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EMI Analysis Basic

台灣安捷倫科技 應用工程師 林昭彥 Joe Lin 03-495-9151 joe_lin@agilent.com
EMI Analysis Basic

Agenda
EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMI Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing

EMI Analysis Basic

Definitions
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The ability of equipment to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable disturbances into that environment or into other equipment.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
The impairment of a wanted electromagnetic signal by an electromagnetic disturbance.

Electromagnetic Immunity (Susceptibility, EMS)
The ability of electronic equipment to withstand radiated electromagnetic fields without producing undesirable responses.

EMI Analysis Basic

Components of an EMC Situation

SOURCE

Propagation Path

Susceptible Receptor

An EMC Problem can be eliminated by removing one of the above 3 components.

EMI Analysis Basic

Source of EMI
Natural Man-Made Unintentional

Man-Made Intentional

EMI Analysis Basic

Coupling Mechanisms Radiated Conducted EMI Analysis Basic .

Two Types of EMC Measurements Emission Immunity = Susceptibility EMI Conducted Radiated EMS EMI Analysis Basic .

Generalized EMI Measurement Setup Requirements: Known Environment Appropriate Frequency Range Characterized Pick-up Device Sufficient Sensitivity Freedom from Distortion Proper Bandwidths Proper Detection Mode Measurement Environment Equipment Under Test Pick-up Device Receiver EMI Analysis Basic .

Agenda EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

Frequency Range of EMI 450K FCC30M 30M 9K EN 150K VCCI30M 10M 40G 30Hz MIL-STD 30M 9K FCC 1G 1G 40G 1275G EN 30M VCCI1G 40G 30Hz MIL-STD 1 KHz } } Conducted Radiated 100 10 Hz 100 10 100 1 MHz 10 100 GHz 1 10 EMI Analysis Basic .

JAPAN VCCI Taiwan BSMI EMI Analysis Basic CISPR: Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques .S.Standard Setting Institutions IEC CISPR FCC CENELEC EU U.

National Regulations Summary (Emission) CNS 13803 13439 13783 13438 EMI Analysis Basic .

Various National Emissions Regulations EMI Analysis Basic .

(Federal Communications Commission) FCC EMI Analysis Basic .

Specific Test Requirements Depend on Highest Internal Clock Frequency Highest Internal Freq.705~108 1000 108~500 2000 500~1000 5000 Above 1000 5th harmonic of highest freq. whichever is lower EMI Analysis Basic . Upper Freq. Of Measurement (MHz) (MHz) Below 1. Or 40GHz.705 30 ( only conducted measurement) 1.

Where is the product to be used? home. What is the classification of the product? information technology equipment [ITE] devices. industrial. United States. Where is the product to be sold? in other words. commercial.Before measurement…… Preliminary questions? 1. Japan. medical [ISM] devices.or heavy industry EMI Analysis Basic . automotive or communications 3. 2. Europe. light industry. scientific. etc.

Time Value of EMC Solution Degree of freedom to solve EMC problem Cost of Solution Broadband Prototype Final Product Time EMI Analysis Basic .

Agenda EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMI Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

Receiver is compliant with CISPR 11/1990. Class B and EN 50082-1/1992. Group 1.Full Compliance Test Open Area Test Site (OATS) Receiver: Measurement characteristics should be in compliance with CISPR Publication 16-1. IF has 6 dB measurement bandwidths of use above or below 1 GHz. EMI Analysis Basic .

EMI Analyzers EMI Receivers EMI Analyzers EMI Analysis Basic .EMI Receivers vs.

Semi-Anechoic Room Anechoic Material on walls and ceiling EMI Analysis Basic .

CISPR Bandwidth Requirements Bandwidth -6dB -20dB Measurement Range 9kHz ~ 150kHz 150kHz ~ 30MHz 30MHz ~ 1GHz CISPR Band A B C/D CISPR Bandwidth 200Hz 9KHz 120KHz EMI Analysis Basic .

Detection Mode Peak Quasi-Peak Average EMI Analysis Basic .

Output of the Envelope Detector Follow the peaks of the IF signal EMI Analysis Basic .

Quasi-Peak Detector Output Varies with Impulse rate EMI Analysis Basic .

Average Detection EMI Analysis Basic .

Peak≧QP ≧Average Peak Detector Initial used faster than QP and Average modes If all signals fall below the limit. then the product passes and no future testing is needed. QP For CW signal. Some conducted emissions test using Average and QP detectors EMI Analysis Basic . Peak=QP Much slower by 2 or 3 order magnitude compared to using Peak detector Charge rate much faster than discharge rate » the higher repetition rate of the signal. the higher QP reading Average Radiated emissions measurements above 1 GHz are performed using average detection.

EMC Preproduction Evaluation System EMI Analysis Basic .

Agenda EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

Conducted Compliance Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

Commercial Conducted EMI Test Setup EMI Analysis Basic .

0. the EUT signals are presented with a 50 ohm impedance. At freq. above 150kHz. 1uF and 50uH is the filter that isolates the mains from EUT.15 EMI Analysis Basic .1uF couples noised generated by EUT to EMC analyzer. 0.Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) The power supplied to EUT must be as clean as possible.

Switching EUT power on or off cause large spikes generated in the LISN.Transient Limiter Operation Transient limiters protect the spectrum analyzer input from damage caused by high-level transients from line impedance stabilization networks (LISNs) during EMI testing for conducted emissions. a limiter + high-pass filter + an attenuator EMI Analysis Basic .

Conducted EMI: Layout EMI Analysis Basic .

Enable the correction factors for the limiter 6.. signal list. Check the effect of the ambient environment the noise floor and ambient signals are at least 6dB below the limit line 7. Select and load limit line. Zone On.Conducted Emissions Measurements 1. 150kHz ~ 30MHz) 3.. Setup Correct frequency Range (eg. QP. switch on limit test line 4. Meas to list. Meas at MKR. Check the EMC analyzer is not in overload adjust the attenuation before the mixer of the EMC analyzer 8. Enable corrections for LISN 5. Setup EMI equipment and EUT (Equipment Under Test) 2.…. Perform conducted emissions measurements Peak. EMI Analysis Basic .

EN 55022 Class B Conducted QP Avg EMI Analysis Basic .

Agenda EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

Radiated Compliance Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

3m or 10m With 20dB gain and 7dB noise figure EMI Analysis Basic .CISPR Radiated EMI Test Setup Correct the results for the difference in distance from 3m to 10 m. which is 10.45dB.

Antenna EMI Analysis Basic .

Antenna Factor EMI Analysis Basic .

Radiated Emissions Measurements 1. define report…. or turn on internal preamplifier amplifier 6. Select and load limit line. Load correction factor for external amplifier. 30~1000MHz for broadband antenna 3. Setup Correct frequency Range 30~300MHz for bi-conical antenna. Evaluating measurement results signal list on. Measure the effect of the ambient environment Max Hold. Zone on.. Auto Measure (signals above the limit line) 7. Placement of EUT for maximum signals power on/off EUT to make sure the signal is ambient or from EUT 8. display amplitude units <dBμV/m> 5. EMI Analysis Basic . switch on limit test line set margin 4. 200~1000MHz for log-periodic antenna. Load appropriate antenna correction factor. Setup EMI equipment and EUT (Equipment Under Test) 2.

EN55022 Class B Limit (Radiated) EN22BR10.LIM -6dB Margin EMI Analysis Basic .

Agenda EMI Introduction EMI Regulation EMC Test Concept Conducted Testing Radiated Testing Diagnostics Testing EMI Analysis Basic .

EMI Diagnostic Testing Breadboard/Design Prototype Pass PreProduction Evaluation First Production Run Pass EMI Compliance Design Out EMI NO YES YES YES SHIP $ NO NO $$ $$$ Redesign EMI Analysis Basic .

Measurement Objectives Identify problem emission frequencies. or potential problem emissions Identify specific locations of above emissions optimize components in design Evaluate shielding and RF gaskets Store and recall data for later comparisons EMI Analysis Basic .

EMC Diagnostic Measurement Setup EMI Analysis Basic .

Finding Susceptible Circuit Tracking Generator EMI Analysis Basic .

Performing a Diagnostic EMI Configure the measurement setup locate the largest emissions store the trace data Characterize the emissions Modify the design Compare new level to previous data EMI Analysis Basic .

11940A/11941A Closed Field Probe B dS + Vout only the voltage components caused by the magnetic field r BALUN (LOSS K) H ⎛ μA ⎞ H ⎜ dB ⎟ = AF + VSA (dBμV ) + K m ⎠ ⎝ EMI Analysis Basic .

•Returned to {Clear Write} mode so that the strongest source of emissions can be located. •Placing the display of the analyzer in {Max Hold} mode to collect the strongest emissions •Scanning the close-field probe along the seam records the worst-case values. This result is then saved. EMI Analysis Basic .Probing a Shield Seam Even loose screws can cause a problem.

Probing a Cable i H I = H x 2πr I (dBmA) = H (dBmA/m) + 20 log(2πr) EMI Analysis Basic .