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Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.

423-435, 2007 Copyright © 2007, TSI® Press Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Firat University Faculty of Technical Education Department of Electronic and Computer Science Firat University Faculty of Technical Education Department of Electrical Science ELAZIG/TURKEY Email:;,
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ABSTRACT—In this paper, a Proportional-Derivative and Integral (PD-I) type Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller (FNNC) based on Sugeno fuzzy model is proposed for brushless DC drives to achieve satisfied performance under steady state and transient conditions. The proposed FNNC uses the speed error, change of error and the error integral as inputs. While the PD-FNNC is activated in transient states, the PI-FNNC is activated in steady state region. A transition mechanism between the PI and PD type fuzzy-neural controllers modifies the control law adaptively. The gradient descent algorithm is used to train the FNN in direct adaptive control scheme. Presented experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control system, by comparing the performance of various control approaches including PD type FNNC, PI type FNNC and conventional PI controller, under nonlinear loads and parameter variations of the motor. Key Words: Fuzzy-neural network, brushless DC drives, PD type FNNC, PI type FNNC, PD-I type FNNC.

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are widely used in many servo applications in robotics, dynamic actuation, machine tools and positioning devices, due to their favorable electrical and mechanical characteristics such as high torque to volume ratio, high efficiency and low moment of inertia [1,2]. High accuracy is not usually imperative for most electrical drives, however, in high performance drive applications, a desirable control performance must be provided even while the parameters of the motor and loads are varying during the motion. Conventional constant gain controllers used in the high performance variable speed drives become poor when the load is nonlinear and parameter variations and uncertainties exist. Therefore, control strategy of high performance electrical drives must be adaptive and robust [3]. As a result, interest in developing adaptive control systems for electrical drives has considerably increased during the last decade and several adaptive control schemes for brushless DC motors have been proposed based on linear model [4,5] As is widely known, both fuzzy logic and neural network systems are aimed at exploiting human-like knowledge processing capability. Neural networks have the powerful capability for learning, adaptation and robustness [6]. Fuzzy systems have the ability to make use of knowledge expressed in the form of linguistic rules. Thus they offer the possibility of implementing expert human knowledge and experience. Hence, fuzzy logic control introduces a good tool to deal with the complicated, nonlinear and ill-defined systems. However, their main drawback is the lack of a systematic methodology for their design and tuning of membership functions’ parameters is a time consuming task. Fuzzy-neural systems combine the advantageous of both neural networks and fuzzy logic systems. Neural networks provide connectionist


J and B are inertia and friction of the motor respectively. and a . a PD-I type fuzzy-neural network controller for brushless DC drives is presented. and then trained FNNC is used for experiments. The BLDC drive system is summarized in section 2. the fuzzy logic systems provide the neural networks with a structural framework with high-level fuzzy IF-THEN rule thinking and reasoning [7]. Furthermore. which are mounted on the stator. vd and vq are the direct and quadrature components of the stator voltage. current controlled PWM voltage source inverter. stator currents are decomposed into the flux and torque components which can be controlled independently. The description of the FNN controller is explained in section 3. θ is the rotor position. model reference control [9] and hybrid control techniques [10]. Details of this model can be found in [20. P is the number of poles. Furthermore. id and iq are the direct and quadrature components of the stator current. and used in [13] to update the control gain of the sliding mode position controller for an induction motor drive. vector control mechanism. and the motor is supplied by a three phase sinusoidal input source. λ ⎡ R ⎤ ⎡1 ⎢ − L − ω − L 0⎥ ⎢ ⎡iq ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡iq ⎤ ⎢ L R − 0 0 ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ ⎢ 0 d ⎢i ⎥ ⎢ − ω d ⎢d⎥=⎢ L ⎥⎢ω ⎥ + ⎢ dt ⎢ ω ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ B ⎢ 3P λ ⎥ − 0 0⎥ ⎢ θ ⎥ ⎢θ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢0 8J J ⎢ 0 ⎢0 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ 0 1 L 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎡vq ⎤ 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢v d ⎥ P ⎥ ⎢T ⎥ ⎣ L⎦ − 2J ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 (1) Where. The state space model of a BLDC motor referred to the rotor rotating reference frame is given in Eqn (1). Experimental results showing the performance of the control system under the various operating conditions are given in section 4. In this paper. rotor induced currents are neglected due to the high resistivity of magnet and stainless steel. PD and PI type fuzzy controllers for the direct torque control of induction motor drives are presented in [19]. The gradient descent algorithm is used to train the FNN on-line in direct adaptive control scheme using the simulation model of the drive. The armature windings. During the past decade. The model is based on the assumptions that the airgap is uniform. L is the stator inductance in dq reference frame. Block diagram of BLDC drive system is shown in Figure 1. BLDC motor has a surface mounted permanent magnet.21]. With the vector control (or field oriented control). a recurrent fuzzy-neural network controller is applied to a dynamical system in [17] and a linear induction motor drive in [18]. A simple and smooth transition mechanism depending on the tracking error is described. 2. λ is the magnitude of the flux linkage established by the rotor magnet and ω is the electrical rotor speed.424 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing structure and learning abilities to the fuzzy logic systems. fuzzy-neural network control is applied to induction motors in [11] and brushless DC motors in [12]. TL is the load torque (Nm) and. The speed control performance of the proposed FNNC is evaluated under the parameter and load variations of the motor using the experimental setup including the DS-1104 control card. The features of the presented FNN controller are highlighted by comparing the various FNN control approaches. which consists of a BLDC motor loaded with a DC generator. BLDC DRIVE SYSTEM A brushless DC machine is basically synchronous machine with a permanent magnet in the rotor circuit. The presented control approach consists of PD type FNNC at transient state and PI type FNNC at steady state to achieve satisfied performance under steady state and transient conditions. The output of the speed controller is the quadratic current component iq* (torque current) for the vector controlled BLDC drives. neural network-based fuzzy systems have become attractive and applied to the control of nonlinear systems using direct adaptive control [8]. and thus the d-axis inductance is assumed to be equal to the q-axis inductance. PD type and PI type fuzzy-neural network controllers are described and then. R is the stator resistance. A fuzzy-neural network controller is augmented with an IP controller in [14]. PD controller in [15] and an adaptive controller in [16]. are electronically switched according to position of the rotor. In the field of electrical drives. and direct current component id* (exciting or flux current) is set to zero to avoid demagnetization of the permanent magnet on the rotor.

The control algorithm is realized by a PC including DSPACE-1104 signal processor kit. Where.. Coordinate translation. Js + B e y 1 y2 Π Π Π Π y3 Ν Ν Ν y4 1 2 3 y5 TL ω∗ + - ∆e Σ Π Π Π Ν Ν Ν 16 17 18 y6 I*q KT Te + - 1 Js+ B ω ∫e Transition Mechanism Figure 2. DC ω∗ + - Fuzzyneural network controller I*q Limiter Ta Tb Tc Ia Ib I*d=0 Digital filter & Current Controller& PWM Modulator θ ω dθ/dt PC and DS-1104 signal processor kit Figure 1. A FUZZY-NEURAL NETWORK CONTROLLER FOR BLDC DRIVES Using the vector control technique and assuming ideal current control. 2. L 220 V 50 Hz rectifier C PWM inverter BLDC Enc. iq*=iq and id*=id.e. iq* is the torque current command and G p ( s ) = 1 is plant transfer function. The current control and PWM modulation in Figure 1 can be different depending on the types of current controllers to ensure good current regulation. Te is the electric torque. i. the simplified block diagram of BLDC drive system including the proposed FNN controller can be represented as shown in Figure 2. . Block diagram of the BLDC drive system. current control and PWM generation are also implemented digitally.Development and Implementation of a Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Brushless DC Drives 425 speed control loop. Simplified block diagram of the proposed control system. KT is the torque constant.

For the jth node in this layer. PD-I type FNNC is proposed in this paper to cope with the transient and steady state problems. x 2 = ∆e(t) . however. membership (y2). PD-FNNC has favorable transient response characteristics. 2. In addition. y 1 = net 1 i i i i where. The activation mechanism is as follows: ⎧ PD − FNNC ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ PI − FNNC ⎩ is activated if e > ω thr is activated if e ≤ ω thr The threshold value of the speed ωthr is chosen as 200 rpm. Steady state response of the PI-FNNC is acceptable. then f 1 = p1 x1 + q1 x 2 + r1 If x1 is A2 and x 2 is B2 . The activation mechanism modifies the control law adaptively and thereby achieving high performance control for both transient and steady state. tuning of the integral gain has a considerable effect on the control performance such as overshoot and settling time. Membership layer calculates the degree of membership functions for the input values. PI or PID type controller. then f 2 = p 2 x1 + q 2 x 2 + r2 These rules show that the Sugeno type FNNC can be designed as an adaptive PD. x1 = e(t) . Steady state errors can be reduced by long training period for the FNNC. A simple transition mechanism depending on the tracking error is provided. a common rule set with two fuzzy if-then rules is given as follows: If x1 is A1 and x 2 is B1 . net 2 = −σ ij xi2 − mij . all of the controllers explained in this section are implemented experimentally under various load conditions. rule (y3). inference (y5) and the output (y6) layers. The FNN controller comprises of input (y1). x = ∫ e(t) 3 net 1 = x 1 . Generalized Bell functions are used for the other input values. the change of the error and the integral of the error are the inputs of the FNN controller. significant steady state error occurs when the load torque is applied since it has no integral mechanism. PD-FNNC uses the speed error and the change of the error as inputs and produces the torque current command. The second layer includes the i membership functions to express the input/output fuzzy linguistic rules. and PI-FNNC in steady state region. which eliminates an additional integral compensator. For a first order Sugeno FNN. FNN inputs are defined in the first layer. PI type FNNC presented in this study uses the speed error and integral of the error as inputs and produces the torque current command. normalization (y4). Drawbacks of the PD-FNNC can be overcome with the PI-FNNC which includes an integral compensator at the output.1 Description of FNN Controller A six-layer fuzzy-neural system based on Sugeno fuzzy models as shown in Figure 2 is adopted to implement the fuzzy-neural network controllers in this study. according to maximum speed change at the full load condition. j ( ) y 2 = f 2 (net 2 ) = j j j 1 1 + exp(net 2 ) j (3) . however. however. net is the net input and x (2) 1 i 1 is the ith input of the first layer. For every node i in this layer. this may result in high gains which cause noise problems in control systems. To highlight the merits of the proposed controller. The input layer transmits input signals to the next layer.426 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing First-order Sugeno type fuzzy-neural network controller is adopted for the speed control of brushless DC motor in this study. inputs and output are expressed as. Sigmoid functions are adopted for the small and large values of the inputs. which consists of PD-FNNC in transient states. Speed error.

The third layer of the FNNC represented by Π includes the fuzzy rule base and the nodes in this layer determine the fuzzy rules. Therefore.a) 5 4 y k = y k (p e + q b ∫ e + r ) k k k (7. x2 − m i ij 2b i . PD or PI type FNNC. Parameters of the FNNC are modified using the backpropagation algorithm to minimize the performance index E E= 1 2 e 2 (9) . (5) w3 jk is assumed to be unity and x j represents the jth input to the layer 3. The weights between the input and membership layer are assumed to be unity. The fourth layer labeled 3 N is the normalization layer and it determines the certainty of the fuzzy rules. the output of this layer denoted by the numbered rectangles is the product of the normalized firing strength of layer 4 and an adaptive node function given by 5 4 y k = y k (p e + q a ∆e + r ) k k k (7. The output of this layer are given as. membership functions varies accordingly. 27 nodes in this layer are required for three inputs FNNC.Development and Implementation of a Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Brushless DC Drives 427 net 2 = j where. For the first-order Sugeno fuzzyneural systems. pk. FNN controller has two groups of modifiable parameters which are the membership and the output functions parameters. depending on the selected controllers such as PD-FNNC or PI-FNNC. The sixth layer is the output layer and produces an output as the sum of all incoming signals. 9 nodes in the membership layer are included. Consequently. Three membership functions are used for each input. each node in the rule layer multiples the two fixed weight incoming signals from the membership layer. Hence. mij and bi are the parameters of the membership functions in the jth node of the ith input variable x 2 . In total.e. however. the output of this layer y 6 = i* = ∑ y 5 o k q k (8) is the torque current command for the motor. As the values of these parameters change. thus i exhibiting the most suitable forms of membership functions for fuzzy set. 3 3 3 net k = ∏ w 3 x 3 . y k = net k jk j j where. qk and rk are the output function parameters of the FNNC to be determined by training. i. Where. y 2 = f 2 (net 2 ) = j j j 1 1 + net 2 j σ (4) ij σ ij . It calculates the ratio of the kth rule’s firing strength to the sum of all rule’s firing strength: 4 yk = x4 k ∑ x4 k k (6) The fifth layer which has adaptive nodes gives the certainty of rules.. 18 rules are sufficient for this study.b) which depends on active controller.

counter emf Ez=39 Volt/1000 rpm. delta adaptation rule proposed in [9] is used & δ 1 = Ae + e (13) where A is a positive number. R=11. The fuzzy-neural control system proposed in this study is implemented using the dSPACE-DS1104 signal processor control card and the results are compared with various control approaches. (7). ∑ xk4 .5 H.0001kg. L=21. P=6. J=0. nominal torque Tn=0. Type: BLQ 42S30. local error δ1 is defined as δ1 = ∂E ∂e ∂ω ∂ω . in this equation should be calculated using ∂e ∂ω ∂y 6 ∂y 6 the motor dynamics.428 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing where the speed tracking error is e = ω * −ω .05 Ω. The gradient of complex nonlinear dynamic systems cannot be found explicitly. nominal current In=1.xk4 ∂E = δ 1 fk k 2 ∂mij ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎜ ∑ xk ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ 3.m2. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ∏y j 3 k ( −σ ij )y 2 (1 − y 2 ) j j (15) where fk is first order linear output function of the FNN in Eqn. maximum torque and current Tmax=3. nominal supply voltage 220 V. For the output parameters. The nameplate and parameters of BLDC motor are: Permanent Magnetic Brushless Servomotor. the gradient of the cost function for the parameters of the membership functions can be written as.8 A.a) x4 ∂E ∂y 6 ∂y 5 4 = δ 1 5 kb = δ 1 y k ∫ e = δ 1 k 4 ∫ e b ∂q k ∂y ∂q k ∑ xk k (11. instead of the system gradient.9 Nm. under the various load conditions and mechanical parameter variations of the motor.b) x4 ∂E ∂y 6 ∂y 5 4 = δ 1 5 k = δ 1 yk = δ 1 k 4 ∂rk ∂y ∂rk ∑ xk k (12) where. the gradient of the performance index can be derived as follows: 5 4 6 xk ∂E 1 ∂y ∂y k 1 4 1 =δ = δ yk e = δ e ∂p k ∂y 5 ∂p k ∑ xk4 k (10) x4 ∂E ∂y 6 ∂y 5 4 = δ 1 5 ka = δ 1 y k ∆e = δ 1 k 4 ∆e ∂q ka ∂y ∂q k ∑ xk k (11. ω∗ is the reference speed and ω is the actual shaft speed.5 Nm Imax=6. In similar way. In this study.7 A maximum speed n=3000 rpm. The parameters of the current controllers are tuned to obtain a favorable current .xk4 ∂E = δ 1 fk k 2 ∂σ ij ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎜ ∑ xk ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ ∏y j 3 k (xi2 − mij )y 2 (1 − y 2 ) j j (14) ∑ xk4 .

Furthermore. incremental encoder interface and various pulse with modulation units. If the numbers of input membership functions (number of rules) are increased. As shown in experimental results. PD and PI type FNNC mentioned in this paper are tested for the same operating conditions. Figure 5 shows the change of the objective function during the training process. dSPACE-DS1104 control card allows user to construct the system in MATLAB/Simulink and then to convert the model files to real-time codes using the Real-Time Workshop of the MATLAB/Simulink and Real-Time Interface (RTI) of dSPACE-DS1104 control card [22]. To test the loads characteristic of the controllers. the most important parameters affecting the sensitivity are inertia (J) and viscous friction (B). Thus the graphical user interface can be designed by the user to observe the real time values of the variables or to change the input variables such as reference speed. The control algorithm. three membership functions are used for each input and this yields nine rules for PD and nine rules for PI controllers. In electrical drives. . the robustness of the control system is tested under inertial-frictional variations and unwanted disturbances.b. Real time values of the physical systems’ variables can be assigned to the user defined variables using the dSAPCE-Control Desk Developer (CDD) software. For comparison. These blocks are added to Simulink libraries by RTI. however. Figure 4. Figure 4. FNNC is trained using the simulation model which is verified by the experimental data obtained from the motor and then the trained FNNC is used in experiments as shown in Figure 3.Development and Implementation of a Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Brushless DC Drives 429 regulation. parameters of the PI controller are tuned for each load condition to obtain the best result. D and I controllers respectively. The main aim of this study is to reduce the sensitivity of the system to these parameters’ variations and external disturbances.d show the input membership functions after the training for the P. the desired control performance is obtained using this membership functions. In this study.a shows the input membership functions before the training process for all controllers. a DC generator which produces torque proportional to the speed is coupled to the motor. Therefore. Some experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy-neural controller under different operating conditions of the motor. digital-analog converter. Idref RT I Data 0 Iqref id PI_d eid PI PI PI_q Vd Vq Vd da Duty cy cle a 0 wref w NFC eiq Vq db Duty cy cle b teta_e dc iq Duty cy cle c abc --> d-q Ia ADC ADC Ib Tz z-1 Duty Cycle Integrator 1 PWM Cnt PW M Stop DSP_PWM Enc position Out1 In1 Enc delta position Speed Calc ENC_POS Figure 3. results of the conventional PI controller are presented. Results are obtained by the designed graphical user interface. current control and PWM modulation are realized by a PC with dSPACE-1104 control card. The RTI software which is called as dSPACE RTI1104 comprises of four sub-libraries.c and 4. the structural and computational complexity increases dramatically and this is not desired for real control applications. analog-digital converter. MATLAB/Simulink implementation of experimental blocks using the RTI of the DS-1104 control card. 4. It is clear that the constant gain controllers do not provide favorable results for different load conditions. including some sub-blocks which provide the connection between Simulink and physical equipment such as.

inertia of the motor is increased approximately thirteen times of the nominal inertia and friction of the motor is increased approximately six times of the nominal friction The experimental results given in Figure 6 displays the motor speed and torque current for the tuned PI. the controllers are tested under increased inertia and friction with the speed dependent load produced by the DC generator.4 0.8 0. The maximum value of the load is 90% of the nominal value.5 0.a). however.5 0.1 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 (a) (b) Final membership functions for D controller 1 0.9 0.6 0.430 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing Initial membership functions for all controllers 1 Final membership functions for P controller 1 0. they have an overshoot resulting in longer settling time.7 0.g. the proposed PD-I FNNC provides a better performance as seen in Figure 6.1 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Final membership functions for I controller 1 0.9 0. PI and PD-I FNNC.4 0. PD.2 0.2 0. a better performance is obtained from the PD-I type FNNC which provides no overshoot and no steady state error.g. As shown in Figure 6. PD-FNNC controller has a steady state error which is negligible and can only be seen by zooming with no overshoot (Figure 6.1 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 0.6 0.7 0. PIFNNC produces 11% overshoot.3 0.8 0. It should be noted that the noise in torque currents of the integral based controllers is less than the derivative based controllers as shown in Figure 6(b).1 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 (c) (d) Figure 4.5 0.3 0. As expected.4 0.8 0. The tuned PI produces 7% overshoot and no steady state error (Figure 6. The PI type controllers have approximately the same rise time less than PD-FNNC.3 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.6 0. no steady state error and longer settling time (Figure 6. (d). The speed tracking responses are shown in Figure 7.6 0.9 0. (f) and (h).c).7 0.e). Initial and final membership functions of the proposed fuzzy-neural network controller. On the other hand.7 0. First.2 0.2 0.8 0. In the second experiment.5 0. It is observed that the PD-FNNC produces .

pp. IEEE Trans. 5. 1994. 1994. pp. Consoli and A. Haykin. on Industry Ap. “Analysis of brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors”. 1996. REFERENCES 1.a) and PI-FNNC has 6% overshoot (Figure 7. 27. Zhow. A comprehensive foundation. it still produces an overshoot.Development and Implementation of a Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Brushless DC Drives 431 Root mean squares error 10 2 10 1 10 0 10 -1 10 -2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Epoch number Figure 5. pp.A. 6.A.A. pp. Variation of the root mean squares error. USA.M. Z. From the experiments. An alternative approach is presented for fuzzy-neural control and the effectiveness of the proposed control system is shown experimentally under the parameter and load variations. and S. Gokbulut. 2003. Macmillan publishing. A. El-Sharkawi. a PD-I type fuzzy-neural controller is proposed for a BLDC drive to improve the control performance of the drive system at transient and steady state conditions. IEEE Trans. M. CONCLUSION In this paper. Electrical Engineering. As the system is loaded. 4. on Energy Conversion.350-354. Neural networks. The PD-FNNC produced larger steady state error when compared to the no load condition.A. 43. it can be concluded that the PD type FNNC produces significant steady state errors since it has no integral mechanism.b). Akpolat and M. when the step load is applied. and the tuned PI controller has 3% overshoot (Figure 7. In order to have a better view. rising times for the each algorithm increase compared to Figure 6.256-267. S. Rahman and P.114-119.d). Raciti. M. 2. Finally. on Energy Conversion.311-316. A. El-Sharkawi. pp. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.c). 1991. The proposed PD-I FNNC provides a better performance with no steady state error and no overshoot as seen in Figure (7. “Development and implementation of high performance variable structure tracking control for brushless motors”. El-Samahy. New York. IEEE Trans. Sharaf. 1991. “Analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motors”. M. significant steady state errors since it has no integral mechanism (Figure 7. “Discrete time reaching law speed control of electrical drives”. 6. “Adaptive multi-layer self-tuning tracking control for DC brushless motors”. similar speed tracking performances are shown in Figure 9 with enlarged y axis.H. 85. 3. Figure 8 shows the performances of the controllers when 90% load disturbances is applied. . PI type FNNC has an overshoot and more settling time and. It can be seen from the figures that the PD-I type FNNC is more robust than the others..53-58. 9. even when the conventional PI controller is tuned for each load condition. 5.

432 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing Speed (rpm) Torque current (a) Speed (rpm) time (s) (b) Torque current time (s) (c) Speed (rpm) time (s) (d) Torque current time (s) (e) Speed (rpm) time (s) (f) Torque current time (s) time (s) (g) (h) time (s) Figure 6. (g) speed and (h) torque current tracking performance of the PD-I FNNC. (c) speed and (d) torque current tracking performance of the PD-FNNC (e) speed and (f) torque current tracking performance of the PI-FNNC. Experimental results for the increased inertia and friction. (a) speed and (b) torque current tracking performance of the PI controller tuned for this load. .

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F. Turkey. 21. 9.u. “Modelling. F. Krishnan.C. P. Elazig.Germany. pp. 25. Wai. Pillay and R. Gökbulut received the B. pp. and the PhD degree in electronics engineering from Erciyes University. 19. IEEE Trans. “Hybrid control using recurrent fuzzy neural networks for linear induction motor servo drive”. Lai and L. (b) PI-FNNC .S. DS1104 Controller Board Features. Ankara. Speed variations for the 0. Lin.. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy systems.434 Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing Speed (rpm) Speed (rpm) (a) Speed (rpm) time (s) (b) Speed (rpm) time (s) (c) time (s) (d) time (s) Figure 8. simulation and analysis of permanent magnet motor drives. 18. on Industry Ap.. Y. “New hybrid fuzzy controller for direct torque control induction motor drives”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics.J. 1989a.1211-1219.274-279. in 1980 and 1988 respectively. 20. 2003. 22. 2001. in 1998. His research interests include research and development of intelligent control systems (neural networks and fuzzy logic). Kayseri. . electrical drives control and adaptive control systems. Turkey.Sc degree in electrical and electronics education from Gazi University. Pillay and R. 2003.Sc and M. on Industry Ap. ABOUT THE AUTHORS M. IEEE Trans. Part-1: The permanent magnet synchronous motor drive”. He is currently associate professor and the head of the department of electronics and computer education at Firat University. pp. 1989b. Part-2: The brushless DC motor drive”.102-115. Lin and R.J. simulation and analysis of permanent magnet motor drives. 25. (d) PD-I FNNC. (c) PD-FNNC. Turkey. 265-273. “Modelling. 2001. pp. Faculty of Technical Education. dSPACE GmbH. step load disturbance with increased inertia and friction: (a) PI controller tuned for this load. 18.9 p. Krishnan.

He is currently working towards to the Ph. Speed variations for the 0. C.Development and Implementation of a Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Brushless DC Drives 435 Speed (rpm) Speed (rpm) (a) Speed (rpm) (b) time (s) Speed (rpm) time (s) (c) time (s) (d) time (s) Figure 9. Currently. artificial neural networks and fuzzy control. Turkey. in 1997 and 2002 respectively. Elazig.Sc and PhD degrees in electrical and electronic engineering from Firat University.Sc and M. (b) PI-FNNC .9 p. Bal received the B. Turkey. (c) PD-FNNC.D degree in electrical and electronic engineering and he is a lecturer at the same university. M. identification and control of nonlinear systems including artificial neural network and fuzzy control. (d) PD-I FNNC. He research interests include speed sensorless control of electrical drives. he is a lecturer at the same university. step load disturbance with increased inertia and friction: (a) PI controller tuned for this load.Sc degrees in electronic and computer education from Firat University. Dandil received the B. He research interests include high performance control of induction motors. . in 1992. B. educational tools and virtual laboratories.u.Sc. respectively. 1998 and 2004. Elazig.