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ERAS 2006 Motivation Orientation in a Nurturing Technologically Enhanced Environment
Mrs Eleanor Goh Puay Hoon Head/Pastoral Care and Career Guidance Crescent Girls’ School Mrs. Wong Siew Choo Full Time School Counselor Crescent Girls’ School Miss Sharon Goh Teacher Crescent Girls’ School

ABSTRACT
The study examines the relationship of students’ motivation orientation towards learning and their achievement in a nurturing technologically enhanced environment. The fundamental baseline of learning outcomes lies in the motivation orientation of the students - their perception of the reasons why they are engaging in a learning task. The students’ motivation orientation to learning includes their intrinsic and extrinsic orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance, and test anxiety. Different dimensions on the motivation orientation of 1053 students across three educational levels, namely secondary one (347 students) two (344 students) and three (362 students) were assessed and compared. Students were of ages which ranged from 12 to 16.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study examines the relationship between students’ motivation orientation towards learning and their achievement in a nurturing technologically enhanced environment. This study on motivation orientation of the students will provide a useful understanding on the significant factors in motivation orientation that will impact the learners’ academic achievement outcomes.

SCOPE OF STUDY
The fundamental baseline of learning outcomes lies in the motivation orientation of the students. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was used to assess students’ motivational orientation and their use of different learning strategies. This study focuses on the motivational orientation which encompasses students’ goals and beliefs (Value Component), their beliefs about their skills to succeed (Expectancy Component) and their anxiety about tests (Affective Component). Value Component includes intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation and task values. Goal orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic) refers to ‘the students’ perception of the reasons why she is engaging in a learning task’ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991. p. 9). Task value, unlike goal orientation, refers to ‘the students’ evaluation of the how interesting, how important, and how useful the task is’ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991. p. 11),

direction and sustainability. 1991. It remains and continues to be one of the greatest challenges as seen by the increasing frequency of relevant research at a rapid rate. There is ample evidence to demonstrate a strong and positive influence of motivation on students' behaviour and achievement (Solvberg. & McKeachie. Self-efficacy which refers to ‘judgments about one’s ability to accomplish a task as well as one’s confidence in one’s skills to perform that task (Pintrich. 2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. & McKeachie. ‘Thinking Schools Learning Nation’. 12). According to Filson (2004) ‘We cannot motivate anybody to do anything. Smith. They embrace a critical underlying message . This force is called motivation. ‘Teach Less Learn More’ and ‘Touching Hearts Engaging Minds’ all point towards the importance of providing a nurturing environment for students to be engaged learners. 15) and an Emotional component which ‘refers to affective and physiological arousal aspects of anxiety’ (Pintrich.2). The Control of learning beliefs which refers ‘the students believes that their efforts to learn will result in positive outcomes’ (Pintrich. 15). Garcia. A simple search on an electronic database using descriptors of ‘Motivation’. 1991. Smith. p. It is that same force that enables students to be engaged in school activities for about eight hours a day and another few hours at night to complete school related work. 13). p. 2003). Smith. Affective component refers to test anxiety which has been found to be negatively correlated to achievement. Knowledge of the factors that facilitate a positive motivation orientation is crucial for teachers to be effective and for students to achieve. So our "motivating" others to get results really entails our creating an environment in which they motivate themselves to get those results’ (p. 1991. (Pintrich. How does the motivation orientation of the students differ across the three different educational levels? What are the critical factors that are at play in nurturing the students’ motivation orientation to learning? To what extent is the relationship between students’ motivation orientation and achievement? REVIEW OF LITERATURE An incredible force must be inside individuals to give their behaviour a purpose. p. Yet this construct is so elusive that the motivation construct is like an unending tale.the usual or conventional ways of thinking about student learning need to be reexamined and replaced by new approaches that focus on helping students to be effective learners. Garcia.. . 1991. The motivator and the "motivatee" are always the same person…. Garcia. ‘achievement’ and ‘high school’ already resulted in 1998 articles. The people we want to motivate can only motivate themselves. Smith. & McKeachie. & McKeachie.2 Expectancy Component includes the Control of Learning Beliefs and Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance. Garcia. p. It comprises the Cognitive component where the students’ worry or negative thoughts that disrupt performance. 3.

This group of students had the advantage of having more time to focus on the concepts involved in learning the topic through the time saved in not having to draw the graphs manually. In schools. The motivational selfregulation strategy was a significant predictor of the students' high school diploma grades and their desire to pursue further education after high school." "belief strength." and language and mathematics achievement. 2005). Sideridis. 1999. These aspects of motivation orientation could predict the students' course grades in Italian. Chua and her team experimented with the use of this software for the teaching of solving simultaneous equations using graphical methods with some Secondary Two students while the control class was taught using the traditional teaching approach. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the achievement between the two classes. 2003). It impacts schools and corporations (Tuckman. This enhanced positive experience in learning brought about by the technology-based pedagogy certainly influenced the students’ motivational level in learning. Nota. mathematics. Lessons for all four classes were modeled after the Strategies for Active and Independent Learning (SAIL) and Self-Directed Learning (SDL) framework. 2004. DuBois & Cooper. Nota. The class using the “Fun with Construction” technology-based pedagogical approach felt more motivated to complete their given assignments as they found them interesting and looked forward to more of such lessons. Sideridis’ study (2005) predicted the academic achievement of low and high spelling ability students. The literature has repeatedly shown a relationship between different variables of motivation orientation and academic achievement. 2005)." "motivation to comply. As computers become a standard instructional tool in the classroom it is critical therefore that we understand students' beliefs and motivation towards the use of this medium (Solvberg.a set of virtual geometrical tools which allows students to learn and perform geometrical constructions on the Tablet PC. Low spellers had significantly lower "goal importance." "outcome evaluation. had access to a National Archive website. Soresi & Zimmerman. 2004. using the Tablet PC. and technical subjects. Soresi & Zimmerman (2004) studied the self-regulated cognitive. their subsequent average course grades and examinations passed at the university. It was found that there was a higher tendency for the experiment classes to initiate the discussion amongst themselves. The use of the Tablet PC encouraged student group discussion and allowed individuals to work closely and provide help to their peers. The Micro lesson made available . Between-group comparisons pointed out differences in attitudes and motivation. Resource materials included a live account of experiences of Japanese Occupation survivors. Research has focused on computer and users’ attitudes towards them but little is yet known about the evolution of beliefs and motivation among students towards computers. Chua (2005) examined two approaches in the delivery and learning of simultaneous equations for two classes of Secondary Two students using a product “Fun with Construction” . studies have shown difference in different aspects of motivation orientation between high and low achievers (Valentine." "intent to achieve. McClelland.3 Motivation as a construct is pervasive. Two classes were selected to be the control group where the same history lessons were taught in the conventional way while the other two experimental classes. Neo (2006) conducted a study on 127 Secondary Two students to find out how the use of the Tablet PC affected the students’ learning of history. motivational and behavioural aspects on final year students’ subsequent academic achievement and resilience in pursuing higher education.

MSLQ was selected because of its acceptable validity and reliability and it covers a cognitive view of motivation and learning strategies. technology can be explored and harnessed as a viable tool to enhance student motivation.89 Sec 2 Mean 5. From these research findings. namely secondary one (347 students) two (344 students) and three (362 students) were assessed and compared.14 4. The online administration and appropriate language level in the items were found to be convenient and suitable for secondary level students. (2) Expectancy Component. The scores range from 1 (not at all true of me) to 7 (very true of me). thus enhancing their overall learning experience.93 Affective Components 3. and (3) Affective Component. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. . making students to want to learn more about the subject. Students in the experimental group felt that they were able to work more independently and collaboratively during these lessons.81 1.17 3. DATA ANALYSIS Students completed a self-reporting online MSLQ student survey.19 4.4 on the Tablet PC allowed the students to pace their own learning and navigate the Internet with ease. with the criterion variable: achievement.75 (362) Std.02 4. 1985).07 It is evident from Table 1 that the responses of the three levels of students in the three components were very similar which may be a reflection of the homogenous of the students in this study.65 (N=347) Std. It is evident that the motivational level of the groups using the Tablet PC was very high. Deviation 0.55 (344) Std.90 1.80 1. Table 1: Means for each level and motivation components Level Statistics Value Expectancy Components Components Sec 1 Mean 5.83 0.83 0.81 0. and predictor variables: (1) Value Component. INSTRUMENT The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) is an 81 item self-report instrument designed to assess students’ motivational orientations and their use of different learning strategies was selected for the study.11 3. Students were of ages ranging from 12 to 16. Deviation 0. PARTICIPANTS Different dimensions on the motivation orientation of 1053 students across three educational levels. Instruments that measure similar constructs include Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI.87 Sec 3 Mean 5. 2002) and Learning Process Questionnaire (Biggs. Deviation 0. Multiple regression analysis is used to explore the relationship between students’ academic achievement and MSLQ.

For the Secondary two students.00 0.00 0.70* 0.00 0.78* 1.00 0. two of the three motivation components have strong influences on the achievement of both Secondary two and three students.82 Affective Components -4.23* -0.70* 1. This is an important revelation for differentiated measures to be implemented to enhance the motivation level of different groups of students.24* 0.92 Expectancy Components -3. On the other hand. In contrast.10 0.24* 1.5 Using a score of 4 as the middle mark on the scale of 1 to 7.13 0.15* 0.00 1.19 0.01 level (2-tailed) Except for secondary 1 students. extrinsic goal orientation and task value).22* 1. The mean scores for Expectancy Components (control belief and self-efficacy) for all three levels of students are also above the average score of 4.79 Expectancy Components -0.04 1.05 Statistical analysis of the coefficients based at 0.01 1.26 0.00 Affective Comp 0.23 0.78* 0.00* Sec 3 Value component -0.00 0. This indicates that the students had a high level of goal orientation and task value.69* 0.90 0.00 * Affective Components -3. Affective Component and Achievement using Pearson Correlation Level Sec 1 Sec 2 Sec 3 • Variables Value Comp Expectancy Comp Affective Comp Value Comp Expectancy Comp Affective Comp Value Comp Expectancy Comp Affective Comp Value Comp 1.07 0.34* -0.05 level revealed contrasting results across the three levels (Table 2).19* Expectancy Comp 0.19* 0.00 0. Table 2: Relationship between achievement and motivation components (Regression Coefficientsa) Model t Significance Sec 1 Value component 0. the value component and affective components and for the Secondary three students. Affective Component was .24 0.02* Expectancy Components -0.04 0. the mean scores of the Affective Component (test anxiety) reported by all the three levels of students are below the middle score of 4.15* Correlation is significant at the 0. It was found that all three motivation components have no significant influence on the Secondary one students’ achievement. all the three components correlated significantly with achievement for both secondary 2 and secondary 3 students.26* 0. Table 3: Relations amongst Value Component.41 0. the expectancy components and affective components were significant.00 Achievement 0.36 0.00 0. Expectancy Component.69* 1.22* -0.00 -0. Significance at 0.04 0.00* a. Criterion Variable: Achievement.68 Affective Components -1.01 0. it is noted that all three levels had scores with a mean value of 5 and above for the Value Component (intrinsic goal orientation.24* 0.22 Sec 2 Value component 2.06 -0.

The students’ responses also reflect the proactive interest they have in their studies in terms of its importance and utility.14. There is clearly a relatively high level of goal orientation and task value on a scale of 1 to 7. 1991. if the student feels that she can control her academic performance. 12) and self-efficacy for learning and performance.6 found to correlate negatively with achievement in all three levels. 61). It concerns the belief that outcomes are contingent on one’s own effort. Value Component The mean scores of value component by secondary one. They predict not only the behavioral changes accompanying different environmental influences but also differences in behavior between individuals receiving the same environmental influence. it indicates that focusing on the enhancement of the Value Component could have a significant impact on the motivation of the students and their achievements. . in contrast to external factors such as the teacher. If students believe that their efforts to study make a difference in their learning. The relation between self-efficacy and performance was further iterated by Bandura (1997). and 5. The expectancy component concerns control of learning beliefs ." (p. Expectancy Component It is also observed that the mean scores for the expectancy components are also above the average score of 4 for all the three levels of students.02. nevertheless. p. "The evidence is relatively consistent in showing that efficacy beliefs contribute significantly to level of motivation and performance. important and useful for their learning. That is. through extensive evidence and documentation. Bandura (1997). This means that the three levels of students have a strong motivation to do well academically and they participate in their work because of the challenge involved in. concluded that self-efficacy was a key factor that can bring about significant outcomes in people’s lives. two and three students are 5. Schunk and Zimmerman (1989) had evidence to support the contention that self-efficacy can contribute to academic achievement by enhancing the motivation to achieve. Smith. This highlights the continual need for the designing of the learning tasks that are perceived by students to be meaningful. she is more likely to put forth what is needed strategically to affect the desired outcomes. Garcia. and even variation within the same individual in the tasks performed and those shunned or attempted but failed.that their efforts to learn will result in positive outcomes’ ((Pintrich. The Value Component was found to relate to the other two components as well as in achievement. & McKeachie. 5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 1. they should be more likely to study more strategically and effectively. While the relationships may not be causal. In addition. 2. it is noted that the Value Component correlates with Expectancy Component and Affective Component for all the three levels. The evidence showed that children with the same level of intellectual capability can be different in their performances depending on their level of self-efficacy. their sense of curiosity of and desire for mastery for the task.19 respectively.

structured and constructive feedback and encouragement should be given to students. After half a year of adopting this emerging technology in the curriculum. The Mobile-Learning Report 1 (Crescent Girls’ School. Providing a nurturing environment for students and building their sense of confidence and belief in themselves and their ability will be key in enhancing the motivation of the students. MSLQ is a useful instrument for measuring subsets of the students’ learning behaviors and could be repeated to show growth over time. 3. To help reduce the degree of anxiety. The students are frequently encouraged to voice out their problems to a significant other who could help them address issues. The research shows that the students’ responses across the three levels were rather homogenous.7 There is a need to increase self confidence of students – to take responsibility and control of their learning and to do self appraisal of their own ability to master a task. Conclusion A person’s learning. This in turn could affect academic performance. The results from this research show that the Affective Component (test anxiety) correlates negatively with achievement across all three levels (Table 3). Technology can be further explored and used as a tool to engender student motivation. 85% of the students had shown that they are now more likely to research a subject area beyond their textbooks. especially in assignments and tasks assigned. although the mean scores of the Affective Component for the three levels were below the average score of 4 for the scale. For the secondary two and three students. teachers should incorporate training in the use of effective learning strategies. Affective Component was found to correlate negatively with achievement in all three levels. Opportunities should be created for students to make choices. Affective Component Pupils develop negative thoughts leading to worry and anxiety. the correlations between Affective Component with achievement were significant. all the three components in MSLQ on motivation correlated significantly with achievement for both secondary 2 and secondary 3 students. and performance are influenced by a variety of internal and environmental factors. participate actively in decision-making. Except for secondary 1 students. and exercise self-regulation. . achievement. 2006) has indicated that technology could be harnessed to develop positive attitude in students towards learning. Students should be encouraged to take academic risks and to view mistakes as part of learning. 75% of the secondary two students surveyed indicated that their motivation towards lessons had increased with the introduction of the Tablet PC. the Value Component correlates with Expectancy Component and Affective Component for all the three levels. What then are the implications for our teachers? More regular. The different dimensions of students’ motivation orientation focused by the MSLQ in this research may not give the complete picture of the complex set of behaviors of the quality learner. Workshops that equip students with skills to manage their stress levels could also be provided. In addition. This is an encouraging sign of motivation orientation as the students enjoy learning and are taking ownership of what and how much they learn. test-taking skills and examination techniques into their teaching strategies.

Filson (2004) rightly commented that the motivator and the "motivatee" are always the same person…. it is essential to complement with development of other qualities such as socio-psychological well-being. Motivation orientation can be taught. Schunk and Gunn (1986) reported that providing children with strategy instruction and training in self-monitoring and self-correcting increased performance both directly and through the enhancement of self-efficacy. learning and performance. It would seem that stimulating instructional design. nurturing environment and technology could provide teachers with the means to enhance student motivation and lead them to become better learners. . age group. 75% of the secondary two students surveyed indicated that their motivation towards lessons had increased with the pervasive use of technology in the curriculum. 85% of the students had shown that they are now more likely to research a subject area beyond their textbooks. relationships with family and friends work together can influence a person’s motivation orientation. Yair’s study showed that the students’ learning experiences were interrelated with the quality of instruction. character development of students and social emotional competencies. So "motivating" others to get results really entails creating an environment in which they motivate themselves to get those results’ (p. 2006) has indicated that technology could be harnessed to develop positive attitude in students towards learning.. Much future research on motivation could be conducted to understand how each of these aspects could be leveraged upon to bring about effective learning outcomes.8 Many other factors. The Mobile-Learning Report 1 (Crescent Girls’ School.environment motivates. Apart from focusing on developing the different dimensions of students’ motivation orientation defined by MSLQ. such as gender. One important implication for this research is that teaching students how to be successful learners is both possible and essential. Students would be motivated when instruction was challenging and student centered. This is an encouraging sign of motivation orientation as the students enjoy learning and are taking ownership of what and how much they learn. Knowledge of the factors that facilitate a positive motivation orientation is crucial for teachers to be effective and for students to achieve.2). Yair’s empirical study (2000) on ‘Reforming motivation’ was along Filson’s (2004) line of argument . Learning experiences in school can be designed to provide opportunities to move toward positive outcomes and to leverage the qualities that are already present within the students to maximize learning in any discipline and enhance students’ motivation orientation.

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