeater’s timer circuit to stop further transmissions. Top telemetry: One-way radio transmissions used for tracking and measurement data. TNC: Abbreviation for terminal node controller. ticket: The license or other operating credential for a radio station and its operator(s). traffic: Messages to and from third parties exchanged by radio stations. squelch tail: A brief bit of noise heard between the end of a radio transmission and the reactivation of the receiver’s squelch circuit. . SWL: Abbreviation for "shortwave listener. store and forward: A system for the receipt. standing wave ratio: The ratio of power sent down a feedline from the transmitter to the power reflected back through the feedline to the transmitter. SSB: Abbreviation for single sideband. and later retransmission of packet radio messages. surface wave: Another term for a ground wave. transceiver: A combined transmitter and receiver sharing a common housing and many of the same components. anything higher than 2:1 usually indicates a problem in the feedline or antenna. spurs: Undesired signals and frequencies in the output of a transmitter. spread spectrum: A modulation method that spreads transmitter energy across a relatively wide frequency range according to a modulating code. time-out: To transmit too long in a single transmission. storage." SWR: Abbreviation for standing wave ratio. but the replacement carrier tuning and tracking is done automatically by the receiver. top loading: Placing a loading coil at the top of an antenna in order to lower the antenna’s resonant frequency. tone access: A method of activating a repeater station that requires transmission of a brief tone before all transmissions to be relayed. squelch: A circuit in a radio receiver that quiets the receiver until the strength of a received signal exceeds a specified level. translator: A device that receives multiple signals within a certain frequency range and simultaneously retransmits them in another frequency range. A ratio of 1:1 is ideal. super high frequencies: the frequency range above 3000 MHz.sporadic-E: Random patches of intense ionization that form in the E-layer of the ionosphere and refract higher frequency signals that normally cannot be refracted by the ionosphere.

transverter: A device that takes one signal in a specified frequency range and simultaneously retransmits it in another frequency range. upper sideband: The sideband higher in frequency than the transmitter’s carrier. unattended operation: Operation of a radio station without a human operator at the control point." that allow the antenna to be used on several bands. or "traps. UHF low: The frequency range from 450 to 470 MHz. uncoordinated repeater: A repeater station operating on frequencies not approved by the appropriate frequency coordinator. USB: Abbreviation for upper sideband. VEC: Abbreviation for "volunteer exam coordinator. VHF: Abbreviation for very high frequencies. Top UHF: Abbreviation for ultra high frequencies. radio waves having their electric field perpendicular to the Earth’s surface. (This differs from a translator.transponder: A device that will emit a radio signal when it receives a radio signal on a certain frequency. trunking: A method of switching incoming signals between different repeater stations to prevent interference and ensure access to a repeater. or receives best. VFO: Abbreviation for variable frequency oscillator. vertical polarization: An antenna that radiates. . the troposphere. variable frequency oscillator: A circuit used to set the frequency of a receiver or transmitter. VHF low band: The frequency range from 30 to 50 MHz. UTC: Abbreviation for coordinated universal time. very high frequencies: The frequency range from 30 to 300 MHz. tropospheric ducting: Propagation of signals above 30 MHz via bending and ducting along weather fronts in the lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. tropo: Term referring to tropospheric ducting. its effective radiated power is equal to the transmitter power applied to it. turboscan: A very high scanning rate in a scanner receiver. Top v: This is used after a frequency to indicate that it varies slightly. unity gain: An antenna that gives no gain or loss. ultra high frequencies: The frequency range from 300 to 3000 MHz.) trap dipole: A dipole antenna with several coils. VHF high band: The frequency range from 150 to 175 MHz. also called hyperscan. UHF-T: The frequency range from 470 to 512 MHz. which can handle more than one signal." a group of hams who give license exams to prospective hams under authorization from the FCC.

" used to refer to the wife of a radio operator." . certificates. a slightly longer reflector and a slightly shorter director. Top wallpaper: QSL cards. Top XYL: Radiotelegraph code for "ex-young lady. WAS: Abbreviation for "Worked All States. Top 73: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for "best regards." used to refer to a female radio operator or announcer. working frequency: A frequency that two or more stations can use to communicate with each other." an award given by the ARRL to hams who contact other hams in all 50 states. YL: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for "young lady.VOX: A circuit that can turn a transmitter on and off automatically whenever someone speaks into the microphone. WAZ: Abbreviation for "Worked All Zones. wavelength: The distance between the same points on two consecutive radio waves. and other items decorating the walls of a radio station. American and Canadian stations call foreign stations on frequencies outside the window." an award given by CQ Magazine to hams who contact other hams in 40 different geographic zones dividing up the globe. window: A frequency range set aside for foreign ham radio stations to transmit in while ham stations in the United States and Canada do not. Yagi: A directional antenna consisting of a dipole connected to the receiver or transmitter and two additional elements. work: To communicate with another radio station or stations." 88: Radiotelegraph abbreviation for "love and kisses. zero beat: When the frequencies of two carriers are identical and there is no heterodyne heard between them. Electromagnetic coupling between the elements focuses maximum power (or reception) in the direction of the director.