You are on page 1of 90

PROJECT REPORT ON OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE DIVISION

(N.T.P.C BADARPUR,NEW DELHI)
DURATION:

2011

13

TH

JUNE

2011 TO 23

RD

JULY

Prepared by: Antriksh Bahuguna

1

08EE008 Electrical Engineering, Dehradun Institute of Technology Makkawala,Mussorie Diversion Road,Dehradun-2480009

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
I would hereby like to take the opportunity to thank Mr. A.K. Ghildiyal, Senior Manager (Electrical)& Mr. A.K. Chaturvedi Manager(Electrical),NTPC Badarpur,N.Delhi, for their invaluable guidance and help without which the summer training would not have been possible. I would also like to appreciate the help provided by the staff of the Operation and Electrical Maintainance Division,NTPC Badarpur. Special thanks to Mr. Sanjay Mamgain Senior Engineer (Planning), Koteshwar HEP, for his extensive support and guidance. I extend my regards to my college for providing me with such an opportunity, under the experience and supervision

2

of Professors and Training Incharge, Dehradun Institute Of Technology,Dehradun.

Antriksh Bahuguna 08EE008 Electrical Engineering, Dehradun Institute of Technology.

CONTENTS:
Sl. No. 1. Topic About N.T.P.C • • • • 2. Vision Core Values Strategies Evolution 6 Page No. 4

Intoduction To Thermal Power Plant • Power Station • Working Of Thermal Power Plant

3

References Introduction 4 .3. Electrical Maintainance Division-II • • • • Generator Transformer Switch Yard Lightning 23 6. Electrical Maintainance Division-I • • • • Coal Handling Plant HT & LT Motor Workshop HT & LT Switchgear Electrostatic Precipitator 17 5. Operation • Introduction • Diagramatical Representation Of Thermal Power Station • Steam Generator Or Boiler • Auxiliary Systems • Steam Turbine 11 12 13 15 4. Divisions • Operation • Electrical Maintainance Division-I • Electrical Maintainance Division-II 4.

854 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1.28. one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. which is the mainstay of the company. NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. non fossil fuel based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPC’s portfolio. The capacity will have a diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal.000 MW by the year 2032.India’s largest power company. By 2032. NTPC ranked 341st in the ‘2010. 16% Gas. NTPC has already ventured into consultancy. power trading. 5 . 5 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. The total installed capacity of the company is 34. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May. 11% Nuclear and 17% Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies. ash utilisation and coal mining. NTPC is emerging as a diversified power major with presence in the entire value chain of the power generation business. located across the country. Apart from power generation. 2010. In addition under JVs.

NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. 6 . Although the company has 17.40% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.75% of the total national capacity. it contributes 27.

7 .5% through Further Public Offer. The rest is held by Institutional Investors and the Public. In February 2010. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with the Government holding 89.5% to 84.5% of the equity share capital.25% as offer for sale by Government of India.In October 2004. the Shareholding of Government of India was reduced from 89.25% as fresh issue and 5. NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.

India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.At NTPC. Through its expansive CSR initiatives.1. NTPC strives to develop mutual trust with the communities that surround its power stations. NTPC has been awarded No. People before Plant Load Factor is the mantra that guides all HR related policies. Mission Develop and provide reliable power related products and services at competitive prices. VISION A world class integrated power major. integrating multiple energy resources with innovative & Eco-friendly technologies and contribution to the society 8 . by the Great Places to Work Institute. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is deeply ingrained in NTPC's culture. powering India's growth with increasing global presence. Best Workplace in India among large organisations and the best PSU for the year 2010.

Core Values – BCOMIT • • • • • • Business Ethics Customer Focus Organisational & Professional Pride Mutual Respect & Trust Innovation & Speed Total Quality for Excellence STRATEGIES 9 .

Technological Initiatives • • Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology 10 .

• • • Launch of Energy Technology Center -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D The company sets aside up to 0. Environment Management • • • • • • • All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified Various groups to care of environmental issues The Environment Management Group Ash Utilization Division Afforestation Group Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection Group on Clean Development Mechanism NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department Partnering government in various inititatives • Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country 11 . Corporate Social Responsibility • • • • • • • As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare Measures on perennial basis The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas.5% of the profits for R&D Roadmap developed for adopting ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ to help get / earn ‘Certified Emission Reduction .

NTPC is the largest power generation company in India. 2010. 12 . NTPC became a listed company with majority government ownership of 89.Forbes Global 2000 for 2010 ranked it 341th in the world. In line with it’s changing business Portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility .5% NTPC becomes third largest by Market capitalisation of listed companies.enhancing the power to the board of directors.• • • Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector Consultant role “Partnership in Excellence” Programme for improvement of PLF of 15 power station of SEBs Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana EVOLUTION 1975- NTPC was set yp in 1975 with 100% ownership by the government of India. In last 30 years. The company rechristened as NTPC Ltd. 199720042005 - GOI granted NTPC status of ” Navaratna” being one of the nine jewels of India.NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India.

the capacity addition under implementation stage is presented below: PROJECT Coal Indira Gandhi STPP.Future Addition Capacity NTPC has formulated a long term Corporate Plan upto 2032. STATE Haryana Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh Tamilnadu MW 100 0 132 0 500 100 0 500 Vallur Stage-I Phase-II -JV with TNEB ( 1 x Tamilnadu 500) 13 . Sipat I (2 x 660) 3. Vallur I -JV with TNEB ( 2 x 500) 5.JV with IPGCL & 1. HPGCL ( 3 x 500) 2.IV( 500) 4. In line with the Corporate Plan. Simhadri II Unit .

13 Barh I (3 X 660) . Tapovan Vishnugad HEPP (4 x 130) 3. Rihand III(2X500) 9. Hydro 1. BSEB 11 Nabinagar TPP-JV with Railways (4 x 250) . Vindhyachal-IV (2X500) 10 Muzaffarpur Expansion (2x195) – JV with . Singrauli CW Discharge(Small Hydre) Total Assam Maharashta Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Bihar Bihar Bihar Bihar Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh 750 100 0 100 0 100 0 390 100 0 132 0 198 0 800 520 8 140 88 14 .6. Bongaigaon(3 x 250) 7. Mauda ( 2 x 500) 8. Koldam HEPP ( 4 x 200) 2. 12 Barh II (2 X 660) .

INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL POWER PLANT 15 .

there is always heat lost to the environment. while elsewhere power station and power plant are both widely used. mechanical power is produced by a heat engine. Most thermal power stations produce steam. gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy.. An important class of power stations in the Middle East uses byproduct heat for desalination of water. Some prefer to use the term energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do. like chemical energy. there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations . The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. About 80% of all electric power is generated by use of steam turbines. In countries where district heating is common. and these are sometimes called steam power stations. power plant is the most common term in the U. according to the second law of thermodynamics. which transforms thermal energy. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and the types of technology that the power company has access to. If this loss is employed as useful heat. In thermal power stations. power station prevailing in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator. However. 16 . a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. Therefore. into rotational energy. Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships.S. the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. for industrial processes or district heating. which is the conversion of other forms of energy. aircraft and other large vehicles. often from combustion of a fuel. Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power.POWER STATION Power Station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

landfill methane. Prince town being the world's first. fuel. This type was pioneered by the UK. though at higher cost than base-loaded plants. Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine. usually in a steam boiler and turbine By Prime Mover • Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non-hydro plants use this system. and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity. although low-energydensity. These may be comparatively small units. commissioned in 1959. Hospitals. or other forms of biomass. This greatly increases the overall efficiency of the plant. • Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases to directly operate the turbine. being remotely operated. and many new base load power plants are combined cycle plants fired by natural gas. Waste heat from industrial processes is occasionally concentrated enough to use for power generation. office 17 . • Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas. • Internal combustion Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. In integrated steel mills. Natural-gas fuelled turbine plants can start rapidly and so are used to supply "peak" energy during periods of high demand.CLASSIFICATION By fuel • • • • • • • • Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine generator. blast furnace exhaust gas is a low-cost. Renewable energy plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane. Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks. municipal solid waste. and sometimes completely unmanned.

Micro turbines. which is connected to a generator. one of coal. 18 . When the turbine turns. oil or natural gas is used to heat the boiler to convert the water into steam. industrial plants.• buildings. heavy oil. and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage. Sterling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are low cost solutions for using opportunity fuels. Working Of Thermal Power Plant In a thermal power plant. electricity is generated and given as output by the generator. These are usually fuelled by diesel oil. which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines. The steam is used to turn a turbine. such as landfill gas. digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production. natural gas and landfill gas.

Detailed process of power generation in a Thermal Power Plant 19 .

Apart from this. This prevents any hazards from taking place in the plant. If water is available in a plenty in the region. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. If water is scarce. then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. then the source is an open pond or river. there are various other monitoring systems and instruments in place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices.1. Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil. 20 . 4. Water intake: Firstly. The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. When the turbine rotates. coal or natural gas. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. An air pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process. Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. 2. Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre-heater An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. 3. Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. 5. 6. water is taken into the boiler through a water source. the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems.

DIVISIONS • OPERATION ELECTRICAL MAINTAINANCE DIVISION-I ELECTRICAL MAINTAINANCE DIVISION-II • • 21 .

After it passes through the turbine. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. the steam is condensed in a condenser. or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The PLF has increased from 75. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85. steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator.09 % in 200607. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant.4% during the year 2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC.2% in 1997-98 to 89. Water is heated. The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. which compares favourably with international standards. oil.OPERATION Introduction The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. this is known as a Rankine cycle. which uses coal. 22 . Water supply is given from the Agra Canal. Operation Room of Power Plant In a Badarpur Thermal Power Station.03 % in 1997-98 to 90.

Installed Capacity Diagram of a typical coal-fired thermal power station 23 .

Flue gas stack Coal is conveyed (14)from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11). Coal hopper turbine 7. creating near 24 . and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Superheater 20. where steam is separated from any remaining water. Air preheater 25. There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). and is passed to the boiler drum. Electrical generator (314. now a little above its boiling point.Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power 1. Cooling tower 10. High pressure steam 2. where it turns into steam. Reheater 22. Forced draught (draft) fan 21. Low pressure steam 15. Combustion air intake 23. and reduced in both pressure and temperature. Bottom ash hopper station 19. Induced draught (draft) fan 27. Surface condenser 9. transmission line (312. is returned to the boiler reheater (21). Precipitator 26. The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9). Economiser 24. Boiler steam drum 18. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 17. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine. Feedwater heater phase) 5. The exiting steam. Step-up transformer (313. A steam governor valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point following. Coal conveyor phase) 6. Coal pulverizer 8. is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the cooling tower) in the condensor (8). Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler. Deaerator phase) 4. Condensate pump 16. Steam Control valve 11. Cooling water pump turbine 3. sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. where it condenses rapidly back into water. the first of a three-stage turbine process. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into the pendant superheater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540°C.

The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter. and then in the economiser (23). The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1). first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set. or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. power plants and building cooling. 25 . Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. before being returned to the boiler drum. This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). Smaller towers are normally factory built. for example. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature.vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. before being pumped back to the condensor (8) in cooling water cycle. and pre-warmed. creating a highly visible plume of water vapor. Chemical plants. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12). The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1. Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27).

two phase. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission.e. natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities .000 volts. At the power station. the “household” voltage). At the power station. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. Where the step-down is 3 phase. all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. or direct current system at the same voltage. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. giving a phase separation of onethird one cycle. an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents. 2. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30. The primary use of large . petrochemical and chemical plants. The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being 26 . industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants . transformers: step-up” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. In a three phase system.while larger ones are constructed on site. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i. Taking one conductor as the reference. petroleum refineries. the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current.

. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. generally using electromagnetic induction.the phase-neutral voltage.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical 27 . The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral . 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. 3. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral.Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy.

Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade.drives for pumps.000. and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one.000 hp(1. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. which produce electricity. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. which produces the electrical energy.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. compressors and other shaft driven equipment . The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. caused by pressure drop. to 2. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world’s electricity.500.As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric 28 . The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in ‘Boilers’ or ‘steam generators’ as they are sometimes called. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators . 4.

the pump is activated. the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the 29 . or its discharge is blocked). to force the water into the boiler. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump). the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating). Steam-powered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. In this situation. of course. A means had to be provided. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. no crankshaft was required. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. In either case. the second stage will be triggered. 5. trigger an alarm. though. or both. In thermal plants. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed. its supply has been cut off or exhausted. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased.

condensate.005 cm3/L) 8. Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler.pressure. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valvesthe level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the 30 .flow. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it non-corrosive. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam.exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. If operated properly. 6. particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.

with a continuous loop of material. Boiler Steam Drum 31 . Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. The pulleys are powered. such as grain.thermodynamic efficiency of the system. 10. ores etc. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.[4] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle). 9. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. coal.the conveyor Belt – that rotates about them. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility’s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water).

4MPa). So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”-water/and saturated – steam into steam drum. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. 32 . They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. The steam will reenter the furnace in through a super heater.Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. water level indicator and fuse plug. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390’C and pressure well above 350psi (2. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum.

11. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam; nonsuperheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam vehicles, and so stationary steam engines including power stations. 12. Economizers Economizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler, power plant, and heating, ventilating and air conditioning. In boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boiler’s efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). Modern day boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations, are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Green’s original design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input , in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. 13. Air Preheater

33

Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack.

14. Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESP’s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed, today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached , maximizing corona production. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding damage to the components. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP’s to stay in operation for years at a time. 15. Fuel gas stack

34

A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. Fuel gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants , hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys.

Steam Generator Or Boiler

The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter.

35

Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3,200 psi (22.1 MPa). It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided.

Auxiliary Systems
36

Fly Ash Collection
Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal
At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage
Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM).

37

However.A DM plant generally consists of cation. Sometimes. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. The DM water. For this purpose. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i. the vacuum side). a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. being very pure. This arrangement not only sprays the 38 .e.. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. such as PVC. anion and mixed bed exchangers.

water but also DM water gets deaerated. STEAM TURBINE 39 . with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.

40 .

The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces. Reaction is the percentage isentropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. which produces the electrical energy. In a typical larger power stations. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Indian System (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems. There are two measures for pressure drop. the first being the High Pressure (HP). The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. where high. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Some manufacturers utilise percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction. the steam turbines are split into three separate stages. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. caused by pressure drop. After the steam has passed through the HP stage. it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. 41 . Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. the pressure ratio and the percent reaction.Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction" turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage.

Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put. 42 . the principles are the same for all steam turbines. co-generation or pure electricity production. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. Nozzles and Blades Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. the steam pressure is highest when used as process steam and at a lower pressure when used for the secondary function of electricity production. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. For cogeneration. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade (or bucket). Either way.

They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms. 43 .The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam causes wear to the turbine blades.Steam turbines are machines which must be designed. manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. Solid Particle Erosion: .The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. This has led to the imposition of an allowable limit of about 12% wetness in the exhaust steam. with two of the most important being: Erosion due to Moisture: .

Thus. at times. 44 . when needed. damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.Other Systems Monitoring and Alarm system Most of the power plant’s operational controls are automatic. and emergency lighting. communication systems. Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power. the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. However. manual intervention may be required. turbine lube oil pumps. This is essential for a safe.

ELECTRICAL MAINTAINANCE DIVISION-I • COAL HANDLING PLANT • HT & LT MOTOR WORKSHOP • HT & LT SWITCHGEAR • ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR 45 .

COAL HANDLING PLANT COAL CYCLE 46 .

000 tons. A large coal train called a "unit train" may be a kilometers (over a mile) long. A large thermal power plant such as the 47 . especially in "peak season". Some plants are even built near coal mines and coal is delivered by conveyors. rail. A large plant under full load requires at least one coal delivery this size every day. containing 60 cars with 100 tons of coal in each one. for a total load of 6. barge or collier ship. during the summer months when power consumption is high. Plants may get as many as three to five trains a day.Coal is delivered by highway truck.

Unloading a unit train takes about three hours.000 tons/hour. a specific kind of combustor that can efficiently burn larger pieces of fuel. Swiveling couplers enable the entire operation to occur while the cars are still coupled together. The dumper clamps an individual car against a platform that swivels the car upside down to dump the coal. Modern unloaders use rotary dump devices. classify them. the larger 2 inch pieces may be directly fed into the silos which then feed the cyclone burners.Badarpur Thermal Power Station. The coal is then transported from the storage yard to in-plant storage silos by rubberized conveyor belts at rates up to 4. Generating stations adjacent to a mine may receive coal by conveyor belt or massive dieselelectric-drive trucks. Shorter trains may use railcars with an "air-dump". which relies on air pressure from the engine plus a "hot shoe" on each car. In plants that burn pulverized coal. The unloader includes a train positioner arm that pulls the entire train to position each car over a coal hopper. shoots an electric charge through the air dump apparatus and causes the doors on the bottom of the car to open. and mixes them with primary combustion air which transports the coal to the furnace and preheats the coal to drive off excess moisture content. 48 . silos feed coal pulverizers (coal mill) that take the larger 2 inch pieces grind them into the consistency of face powder. Coal is prepared for use by crushing the rough coal to pieces less than 2 inches (50 mm) in size. New Delhi stores several million tons of coal for use when there is no wagon supply. In plants that do not burn pulverized coal. which eliminate problems with coal freezing in bottom dump cars. dumping the coal through the opening in the trestle. This "hot shoe" when it comes into contact with a "hot rail" at the unloading trestle. Unloading one of these trains takes anywhere from an hour to an hour and a half. Older unloaders may still use manually operated bottom-dump rail cars and a "shaker" attached to dump the coal.

leading to a higher risk of spontaneous combustion. More controlled stockpiles are formed using stackers to form piles along the length of a conveyor. lugging boom stackers that straddle a feed conveyor are commonly used to create coal stockpiles.Run-Of-Mine (ROM) Coal The coal delivered from the mine that reports to the Coal Handling Plant is called Run-of-mine. or ROM. pushed into heaps with bulldozers or from conveyor booms. coal. constant rate. A simple stockpile is formed by machinery dumping coal into a pile. A stacker can usually move in at least two directions typically: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing its boom. etc. and consists of coal. rocks. Stacking Travelling. and reclaimers to retrieve the coal when required for product loading. This is the raw material for the CHP. Contamination is usually introduced by the mining process and may include machine parts. either from dump trucks. middlings. and is a complex and vital part of the CHP. Stackers are nominally rated in tph (tonnes per hour) for capacity and normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. Larger coal stockpiles have a reduced rate of heat lost. Taller and wider stockpiles reduce the land area required to store a set tonnage of coal. Coal Handling Coal needs to be stored at various stages of the preparation process. and conveyed around the CHP facilities. ROM coal can have a large variability of moisture and maximum particle size. Luffing of the 49 . minerals and contamination. A ROM stockpile is used to allow the washplant to be fed coal at lower. used consumables and parts of ground engaging tools. Coal handling is part of the larger field of bulk material handling. ROM coal is delivered with large variations in production rate of tonnes per hour (tph). Stockpiles Stockpiles provide surge capacity to various parts of the CHP.

such as cone stacking and chevron stacking. Screen 50 . This allows a single stacker to form two stockpiles. Front-end loaders and bulldozers can be used to push the coal into feeders. Modern machines are typically semi-automatic or fully automated. Stackers and Reclaimers were originally manually controlled manned machines with no remote control. Some stackers are able to rotate by slewing the boom. Stacking in a single cone tends to cause size segregation. Screens can be static. The boom is luffed upwards as the stockpile height grows. with parameters remotely set. Raw cone ply stacking is when additional cones are added next to the first cone. Reclaiming Tunnel conveyors can be fed by a continuous slot hopper or bunker beneath the stockpile to reclaim material. or mechanically vibrated. one on either side of the conveyor. A routine sample is taken at a set frequency. High-capacity stockpiles are commonly reclaimed using bucket-wheel reclaimers. Coal Sampling Sampling of coal is an important part of the process control in the CHP. but much higher operating costs. This has a low up-front capital cost. Chevron stacking is when the stacker travels along the length of the stockpile adding layer upon layer of material. and tends not to be very representative. coal size that can be fed into the pulverizer and so the coal has to be crushed to the specified size using the coal crusher. Sometimes front-end loaders are the only means of reclaiming coal from the stockpile. Dewatering screens are used to remove water from the product. measured in dollars per tonne handled. Screening Screens are used to group process particles into ranges by size. A grab sample is a oneoff sample of the coal at a point in the process stream. Rotary crushers are very commonly used for this purpose as they can provide a continuous flow of coal to the pulverizer. either over a period of time or per shipment. with coarser material moving out towards the base. Stackers are used to stack into different patterns. These size ranges are also called grades. These can achieve very high rates.boom minimises dust by reducing the height that the coal needs to fall to the top of the stockpile.

Magnetic separators shall be used just ahead of the coal crusher. and/or just prior to coal discharge to the in-plant bunker or silo fill system. Also power plants using pulverized coal specify a maximum coal size that can be fed into the pulverizer and so the coal has to be crushed to the specified size using the coal crusher. The tramp iron clings to the belt as it goes around the pulley drum and falls off into a collection hopper or trough after the point at which coal is charged from the belt. 51 . Pulverizer Most commonly used pulverizer is the Boul Mill. Basically. The arrangement consists of 2 stationary rollers and a power driven baul in which pulverization takes place as the coal passes through the sides of the rollers and the baul. which in turn holds and carries the tramp iron to a collection hopper or trough. stainless steel. The tramp iron is pulled from the moving coal to the face of the separating conveyor. two types are available. if any. and so it is passed through coal crushers. Magnetic Separation Magnetic separators shall be used in coal conveying systems to separate tramp iron (including steel) from the coal. or polyethelene. Coal Crusher Before the coal is sent to the plant it has to be ensured that the coal is of uniform size. Rotary crushers are very commonly used for this purpose as they can provide a continuous flow of coal to the pulverizer. The other type consists of permanent or electromagnets incorporated into a belt conveyor that is suspended above a belt conveyor carrying coal. One type incorporates permanent or electromagnets into the head pulley of a belt conveyor.decks can be made from different materials such as high tensile steel. A primary air induced draught fan draws a stream of heated air through the mill carrying the pulverized coal into a stationary classifier at the top of the pulverizer. The classifier separates the pulverized coal from the unpulverized coal.

• The boiler can be easily started from cold condition in case of emergency. • Increased thermal efficiency is obtained through pulverization. •It is easier to adapt to fluctuating load as there are no limitations on the combustion capacity. Tangential Burners: The tangential burners are arranged such that they discharge the fuel air mixture tangentially to an imaginary circle in the center of the furnace. • Greater surface area of coal per unit mass of coal allows faster combustion as more coal is exposed to heat and combustion. • The furnace volume required is less as the turbulence caused aids in complete combustion of the coal with minimum travel of the particles. By 52 . The pulverized coal is passed from the pulverizer to the boiler by means of the primary air that is used not only to dry the coal but also to heat is as it goes into the boiler. The burners are placed at the four corners of the furnace. These burners are constructed with tips that can be angled through a small vertical arc. • Coal with higher ash percentage cannot be used without pulverizing because of the problem of large amount ash deposition after combustion. High heat release rates are possible with this method of firing. At the Badarpur Thermal Power Station five sets of such burners are placed one above the other to form six firing zones. • The combustion process is almost free from clinker and slag formation. The coal is sent into the boiler through burners. • Practically no ash handling problem. The secondary air is used to provide the necessary air required for complete combustion. • The use of secondary air in the combustion chamber along with the powered coal helps in creating turbulence and therefore uniform mixing of the coal and the air during combustion.Advantages of Pulverized Coal • Pulverized coal is used for large capacity plants. The swirling action produces sufficient turbulence in the furnace to complete the combustion in a short period of time and avoid the necessity of producing high turbulence at the burner itself. The primary air may vary anywhere from 10% to the entire air depending on the design of the boiler. A very important and widely used type of burner arrangement is the Tangential Firing arrangement.

adjusting the angle of the burners the position of the fire ball can be adjusted so as to raise or lower the position of the turbulent combustion region. When the burners are tilted downward the furnace gets filled completely with the flame and the furnace exit gas temperature gets reduced. NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT KEY PLAN OF NCHP: 53 . When the burners are tiled upward the furnace exit gas temperature increases. A difference of 100 degrees can be achieved by tilting the burners.

Various parts in the above process are as follows: 1. WAGON TIPPLER 54 .

Motor Specificaton: 1. CONVEYERS: • 10A. Frequency 15HP 415V.18B 1.11B • 12A. Horse Power 2.14B • 16A. Frequency 5. RPM 4.3 phase 1480 rpm 50 102 1.16B • 17A.12B • 13A.13B • 14A.10B • 11A. Current Rating 75 415. Transfer Point7 55 .3 phase 1480 rpm 50 Hz 1.17B • 18A. Horse Power 2. COAL FEEDER TO PLANT Feeder motor Specification: 1. RPM 4. Voltage 3. Rejection House 4. Voltage 3. Breaker House 3. Reclaim Hopper 5. Transfer Point 6 2.

13B. An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part). In a DC motor this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source.12B takes the the coal to the breaker house .From the hopper it is taken to the transfer point TP-6 by conveyor 12A.From TP-7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A. Crusher House 7.6.12B.If the coal is over sized (>400mm sq. HT & LT MOTOR WORKSHOP In these workshops.14B to the crusher house whose function is to render the coal size to 20mm sq. mesh of hammer are rejected via conveyor 18A.labours are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stone moving in the conveyor . There are several ways to supply power to the rotor. which renders the coal size to 100mm sq.Conveyor 12A.15B takes to bunker. while in an AC motor this power is induced in the rotating device.In the crusher house a magnetic separator seperates any magnetic material from the coal before it enters the crusher.repairing of all the induction motor is done.After being crushed. Induction Motor An induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction. The stones which are not able to pass through 100mm sq.if any metal is still left in coal it is separated with the help of metal separator. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is 56 . Exit Schematic of the NCHP as given above shows how the coal arrives in wagon tippler via railways and is tippled by wagon tippler in to the hopper. In most of the conveyor.17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper.18B to the rejection house.) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh from the hopper mesh.Now the conveyor 15A.From the breaker house the coal is taken to TP-7 via conveyor 13A. conveyor 17A.HT & LT motors are classified according to their rating and thus different workshops are used for their maintainance.Extra coal is sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16.

especially polyphase induction motors. Various switch gear components: 1. which are frequently used in industrial drives. or grid. Today. Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction. oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast.A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load.the secondary side. interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. refers to the combination of electrical disconnects. Oil-filled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled. protection. allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls. or SF6 equipment. metering and communications. Switching Isolator: . a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed structure with electrically-operated switching elements. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. 57 .It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current. mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. SWITCH GEAR The term switchgear. Induction motors are widely used. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load.Isolator: . 2. vacuum. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. The very earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches. lack of brushes (which are needed in most DC Motors) and — thanks to modern power electronics — the ability to control the speed of the motor. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated. By the early 20th century. making open manually-operated switches too dangerous to use for anything other than isolation of a deenergized circuit. fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment. used in association with the electric power system. using oil circuit breakers.

Circuit Breakers: . This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. 63A. Rotary switch up to 25A. switch fuses for 200A.Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. 5. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. 100A. These are normally on same circuit. 200Q. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. 800A and 1000A are used. quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A. to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits.Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system. 2. Fuses: .L Starting 58 . The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for tha range 32A. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4.AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D.These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. which are used in switchgear. Main Switch:. 400A.3. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc.O. 600A.One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. Contactors: . With fuses. quick break. 300A at 500V grade. 3. Load Break Switches: . LT Switchgear It is classified in following ways:1. Earth Switches: . which are backed by circuit breakers.With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process.

4+KA Symmetrical · 3. The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening 59 . The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element.4+KA Asymmetrical · 360 MVA Symmetrical · Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC § FC 220V/DC · Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2. HT SWITCH GEAR:1.For overload protection.of motors and protecting the connected motors.It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. Air Circuit Breaker: . 5. Air Circuit Breakers: . It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it. The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. Overload Relay: . Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: . So in all circuits breakers at large capacity air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. 4.In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . This reduces the possibility of sparking.These use oil as quenching medium. Type-HKH 12/1000c · Rated Voltage-66 KV · Normal Current-1250A · Frequency-5Hz · Breaking Capacity-3.

When it is broken down under an electrical stress. It will quickly reconstitute itself · Circuit Breakers-HPA · Standard-1 EC 56 · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Insulation Level-28/75 KV · Rated Frequency-50 Hz · Breaking Current-40 KA · Rated Current-1600 A · Making Capacity-110 KA · Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A · Mass Approximation-185 KG · Auxiliary Voltage § Closing Coil-220 V/DC § Opening Coil-220 V/DC · Motor-220 V/DC · SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0. SF6 Circuit Breaker: . iii.and opened by applying pressure at upper opening. the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly.This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker. ii. Rated Voltage-6. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6.25 KG 60 . When contacts operate. Operation takes place quickly. the performance of gas .6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. It has the following advantages over OCB:i.25 KG · SF6 Gas Per pole-0. iv.

an ESP applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is very efficient in its consumption of energy (in the form of electricity). and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure. · Rated frequency-50 Hz · Rated making Current-10 Peak KA · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC · Rated Current-1250 A · Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC · Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP · Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) · Weight of Breaker-8 KG Electrostatic precipitator An electrostatic precipitator (ESP). or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.4. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device. 61 . In contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium. vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used at high pressure. It regards of insulation and strength.It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: .

It is designed to trap and remove dust particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process. particulate matter created in the industrial process is carried as dust in the hot exhaust gases.9% or more of the dust from the gas stream. Cleaned gas then passes out of the precipitator and through a stack to the atmosphere. Precipitators are used in these industries: • • • • • Power/Electric Cement Chemicals Metals Paper In many industrial plants.Introduction to Precipitators An electrostatic precipitator is a large. industrial emission-control unit. These dust-laden gases pass through an electrostatic precipitator that collects most of the dust. Precipitators typically collect 99. 62 .

Precipitators function by electrostatically charging the dust particles in the gas stream. Very large power plants may actually have multiple precipitators for each unit.Neutralizing the charged particles on the collecting surfaces Particle Dislodging .Charging of particles Migration .Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces Charge Dissipation . there are many different sizes. but it can be any industrial process that would otherwise emit particles to the atmosphere. The charged particles are then attracted to and deposited on plates or other collection devices. causing it to fall with the force of gravity to hoppers below.Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces Collection . When enough dust has accumulated. Depending upon dust characteristics and the gas volume to be treated. Six activities typically take place: • • • • • • Ionization .Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point The major precipitator components that accomplish these activities are as follows: • • • Discharge Electrodes Power Component Precipitator Controls 63 . the collectors are shaken to dislodge the dust. The dust is then removed by a conveyor system for disposal or recycling. Often the process involves combustion. types and designs of electrostatic precipitators.Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper Particle Removal . Basic Principles Electrostatic precipitation removes particles from the exhaust gas stream of an industrial process.

• • • Rapping Systems Purge Air Systems Flue Gas Conditioning ELECTRICAL MAINTAINANCE DIVISION-II • GENERATOR • TRANSFORMER • SWITCHYARD 64 .

• LIGHTNING GENERATOR The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. This Chapter seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator. 65 . Large steam powered turbo generators (steam turbine generators) provide the majority of the world's electricity and are also used by steam powered turbo-electric ships. TURBO GENERATOR A turbo generator is a turbine directly connected to an electric generator for the generation of electric power.

low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles. number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. The stator housed the armature windings. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. This induces an electromagnetic force (e. Working Principle The A. D.f. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz.C. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators.) in the stator windings. but on the other hand they are much heavier and need more space. the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. since they offer much better fuel efficiency and are also more reliable.m. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency. The rotor houses the field windings.m. E = 4. Therefore. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. because the cost advantage as well as easier construction.Smaller turbo-generators with gas turbines are often used as auxiliary power units. The magnitude of this e. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. When the rotor is rotated. For base loads diesel generators are usually preferred. 66 .f.C. where the hot exhaust gases are used to generate steam which drives another turbo generator. is given by the following expression. The efficiency of larger gas turbine plants can be enhanced by using a combined cycle.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Weber’s.

cooking. This happens when magnets inside a copper coil in the generator spin. cooling. Carbon. The coal powder mixes with hot air. Coal-generated electricity is used for • • • • • • • • • • heating. gives coal most of its energy. Steam released from the boiler powers an engine called a turbine. 4. healthcare. lighting. 67 . The spinning turbine is used to power a generator.Converting Coal into Electricity Electricity from coal is the electric power made from the energy stored in coal. The burning coal heats water in a boiler. and much more! Releasing Coal's Energy The process of converting coal into electricity has multiple steps and is similar to the process used to convert oil and natural gas into electricity: 1. which helps the coal burn more efficiently. made from ancient plant material. industry. farming. transportation. 3. A machine called a pulverizer grinds the coal into a fine powder. 5. 2. transforming heat energy from burning coal into mechanical energy that spins the turbine engine. a machine that turns mechanical energy into electric energy. creating steam. communication. and the mixture moves to the furnace. This energy is released when coal is burned.

To keep the temperature down. and the cycle begins again Generator component This Chapter deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. its frame. The water returns to the boiler. it turns back into water. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. In order to make room for the large conductors. otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. its winding & balancing and stator. As the steam is condensed. core & windings.000 revolutions per minute. With good design 68 . The problem of guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. body and this would cause mechanical weakness. A condenser cools the steam moving through the turbine.6. 7. Rotor. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high.

Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. Rotor balancing When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection.and great care in construction this can be achieved. When rotating at high speed. which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body. and it is further forged and machined. by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. usually made of forged steel. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the 69 . The rotor is a cast steel ingot. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. and mounted on insulated sleeves. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots.

circumference at each end. The use of cold rolled grainoriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grainoriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. within this shell is a fixed cage of girder built circular and axial ribs. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. Stator Windings Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without 70 . The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. The major part of this load is the stator core. Stator Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported.

wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil. Rotor Cooling System The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish. 71 . This Chapter deals with the rotor-hydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. Due to the rotation of the rotor. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor coil to the hot zone of the rotor. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. Auxiliary Systems Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator.overheating.

e. shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing.Also. Provide indication to the operator about the condition of the gas inside the machine i. 2. hydrogen control panel. Also. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. Indication of liquid level in the generator and alarm in case of high level. Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times 3. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen. its pressure. The system is capable of performing the following functions : 1. an liquid level indicator. Continuous circulation of gas inside the machine through a drier in order to remove any water vapour that may be present in it. The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the 72 . The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand. 4. Which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot? Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement. gas purity measuring and indicating instruments. The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors. temperature and purity. Stator Cooling System The stator winding is cooled by distillate. this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures. proper arrangement for filling. a drier. in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing. 5.

generating at 10. Thus. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve.use of very high quality of cooling water. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected. the governing control valves. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups. Generator High Voltage System The generator voltage ranges from 10. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator.75 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines.5 kV. a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit.C. In smaller units.5 kV in smaller units to 15. The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 deg. Generator is to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain preset values. the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms.5 kV bus system 73 . The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. the bearing and seal oil systems.

Excitation System Rotating commutator exciters as a source of DC power for the AC generator field generally have been replaced by silicon diode power rectifier systems of the static or brushless type. A typical brushless system includes a rotating permanent magnet pilot exciter with the stator connected through the excitation switchgear to the stationary field of an AC exciter with rotating armature and a rotating silicon diode rectifier assembly. and necessary control devices for mounting on a remote panel. Also. The exciter rotating parts and the diodes are mounted on the generator shaft. a means of manual voltage regulation. This arrangement eliminates both the commutator and the collector rings. part of the system is a solid state automatic voltage regulator. viewing during operation must utilize a strobe light. 74 . which in turn is connected to the rotating field of the generator.

A typical static system includes a three-phase excitation potential transformer.B 75 .0.50 Hz Hydrogen . a full wave static Rating of 95 MW Generator Capacity .2600 V Speed .310 V Current (rotor) .10500V Speed . three singlephase current transformers.9050 A Voltage (rotor) .247000 KVA Voltage (stator) .85 Frequency .5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection .2.0. an excitation cubicle with field breaker and discharge resistor.50 Hz Stator wdg connection .3000 rpm Power factor .85 (lagging) Stator current .3 phase star connection Insulation class . one automatic and one manual static thyristor type voltage regulators.3000 rpm Hydrogen .5 Kg/cm2 Power factor .15750 V Current (stator) .117500 KVA Voltage .3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity .6475 A Frequency .3.

By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings.TRANFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with out requiring relative motion between its parts. the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. BASIC PRINCIPLE: The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance 76 . An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core._lowcurrent form and back again. All but a fraction of the world’s electrical power has passed trough a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages. permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand. which includes a voltage in the other windings. and in most cases. thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. a core to concentrate magnetic flux. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry.

At higher frequencies. and would therefore be 100% efficient. In accordance with faraday’s law of induction. some times termed copper loss. and surrounding structures. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. the loss is proportional to the frequency. which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. For a given core material. is sometimes termed the back EMF”. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%. energy is dissipated in the windings. The losses vary with load current. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. A small transformer such as plug-in “power brick” used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. and a solid core made from such a 77 . skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings. The primary EMF. core. or at an intermediate loading. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant.around a core of negligible reluctance. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current. meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. Eddy current Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing trough the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. sometimes termed iron loss. an effect known as mutual inductance. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. although its presence is still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. and may furthermore be expressed as “no load” or “full load” loss. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiency of 99.85%.

an effect known as magnetostriction. oil pumps or water-cooler heat exchangers design to remove heat. such as the core.5 KV Line current (hv) . Eddy currents therefore circulate with in a core in a plane normal to the flux. and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic field between primary and secondary windings. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. However.229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10. These incite vibration with in near by metal work. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material.2 A 78 . and consuming a small amount of power. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next halfcycle.material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn trough out its entire length. Power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer Rating of transformer employed for 95MW unit No load voltage (hv) . any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive material such as the transformers support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself loss less. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction.315. adding to the buzzing noise.

50 Hz NAMEPLATE DATA The transformer nameplate contains most of the important information that will be needed in the field. 79 .45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight .3 Frequency .873.147725 Kg Core & winding .Line current (lv) .84325 Kg Phase .2 A Temp rise . The nameplate should never be removed from the transformer and should always be kept clean and legible.

• Class: The class will indicate the transformer’s cooling requirements and increased load capability. industry standards require that the following information be displayed on the nameplate of all power transformers: • Serial Number: The serial number is required any time the manufacturer must be contacted for information or parts. For three phase transformers. is a true indication of the current carrying capacity of the transformer. • kVA Rating: The kVA rating. as opposed to the power output.A Wye Delta Transformer Nameplate Although other information can be provided. kVA ratings for the vaious cooling classes should be displayed. the kVA rating is the sum of the power in all three legs. It should be recorded on all transformer inspections and tests. 80 .

Polarity (single phase): The polarity is important when the transformer is to be paralleled or used in conjunction with other transformers.800 volts. and for all tap positions. and also the angular displacement (rotation) between the primary and secondary Connection Diagram: The connection diagram will indicate the connections of the various windings.uid is important when additional fluid must be added or when unserviceable fluid must be disposed of. With the secondary terminals shorted. Knowledge of the weight is important when moving or untanking the transformer. Instruction Reference: This reference will indicate the manufacturer’s publication number for the transformer instruction manual. to the rated voltage of that winding. The number of gallons. It is the ratio of the voltage required to circulate rated current in the corresponding winding. Phasor diagrams indicate the order in which the three phases will reach their peak voltages. both for the main tank. then the impedance is 1 percent. Temperature Rise: The temperature rise is the allowable temperature change from ambient that the transformer can undergo without incurring damage. Weight: The weight should be expressed for the various parts and the total.• • • • • • • • • Voltage Rating: The voltage rating should be given for the primary and secondary. Percent Impedance: The impedance percent is the vector sum of the transformer’s resistance and reactance expressed in percent. Different insulating fluids should never be mixed. Insulating Fluid: The type of insulating fl. with the secondary terminals shorted. The impedance is defined by the ratio of the applied voltage to the rated voltage of the winding. 81 . and if the primary is rated at 13. If. a very small voltage is required on the primary to circulate rated current on the secondary. 138 volts are required on the primary to produce rated current flow in the secondary. and for the various compartments should also be noted. Phasor Diagrams: Phasor Diagrams will be provided for both the primary and the secondary coils. The impedance affects the amount of current flowing through the transformer during short circuit or fault conditions. and the winding connections necessary for the various tap voltages.

to cities and towns. Electricity flows along transmission lines to substation transformers. Voltages are often as high as 500. By the time you have flipped a switch to turn on a light. REPRESENTATION OF THE SWITCHYARD A:Primary power lines' side B:Secondary power lines' side 82 . These transformers reduce the voltage for use in the local areas to be served. electricity has been delivered. which increases the voltage of the electricity based on the amount required and the distance it must travel. From the substation transformers. Transformers once again reduce the voltage—this time to about 120 to 140 volts—for safe use inside homes and businesses. which can be either above or below the ground. electricity travels along distribution lines. The delivery process is instantaneous.SWITCHYARD Delivering Electricity Electricity-generating plants send out electricity using a transformer.000 volts at this point.

Main transformer 10. 3. 5.Circuit breaker 7.1.Current transformer 8. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.Primary power lines 2. 7.Overhead lines 4.Control building Main Components At Switch Yard Are Described Under: 1.Disconnect switch 6. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. 4.Lightning arrester 9.Ground wire 3. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments. a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit. Two Buses at 220 KV and one By-Pass back up also at 220KV 2. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Isolator Current Transformers Potential Transformers Feeders Bus Coupler CURRENT TRANSFORMER A current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. 6.Transformer for measurement of electric voltage 5. 83 . which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments.

The potential transformer works along the same principle of other transformers. It is used to control the large value of voltage. These transformers work for single and three phase systems. It will take the thousands of volts behind power transmission systems and step the voltage down to something that meters can handle. It converts voltages from high to low.POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER Potential transformers are instrument transformers. 84 . and are attached at a point where it is convenient to measure the voltage. They have a large number of primary turns and a few number of secondary turns.

Now we connect the bus coupler of A2 and disconnect bus coupler of A1. And initially A1 is connected via transfer bus.BUS COUPLER bus coupler is used in sub-station for changing the source of supply without interrupting the transmission. 85 . the Bus coupler comes into play. Thus we have same value(132KV) supply from combined sources in our main bus. 1st we connect all three phases of feeder A2 to Transfer bus which in turn connected to main bus in parallel to transfer bus of feeder A1.let we have two source feeders A1(132KV) & A2(132KV).Now we want to change source feeder A1 with A2. we remove the transfer bus connection of A1 from main bus followed by disconnecting all three phases.next.Since both are in parallel so there neither be any damage nor any interruption in supply takes place.Now our supply is completely through feeder A2 and bus coupler 2. bus coupler 1 to transformer. main bus.

branch circuit panelboards. and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. which typically occurs during thunderstorms. hot enough to fuse 86 .000 mph). LIGHTNING Lightning is an atmospheric electrostatic discharge (spark) accompanied by thunder. Code rules on feeders also apply to subfeeders.000 °F). or branch circuits. “Sub feeders” originate at a distribution center other than the service equipment or generator switchboard and supply one or more other distribution panelboards.000 °C (54. a leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of 220.000 km/h (140. Feeders and subfeeders must be capable in carrying the amount of current required by the load. plus any current that may be required in the future. and can reach temperatures approaching 30.FEEDER “Feeders” are conductors which carry electric power from the service equipment (or generator switchboard) to the overcurrent devices for groups of branch circuits or load centers supplying various loads. From this discharge of atmospheric electricity.

The lightning arresters or surge diverters provide protection against such surges. leading to the formation of nitric oxide and ultimately. There are some 16 million lightning storms in the world every year.Lightning causes ionisation in the air through which it travels. The earthing screen and ground wires can well protect the electrical system against direct lightning strokes but they fail to provide protection against travelling waves. which may reach the terminal apparatus. nitric acid.silica sand into glass channels known as fulgurites which are normally hollow and can extend some distance into the ground. which conducts the high voltage surges on the power system to the ground 87 . A lightning arrester or a surge diverter is a protective device. of benefit to plant life below.

This is clear from the volt/amp characteristic of the resistor shown in Fig 7 (ii). It consists of a spark gap in series with a nonlinear resistor. The length of the gap is so set that normal voltage is not enough to cause an arc but a dangerously high voltage will break down the air insulation and form an arc. the air insulation across the gap breaks down and an arc is formed providing a low resistance path for the surge to the ground. the excess 88 . the lightning arrester is off the line i. One end of the diverter is connected to the terminal of the equipment to be protected and the other end is effectively grounded. it conducts no current to earth or the gap is non-conducting (ii) On the occurrence of over voltage. The action of the lightning arrester or surge diverter is as under: (i) Under normal operation. The property of the non-linear resistance is that its resistance increases as the voltage (or current) increases and vice-versa. In this way.e.Fig 7(i) shows the basic form of a surge diverter.

com ➢ en. As the gap sparks over due to over voltage.wikipedia. it gives the effect of short-circuit.org ➢ NTPC Ltd. References: NTPC Staff Members ➢ NTPC Badarpur Library ➢ www.charge on the line due to the surge is harmlessly conducted through the arrester to the ground instead of being sent back over the line. After the surge is over. the arc would be a short-circuit on the power system and may cause power-follow current in the arrester. the resistor offers high resistance to make the gap non-conducting. (iii) It is worthwhile to mention the function of non-linear resistor in the operation of arrester. Since the characteristic of the resistor is to offer low resistance to high voltage (or current). websites ➢ 89 .google.

90 .