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EMI Analysis Basic

Joe Lin 03-495-9151 joe_lin@agilent.com


EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMI Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Definitions
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The ability of equipment to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable disturbances into that environment or into other equipment.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)


The impairment of a wanted electromagnetic signal by an electromagnetic disturbance.

Electromagnetic Immunity (Susceptibility, EMS)


The ability of electronic equipment to withstand radiated electromagnetic fields without producing undesirable responses.

EMI Analysis Basic

Components of an EMC Situation

SOURCE

Propagation Path

Susceptible Receptor

An EMC Problem can be eliminated by removing one of the above 3 components.

EMI Analysis Basic

Source of EMI
Natural Man-Made Unintentional

Man-Made Intentional

EMI Analysis Basic

Coupling Mechanisms
Radiated

Conducted

EMI Analysis Basic

Two Types of EMC Measurements


Emission Immunity = Susceptibility

EMI

Conducted Radiated

EMS

EMI Analysis Basic

Generalized EMI Measurement Setup


Requirements:
Known Environment Appropriate Frequency Range Characterized Pick-up Device Sufficient Sensitivity Freedom from Distortion Proper Bandwidths Proper Detection Mode

Measurement Environment

Equipment Under Test

Pick-up Device

Receiver

EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Frequency Range of EMI


450K

FCC30M
30M

9K

EN
150K

VCCI30M
10M 40G

30Hz

MIL-STD

30M 9K

FCC 1G
1G

40G 1275G

EN
30M

VCCI1G
40G

30Hz

MIL-STD
1
KHz


Conducted Radiated
100

10
Hz

100

10

100

1
MHz

10

100

GHz

10

EMI Analysis Basic

Standard Setting Institutions


IEC CISPR FCC CENELEC
EU

U.S.

JAPAN

VCCI

Taiwan

BSMI

EMI Analysis Basic

CISPR: Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques

National Regulations Summary (Emission)


CNS 13803 13439 13783 13438

EMI Analysis Basic

Various National Emissions Regulations

EMI Analysis Basic

(Federal Communications Commission)

FCC

EMI Analysis Basic

Specific Test Requirements Depend on Highest Internal Clock Frequency


Highest Internal Freq. Upper Freq. Of Measurement (MHz) (MHz) Below 1.705 30 ( only conducted measurement) 1.705~108 1000 108~500 2000 500~1000 5000 Above 1000 5th harmonic of highest freq. Or 40GHz, whichever is lower

EMI Analysis Basic

Before measurement
Preliminary questions?
1. Where is the product to be sold?
in other words, United States, Europe, Japan, etc.

2. What is the classification of the product?


information technology equipment [ITE] devices; industrial, scientific, medical [ISM] devices; automotive or communications

3. Where is the product to be used?


home, commercial, light industry,or heavy industry

EMI Analysis Basic

Time Value of EMC Solution


Degree of freedom to solve EMC problem Cost of Solution

Broadband

Prototype

Final Product

Time

EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMI Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Full Compliance Test Open Area Test Site (OATS)

Receiver: Measurement characteristics should be in compliance with CISPR Publication 16-1. IF has 6 dB measurement bandwidths of use above or below 1 GHz. Receiver is compliant with CISPR 11/1990, Group 1, Class B and EN 50082-1/1992.
EMI Analysis Basic

EMI Receivers vs. EMI Analyzers


EMI Receivers EMI Analyzers

EMI Analysis Basic

Semi-Anechoic Room
Anechoic Material on walls and ceiling

EMI Analysis Basic

CISPR Bandwidth Requirements


Bandwidth

-6dB

-20dB

Measurement Range 9kHz ~ 150kHz 150kHz ~ 30MHz 30MHz ~ 1GHz

CISPR Band A B C/D

CISPR Bandwidth 200Hz 9KHz 120KHz

EMI Analysis Basic

Detection Mode

Peak Quasi-Peak Average

EMI Analysis Basic

Output of the Envelope Detector

Follow the peaks of the IF signal

EMI Analysis Basic

Quasi-Peak Detector Output Varies with Impulse rate

EMI Analysis Basic

Average Detection

EMI Analysis Basic

PeakQP Average
Peak Detector
Initial used faster than QP and Average modes If all signals fall below the limit, then the product passes and no future testing is needed.

QP
For CW signal, Peak=QP Much slower by 2 or 3 order magnitude compared to using Peak detector Charge rate much faster than discharge rate
the higher repetition rate of the signal, the higher QP reading

Average
Radiated emissions measurements above 1 GHz are performed using average detection. Some conducted emissions test using Average and QP detectors

EMI Analysis Basic

EMC Preproduction Evaluation System

EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Conducted Compliance Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Commercial Conducted EMI Test Setup

EMI Analysis Basic

Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN)


The power supplied to EUT must be as clean as possible. 1uF and 50uH is the filter that isolates the mains from EUT. 0.1uF couples noised generated by EUT to EMC analyzer. At freq. above 150kHz, the EUT signals are presented with a 50 ohm impedance.

0.15

EMI Analysis Basic

Transient Limiter Operation


Transient limiters protect the spectrum analyzer input from damage caused by high-level transients from line impedance stabilization networks (LISNs) during EMI testing for conducted emissions. Switching EUT power on or off cause large spikes generated in the LISN.

a limiter + high-pass filter + an attenuator


EMI Analysis Basic

Conducted EMI: Layout

EMI Analysis Basic

Conducted Emissions Measurements


1. Setup EMI equipment and EUT (Equipment Under Test) 2. Setup Correct frequency Range (eg. 150kHz ~ 30MHz) 3. Select and load limit line, switch on limit test line 4. Enable corrections for LISN 5. Enable the correction factors for the limiter 6. Check the effect of the ambient environment
the noise floor and ambient signals are at least 6dB below the limit line

7. Check the EMC analyzer is not in overload


adjust the attenuation before the mixer of the EMC analyzer

8. Perform conducted emissions measurements


Peak, QP, Zone On, Meas at MKR, Meas to list, signal list,...

EMI Analysis Basic

EN 55022 Class B Conducted

QP Avg

EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Radiated Compliance Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

CISPR Radiated EMI Test Setup


Correct the results for the difference in distance from 3m to 10 m, which is 10.45dB.
3m or 10m

With 20dB gain and 7dB noise figure


EMI Analysis Basic

Antenna

EMI Analysis Basic

Antenna Factor

EMI Analysis Basic

Radiated Emissions Measurements


1. Setup EMI equipment and EUT (Equipment Under Test) 2. Setup Correct frequency Range
30~300MHz for bi-conical antenna, 200~1000MHz for log-periodic antenna, 30~1000MHz for broadband antenna

3. Select and load limit line, switch on limit test line


set margin

4. Load appropriate antenna correction factor, display amplitude units <dBV/m> 5. Load correction factor for external amplifier, or turn on internal preamplifier amplifier 6. Measure the effect of the ambient environment
Max Hold, Zone on, Auto Measure (signals above the limit line)

7. Placement of EUT for maximum signals


power on/off EUT to make sure the signal is ambient or from EUT

8. Evaluating measurement results


signal list on, define report..

EMI Analysis Basic

EN55022 Class B Limit (Radiated)

EN22BR10.LIM -6dB Margin


EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

EMI Diagnostic Testing


Breadboard/Design Prototype
Pass PreProduction Evaluation

First Production Run Pass EMI Compliance

Design Out EMI NO

YES

YES

YES SHIP

NO

NO $$ $$$

Redesign

EMI Analysis Basic

Measurement Objectives
Identify problem emission frequencies, or potential problem emissions Identify specific locations of above emissions optimize components in design Evaluate shielding and RF gaskets Store and recall data for later comparisons

EMI Analysis Basic

EMC Diagnostic Measurement Setup

EMI Analysis Basic

Finding Susceptible Circuit

Tracking Generator

EMI Analysis Basic

Performing a Diagnostic EMI


Configure the measurement setup locate the largest emissions store the trace data Characterize the emissions Modify the design Compare new level to previous data

EMI Analysis Basic

11940A/11941A Closed Field Probe


B
dS
+ Vout only the voltage components caused by the magnetic field

BALUN (LOSS K)

A H dB = AF + VSA (dBV ) + K m

EMI Analysis Basic

Probing a Shield Seam

Even loose screws can cause a problem.

Placing the display of the analyzer in {Max Hold} mode to collect the strongest emissions Scanning the close-field probe along the seam records the worst-case values. This result is then saved. Returned to {Clear Write} mode so that the strongest source of emissions can be located.
EMI Analysis Basic

Probing a Cable

I = H x 2r I (dBmA) = H (dBmA/m) + 20 log(2r)


EMI Analysis Basic