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# 08-Aug-11

Differentiation rules - Wikipedia, the free …

Differentiation rules

This is a summary of differentiation rules, that is, rules for computing the derivative of a function in calculus.

Topics in Calculus Fundamental theorem Limits of functions Continuity Mean value theorem Differential calculus Derivative Change of variables Implicit differentiation Taylor's theorem Related rates Rules and identities: Power rule, Product rule, Quotient rule, Chain rule Integral calculus Integral Lists of integrals Improper integrals Integration by: parts, disks, cylindrical shells, substitution, trigonometric substitution, partial fractions, changing order Vector calculus

Contents
1 Elementary rules of differentiation 1.1 Differentiation is linear 1.2 The product or Leibniz rule 1.3 The chain rule 1.4 The polynomial or elementary power rule 1.5 The reciprocal rule 1.6 The inverse function rule 2 Further rules of differentiation 2.1 The quotient rule 2.2 Generalized power rule 2.3 Logarithmic derivatives 3 Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions 4 Derivatives of trigonometric functions 5 Derivatives of hyperbolic functions 6 Derivatives of special functions 7 Nth Derivatives 8 See also 9 References 10 External Links

Elementary rules of differentiation
Unless otherwise stated, all functions will be functions from R to R, although more generally, the formulae below make sense wherever they are well defined.

Gradient Divergence Curl Laplacian Gradient theorem Green's theorem Stokes' theorem Divergence theorem Multivariable calculus Matrix calculus Partial derivative Multiple integral

Differentiation is linear
Main article: Linearity of differentiation For any functions f and g and any real numbers a and b.

In other words, the derivative of the function h(x) = a f(x) + b g(x) with respect to x is

Line integral Surface integral Volume integral

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules

Jacobian

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org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 2/8 . i.Wikipedia.08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules .e.. of the composite and g: of two functions f In other words. the derivative of the function h(x) = f(g(x)) with respect to x is In Leibniz's notation this is written (suggestively) as: en.wikipedia. In other words. the free … In Leibniz's notation this is written Jacobian Special cases include: The constant multiple rule The sum rule The subtraction rule The product or Leibniz rule Main article: Product rule For any of the functions f and g. the derivative of the function h(x) = f(x) g(x) with respect to x is In Leibniz's notation this is written The chain rule Main article: Chain rule This is a rule for computing the derivative of a function of a function.

The reciprocal rule Main article: Reciprocal rule For any (nonvanishing) function f. for any number c.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 3/8 .Wikipedia. then Combining this rule with the linearity of the derivative permits the computation of the derivative of any polynomial. then for all x The derivative of a linear function is constant: if f(x) = ax (or more generally. this is written The inverse function rule Main article: inverse functions and differentiation This should not be confused with the reciprocal rule: the reciprocal 1/x of a nonzero real number x is its inverse with respect to multiplication. for some natural number n (including zero) then Special cases include: Constant rule: if f is the constant function f(x) = c. if f(x)=ax+b ).08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules . whereas the inverse of a function is its inverse with respect to function composition. the free … The polynomial or elementary power rule Main article: Calculus with polynomials If f(x) = xn. in view of the constant rule. the derivative of h(x) = 1/f(x) is In Leibniz's notation. en. the derivative of the function 1/f (equal at x to 1/f(x)) is In other words.wikipedia.

this is written (suggestively) as Further rules of differentiation The quotient rule Main article: Quotient rule If f and g are functions.wikipedia. it holds when n is any real number. the free … If the function f has an inverse g = f−1 (so that g(f(x)) = x and f(g(y)) = y) then In Leibniz notation. Conversely (using the constant rule) the reciprocal rule is the special case f(x) = 1. This can be derived from reciprocal rule and the product rule. Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions en. First.08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules . Generalized power rule Main article: Power rules The elementary power rule generalizes considerably. if x is positive.Wikipedia. The reciprocal rule is then the special case n = -1 (although care must then be taken to avoid confusion with the inverse rule). then: wherever g is nonzero. wherever both sides are well defined. Logarithmic derivatives The logarithmic derivative is another way of stating the rule for differentiating the logarithm of a function (using the chain rule): wherever f is positive. The most general power rule is the functional power rule: for any functions f and g.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 4/8 .

the free … note that the equation above is true for all c. The derivative of the natural logarithm with a generalised functional argument f(x) is By applying the change-of-base rule. the derivative for other bases is Derivatives of trigonometric functions For more details on this topic.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 5/8 . see Differentiation of trigonometric functions.Wikipedia. en. the equation above is also true for all c but yields a complex number. but the derivative for c < 0 yields a complex number.wikipedia.08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules .

either by hand or computed by a CAS (Computer Algebra System). B. and i is the imaginary unit en. nth derivative exists). real number constants are A.[1] Below y is the dependent variable. real integers are n and j. F(x) is a continuously differentiable function (the . x is the independent variable. N.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 6/8 .wikipedia. r. the free … Derivatives of hyperbolic functions Derivatives of special functions Gamma function Riemann Zeta function Nth Derivatives The following formulae can be obtained empirically by repeated differentiation and taking notice of patterns.Wikipedia.08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules .

wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiation_rules 7/8 . Moessner [2] consists of all non-negative integer solutions of the Diophantine For the case of (the exponential function). Expanding this by the sine addition formula yields a more clear form to use: en. the free … Function nth Derivative where and the set equation See: Expansions for nearly Gaussian distributions by S.Wikipedia. the above reduces to: where is the Kronecker delta.08-Aug-11 Differentiation rules . Blinnikov and R.