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Ghiyasuddin Balban was ninth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty Ghiyas-ud-din Balban was undoubtedly the greatest Sultan

of the Slave dynasty. He ruled from 1266 to 1286. Ghiyas-ud-din Balban was born in a well-to-do Turk family of the Ilbari tribe. The Mongols captured him when he was a child. They sold him to Khwajah Jamal-ud-din Basri in Baghdad. Later he was brought to Delhi where Iltutmush purchased him.Through a twist of fate in 1232AD His first step towards the limelight was when he managed to become part of the Sultans elite (The Forty) slaves. During the rule of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, he became the most powerful amongst the Chalgan. Nasir-ud-din married Balban's daughter, which made the latter even more powerful. After the death of Nasir-ud-din, Balban became the Sultan in early 1266. As a minster, Balban did a great work during his twenty years of minister ship and saved the Muslim empire from the internal and external dangers. As king, Balban had to face many hardships after his accession to the throne in 1266. The affairs of the state had fallen into confusion on account of the incompetence of the successors of Iltutmish. The royal treasury was empty. The prestige of the stage had sunk low. So that , Balban decided to act upon a comprehensive and long-term policy. He introduced a concept of kingship generally known as Kingship Theory of Balban. During his reign, Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the 'Chihalgani', a group of the forty most important nobles in the court. He tried to establish peace and order in the country of India. He built many outposts in areas where there was crime and garrisoned them with soldiers. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown by establishing an efficient espionage system. Sultan Balban had a strong and wellorganized spy system. Balban placed secret reporters and news-writers in every department. The spies were independent authority only answerable to Sultan. Balban was strict administrator of justice. He did not show any partiality even to his own kith and kin. Balban, fortunately, was just the right man for the task. He put down rebellions with such determined severity that the nobility and Rajputs

were reined in for good. He set fierce Afghan troops after the rebels in the Doab region so that the entire area was flushed clean of opposition Balban made an extensive plan and systemized his frontier policy. Balban organized a strong and mighty army. Old and weak ones replaced by young and strong soldier n through this he saved the delhi from the horrible in vasion of barbarian Mongols. Despite these tactics, the Mongols led two great invasions into India, in 1279 and 1285AD. They were defeated and driven away, but the expense was great: Muhammad was killed. For all his affected severity, Balban must have been a devoted family man. When he came to know of his sons death, he was struck with such grief that he died soon after. But thanks to his work, Delhi and the Sultanate survive

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