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SRI SAI Collage

Anteneh Mulugeta

Master of Business Administration (MBA) Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Submitted by Anteneh Mulugeta Date: Aug 15 2011

MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - Assignment Set 1

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SRI SAI Collage

Anteneh Mulugeta

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1127) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Write a note on the characteristics of Management. [10] Q.2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail. [10] Q.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. [10] Q.4 What are the different barriers to perception? [10] Q.5 Mr. Batra is the General Manager, HR of a leading Automobile company. He is having a meeting with Mr. Chandan, a leading HR consultant. Mr. Batra is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees. Assume that you are Mr. Chandan, the HR consultant. What suggestions will you give to Mr. Batra, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? [10] Q.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “iMagine”, an advertising company 1. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know, maybe their friends, ex. colleagues, batch mates and relatives. 3. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. What all aspects does it take care of, according to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ? [10]

MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior - Assignment Set 1

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leading. acting as a force or catalyst in integrating the resources such as labour. through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human.related that it is not possible to specify their sequence or relative significance. intellectual or intangible). together with land. 1. material. Some important characteristics of management are listed below. financial. 2. It is the most important and critical input for the success of any organization. capital and material. 4. Distinct Process Management is a distinct process consisting of planning. labour and capital. employees' performance and the overall performance of the company.1 Write a note on the characteristics of Management. Goal Oriented Management is a critical activity which co-ordinates the efforts of the employees to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of the management is measured by the extent of the achievement of organizational goals which are well defined and properly understood by the managers at different levels. controlling and directing all or part of an organization.Assignment Set 1 Page 3 of 20 . It is an art of getting things done through other people. Integrative Force MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . organizing. organizing.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta Q. The process of management involves decision making and putting them into practice. directing and controlling. [10] Management characterizes the process of planning. These functions are so important and inter. Goal Settings focus towards constant improvement. often a business. 3. staffing. which otherwise cannot perform independently. Goal Setting is critical to constantly improve personal performance. Economic Resource Management is one of the factors of production.

Assignment Set 1 Page 4 of 20 . The key for managers is the ability to assess motivational levels and to understand what they can do to get the work accomplished by others. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Managers are provided with the resources. a hierarchy of command and control. experience and management principles to extract results from the employees. 5. thus making it an art. buoyant spirit and adequate work output provides the evidence of its presence. The orderliness of the efforts. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. 7. Authority enables the managers to perform their duties effectively. 6.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta The main objective of management is integration of human and other resources for achieving the desired goals. Results through Others The managers cannot do everything themselves. A Science and an Art Management is a science that has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts. The application of this science requires the specialized knowledge and skill of the manager. together with which. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with that of the organization for smooth working of the establishment. 8. One of their most challenging responsibilities is to keep the employees motivated to do the best job they can. they apply their own knowledge. Intangible Force Management has been called an unseen force. System of Authority Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . which depends on his personal capability. informed and motivated employees. Generally the degree of authority reduces as we move down the managerial hierarchy.

The principles and techniques are applicable in all fields of life where human efforts are required such as business. for example an accountant. Intelligence test is a measure of general intellectual ability and is measured by assessing abilities on seven dimensions The seven intelligence dimensions by Dunnette(1976) are: 1. Verbal Ability It is a measure of communication capabilities consisting of reading.Assignment Set 1 Page 5 of 20 . etc. Anthropology. Universal Application Management is universal in character. writing and speaking and is measured by assessing abilities on six dimensions. This helps to hire and retain the top performers.over and recruitment time. 2. For instance. education. Mathematical Ability It requires a person. reduce employee turn. military. to do speedy and accurate arithmetic.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta 9. Psychology gave rise to human relations orientation and so on. [10] Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. Q. The sub-dimensions contained within the communication skills are: • Communication Process MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior .2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail. Thus increase the organization’s productivity. 10. hospital. Industrial engineering helped in productivity orientation. Multi-disciplinary Subject Management study has evolved from various other disciplines such as Engineering. Intelligence tests are formulated to assess intellectual ability of a person to suit the job profile. Sociology and Psychology.

Deductive Reasoning (the ability to derive examples from general rules) Deductive arguments are those whose premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . However. Deductive reasoning is somewhat different from an inductive argument for the conclusion cannot possibly be false if the premises are true. It helps to identify similarities and differences quickly and accurately. Inductive arguments are those whose premises make it reasonable to accept the conclusion though do not absolutely guarantee its truth. Perceptual Speed Perception is the insight. or knowledge gained by perceiving.Assignment Set 1 Page 6 of 20 . It encompasses all the senses that are used to gather facts or observations. 5. 4. A supervisor uses deductive reasoning since he follows the sequence of the work closely. intuition. These are the abilities required to aspire for a career in investigation. if true provide support for its conclusion. Inductive and deductive arguments are also distinguished based on the point that logical strength is a matter of degree. Deductive arguments are able to guarantee their conclusions because the logical strength doesn't depend upon the specific content but on their form or structure. perception is not limited to the physical act of seeing.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta • • • • • Command on Vocabulary Assertive Communication Interpersonal Skills Persuasive Communication Critical Thinking Ability 3. Inductive Reasoning (the ability to derive general rules from examples) Logical strength is defined as the property of an argument whose premises. A market researcher uses inductive reasoning.

Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. A person's capacity to remember and the total store of mentally retained impressions and knowledge also formulate memory. 1. The eight different intelligences are listed below. Conversely. g.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta f. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5.Assignment Set 1 Page 7 of 20 . Among them Gardener’s theory suggests eight different intelligences. women gathered food and men hunted for it. Spatial Ability Spatial cognition is the processing of visual info in terms of their spatial relationships. Spatial visualization. Female superior spatial ability regarding object-location memory arises from the presumption that during human evolution. Different jobs demand different levels of intellectual abilities for various positions in the organization. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): 2. The level of understanding things vary from person to person. spatial orientation. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Memory Memory is defined as the ability by which sense impressions and information are retained in the mind and subsequently recalled. Various theories of intelligence were developed. males have better understanding of spatial visualization and spatial orientation because hunting requires both of those skills. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") 3. and object and location memory comprise the three categories of spatial cognition.

energetic. assertive. [10] William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. introvert. Lower cost than personality tests. has the tendency towards muscularity. Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs. particularly the stomach (endoderm). May be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time. risk taker. Mesophorphy – focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm). corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous. Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment. The validity rises with increasing complexity of the job. Combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone. Q.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta Advantages • • • • • • • Highly reliable. love of comfort and luxury.Assignment Set 1 Page 8 of 20 . Sheldon identified three main somatotypes: Endomorphy. corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant. He called this a person’s somatotype. sensitive. aggressive. apprehensive. dynamic. corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic. has the tendency toward plumpness.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. extravert. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . active. Ectomorphy focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the tendency towards slightness. Mesophorphy and Ectomorphy Endomorphy – focused on the digestive system.

"Baluchitherium" (the largest prehistoric land mammal) for mesomorph and endomorph. the pure endomorph 7-1-1. On this scale. 1970) in which all possible body types are graded in a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high). Each type is represented by a series of photos.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta On this basis. Mesomorphic Body Type: • • hard. the extreme or pure mesomorph has a score of 1-7-1. Endomorphic Body Type: • • • • • • • • • • • • • soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system Associated personality traits: love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humoured relaxed need for affection b. and the pure ectomorph 1-1-7. a.Assignment Set 1 Page 9 of 20 . muscular body overly mature appearance MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . based on the degree to which they matched these types. and is given a comical or descriptive name. "Male Mosquito" for the extreme ectomorph. like "saber tooth tiger" for extreme mesomorph. Most people of course are a combination of types. with 4 as average). and so on. Sheldon created his very interesting Atlas of Men (Macmillan Pub Co.

Ectomorphic Body Type: • • • • • • • • • • • thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain Associated personality traits: self-conscious preference for privacy MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior .SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta • • • • • • • • • • • • rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture Associated personality traits: adventurous desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive.Assignment Set 1 Page 10 of 20 . bold zest for physical activity competitive love of risk and chance c.

based on the perception of the individual. processing. so as to give meaning to their environment. and interpreting and evaluating of data. Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. 1993). Q. The use of somatotyping (using different taxonomies) is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern psychology and spirituality. by affecting both the decisions as well as the quality of the decision. The decision taken by an individual is a complex process involving the intake of data. organize and interpret their sensory impressions. rather than the actual reality. People's behavior is influenced by their perception of reality.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta • • • • • • introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained Sheldon measured the proportions of delinquent boys and concluded that mesomorphs (Ornstein. Perception is a complex cognitive process and differs from person to person. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior .Assignment Set 1 Page 11 of 20 . screening. Perceptions have a crucial role in individual decision-making in organizations. hundreds of juvenile they were generally Body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are not generally used in psychology. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.4 What are the different barriers to perception? [10] Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals select.

object. such as. Halo Effect The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt. For example. 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed-read” others. enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. when the traits have moral overtones.Assignment Set 1 Page 12 of 20 . For example. students may give prominence to a single trait. 4. Selective Perception Any characteristic that makes a person. an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms. Projection This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people – which is called projection – can distort perceptions made about others. they compromise MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen . but. When managers engage in projection. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Contrast Effects Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. 2. not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. 3. while appraising the lecturer.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta 1. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule.

a new policy. or a pat on the back takes on special meaning and value when placed in the context of a work situation. of course.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta their ability to respond to individual differences. Perceptual Defence MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . and even weight. age. 8. we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender. race. and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impressions. First-impression error means the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. Thus. From a perceptual standpoint. 5. Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hippel. 7. if people expect to see these stereotypes. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. and it permits us to maintain consistency. a memo. Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. 1996). a verbal order. The problem. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person. It is a means of simplifying a complex world. whether or not they are accurate. given that we form first impressions quickly and that these impressions may be the basis for long-term employment relationships. is when we inaccurately stereotype. First impressions are lasting impressions.Assignment Set 1 Page 13 of 20 . First-impression error Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impressions. 6. a raised eyebrow. Primacy effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews. ethnicity. a suggestion. In organizations. Stereotyping Stereotyping–judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. that is what they will perceive. The organizational culture and structure provide the primary context in which workers and managers do their perceiving.

responsibility. the quality of the physical environment in which they work.g. 9. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he or she conceives. There are particular demographic traits (age. years in service.Assignment Set 1 Page 14 of 20 . change in perception but refusal to change. recognition. an individual is likely to put up a defence when confronted with conflicting. and perhaps fired if it is viewed as a deliberate act. What suggestions will you give to Mr. People are interested not only in observing behaviour in organization but in determining its causes. Batra is the General Manager. the job conducted. HR of a leading Automobile company. and hours worked per week) of employees that significantly affect their job satisfaction. position. Numerous research results show that there are many factors affecting the job satisfaction. the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor. Chandan. Satisfying factors motivate workers while dissatisfying ones prevent. tenure. He is having a meeting with Mr. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of four forms: outright denial. marital status. etc. Chandan. modification of the data received. promotion and the factors related to the job itself for MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . Q. Their evaluation of and reactions to other’s behaviour may be heavily influenced by their perception that the others are responsible for their behaviour. e. Motivating factors are achievement. rebuked if it is viewed to be caused by her clumsiness. a nurse who drops a tray of medicine will be excused if the incident is perceived as caused by a slippery floor.. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? [10] Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors. Mr. the HR consultant. and change in perception itself. education level. Assume that you are Mr.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta According to the principle of perceptual defense. Batra is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees.5 Mr. a leading HR consultant. or threatening stimuli. For example. unacceptable. degree of fulfilment in their work. Batra.

friendship. Factors related to the job itself such as using talents. all affect job satisfaction negatively. It has been asserted that participating in the management. security needs (pension. and achievement and recognition at work result in satisfaction while the management policy. resting. having the decision making power.). The job itself (the work conducted). Age is one of the factors affecting job satisfaction.Assignment Set 1 Page 15 of 20 .SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta personal development. creativity. health insurance. etc. responsibility. need to self esteem (self-confidence. Maslow connects the creation of the existence of people's sense of satisfaction with the maintenance of the classified needs. status.). These are: physiological needs (eating.) need of self-actualization (maximization of the latent [potential] power and capacity. Insufficient education. inability to select qualified workers for the job. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . to be given importance. adoration. development of abilities. etc. relations with the managers and colleagues result in dissatisfaction. fellowship. Motivating factors in the working environment result in the job satisfaction of the person while protective ones dissatisfy him/her. lack of communications. have positive impact upon the job satisfaction. recognition. etc. There is a strong connection between feeling secure and saying one is satisfied with a job. recognition have influence on the job satisfaction. Kose has also found a meaningful relation between the age and job satisfaction. drinking.). the need to love (good relations with the environment. lack of job definitions. etc. independence on the job and the unit where the individual works. to love and to be loved). Studies conducted in five different countries prove that the elder workers are more satisfied.

Most workers like their work if they have little supervision. you could let workers sometime sit around all day and do nothing. The least satisfied workers are those in service occupations and managers that work for others. Job satisfaction varies a lot. (Researches suggests. There is a consistent relationship between the professional status and the job MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . and they have great impact upon performance. but they usually result only in short-term improvements in attitudes and productivity. that increased job satisfaction produces improve job performance -in fact. by some researchers. There is no strong acceptance among researchers. affected each other reciprocally. socio-political. and the female librarians are more dissatisfied than the male librarians. Job satisfaction and devotion to the job. Similarly. But.Assignment Set 1 Page 16 of 20 . The individual's willingness to get a result. many workers are satisfied in even the least prestigious jobs. his/her endeavour and expectation of maintaining the result will push him/her to show the highest performance.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta People who state their job is secure have a much larger probability of reporting themselves happy with their work. That may make them more satisfied with their "work" in the short run. but their performance certainly doesn't improve. Ethnic and religious orientation is associated to work attitudes. the greater the job satisfaction). and job satisfaction is related to education.. They simply like what they do. cultural and demographical ones. The most significant of the factors affecting performance are economical. These are worthwhile efforts. and the situation often returns quickly to normal. etc. For example. However. improved job satisfaction can sometimes decrease job performance. consultants. sex is also found to have an influence on job satisfaction. the higher the prestige of the job. Wahba has found out that male librarians give more importance to personal development and free decision making in their jobs than the female librarians. The difference between the results that the individual desire and those she/he maintained will affect his/her satisfaction. most efforts to improve performance seem to center on improving the conditions surrounding the work. technical. Besides.

an advertising company 1. batch mates and relatives. What all aspects does it take care of. Therefore. according to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ? [10] Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist. the highest reaches of consciousness and wisdom. ex. education level. If the environment is right. Humans seek the frontiers of creativity. Q. as the workers deem themselves relatively in good position. people will grow straight MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . The workers usually compare their working conditions with the conditions of the society. "healthy personality"." Maslow has set up a hierarchic theory of needs. job satisfaction could be affected by age. or as Maslow calls this level. working environment and member in professional group. Humanists do not believe that human beings are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces. either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis). under the variable of social conditions. They believe that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities. Humanists focus upon potentials. professional experience. Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. colleagues. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. then this will result in satisfaction of the individual. 3. This has been labelled "fully functioning person". salary. training. High levels of job satisfaction are observed in those professions which are deemed of good standing in the society. All of his basic needs are instinctual.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta satisfaction. equivalent of instincts in animals. "self-actualizing person. sex.Assignment Set 1 Page 17 of 20 .6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “iMagine”. If the social conditions are worse than the individual's working conditions. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. maybe their friends.

actualizing the potentials they have inherited. and so on. If these requirements are not met. war. the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta and beautiful. These include needs for understanding. Air. Safety Needs With their physical needs relatively satisfied. grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority. In the absence of physical safety -. the human body simply cannot continue to function. or. the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied. insurance policies. Maslow's basic needs are as follows: Physiological Needs For the most part. Beyond these needs.Assignment Set 1 Page 18 of 20 . etc -. including humans. nor the third until the second has been satisfied. natural disaster.these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security. If the environment is not "right" (and mostly it is not) they will not grow tall and straight and beautiful. In the absence of economic safety -due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities .due to terrorist attack. The intensity of the human sexual instinct is shaped more by sexual competition than maintaining a birth rate adequate to survival of the species. savings accounts. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs. Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. and the like. water. reasonable disability accommodations.people (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder and transgenerational trauma transfer. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. physiological needs are obvious — they are the literal requirements for human survival. childhood abuse. in cases of family violence. higher levels of needs exist.

professional organizations. ostracism etc can impact individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general. In the absence of these elements. neglect.Assignment Set 1 Page 19 of 20 . religious groups. the third layer of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. Affection and Belongingness After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta Safety and Security needs include: • • • • Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts Needs of Love. gangs. shunning. office culture. and clinical depression. social anxiety. mentors. close colleagues. or small social connections (family members. depending on the strength of the peer pressure. The need is especially strong in childhood and can over-ride the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents which is sometimes called Stockholm syndrome. whether it comes from a large social group. intimate partners. Needs for Esteem MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. many people become susceptible to loneliness. such as: • • • Friendship Intimacy Family Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging. for example. such as clubs. confidants). an anorexic. sports teams. The absence of this aspect of Maslow's hierarchy due to hospitalism. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs.

safety. staff members physiological.” (Abraham Maslow. to feel self-valued. love. that many people with low selfesteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame. They may seek fame or glory. or inventions.Assignment Set 1 Page 20 of 20 . and in another it may be expressed in painting. MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior . Motivation and personality Harper and Row New York. Love. For example one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. Affection and Belongingness need and selfEsteem are fulfilled. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. however. Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. Needs for Self-Actualization “What a man can be. be it in a profession or hobby. in another it may be expressed athletically. he must be. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. but master these needs. according to “iMagine” HR policies. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. Imbalances at this level can result in low selfesteem or an inferiority complex. and glory externally. New York 1954 pg 91). Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is. which again depends on others. Therefore. safety. in order to reach a clear understanding of this level of need one must first not only achieve the previous needs. pictures. but when applied to individuals the need is specific. This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization. This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution. As mentioned before. and esteem. Note. but must first accept themselves internally. physiological. respect.SRI SAI Collage Anteneh Mulugeta All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect.