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MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS ASSIGNMENT

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ANALOG MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Mobile telephone systems are either analog or digital. In analog systems, voice messages are transmitted as sound waves. When you speak into an analog mobile telephone, your voice wave is linked to a radio wave and transmitted. In digital systems, voice messages are transmitted as a stream of zeroes and ones. When you speak into a digital mobile telephone, your voice wave is converted into a binary pattern before being transmitted. 1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.

Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. Each generation of mobile communications has been based on a dominant technology, which has significantly improved spectrum capacity. Until the advent of IMT-2000, cellular networks had been developed under a number of proprietary, regional and national standards, creating a fragmented market.
First Generation:

1) Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was first launched in the US. It is an analog system based on FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) technology. Today, it is the most used analog system and the second largest worldwide. 2) Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) was mainly developed in the Nordic countries. (4.5 million in 1998 in some 40 countries including Nordic countries, Asia, Russia, and other Eastern European Countries)

3) Total Access Communications System (TACS) was first used in the UK in 1985. It was based on the AMPS technology. The first radiotelephone service was introduced in the US at the end of the 1940s, and was meant to connect mobile users in cars to the public fixed network. In the 1960s, a new system launched by Bell Systems, called Improved Mobile Telephone Service´ (IMTS), brought many improvements like direct dialing and higher bandwidth. The first analog cellular systems were based on IMTS and developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The systems were ³cellular´ because coverage areas were split into smaller areas or ³cells´, each of which is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. This first generation (1G) analog system for mobile communications saw two key improvements during the 1970s: the invention of the microprocessor and the digitization of the control link between the mobilephone and the cell site. Mobile telephone system all utilize some method to allow multiple users to Share the system concurrently. The three methods for doing this are: FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access CDMA Code Division Multiple Access In a FDM system, the available frequency is divided into channels. Each conversation is given a channel. When the system runs out of channels in a given area, no more telephone calls can be connected. In this way, FDM operates much like the channel button on your television set. The AMPS and NAMPS mobile telephone systems utilize FDM. In a TDMA system, your encoded voice is digitized and then placed on a radio frequency (RF) channel with other calls. This is accomplished by allocating time slots to each call within the frequency. In the D-AMPS (Digital AMPS) system, each 30kHz carrier frequency is div ided into three time slots. In the GSM and PCS systems, each 200kHz carrier is divided into eight time slots. The D-AMPS, D-AMPS 1900, GSM, PCS and iDEN systems all utilize TDMA. In a CDMA system, your encoded voice is digitized and divided into packets. These packets are tagged with "codes." The packets then mix with all of the

Digital systems can utilize either TDMA or CDMA. The receiving system only accepts the packets with the codes destined for it. FDM systems typically allow one call per 10Khz or 30Khz of spectrum. Early TDMA systems tripled the capacity of FDM systems.other packets of traffic in the local CDMA network as they are routed towards their destination. Recent advances in TDMA promise to provide forty times the carrying capacity of FDM systems. Analog systems are FDM. CDMA promises to improve on the results of TDMA .

APPLICATIONS OF FREQUENCY SPECTRUM : The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object. there is a continuum containing all these "different kinds" of electromagnetic radiation. . Electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in different way s in different parts of the spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies used for modern radio to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength end. The types of interaction can be so different that it seems to be justified to refer to different types of radiation. but divide it up based on the different interactions with matter. At the same time. Thus we refer to a spectrum. covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom.

An example would be the oscillation of the electrons in an antenna. including ejection of the electrons (photoelectric effect) Excitation and ejection of core atomic electrons. excitation of atomic nuclei.Region the spectrum Radio Main interactions with matter Collective oscillation of charge carriers in bulk material (plasma oscillation). Different parts of the radio spectrum are used for different radio transmission technologies and applications . plasma oscillation (in metals only) Molecular electron excitation (including pigment molecules found in the human retina). At very high energies a single photon can create a shower of high energy particles and antiparticles upon interaction with matter. including dissociation of nuclei Creation of particle-antiparticle pairs. Plasma oscillation. Compton scattering (for all atomic numbers).Radio frequency and its applications It refers to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies ± that is. frequencies lower than around 300 GHz. Microwavethrough far infrared Near infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-rays Gamma rays High energy gamma rays 1. Compton scattering (for low atomic numbers) Energetic ejection of core electrons in heavy elements. molecular rotation Molecular vibration. plasma oscillations (in metals only) Excitation of molecular and atomic valence electrons.

RFID.Band name Abbr Extremely low frequency Super low frequency Ultra low frequency Very low frequency Low frequency ELF SLF ULF VLF LF Frequency and wavelength 3±30 Hz 100. ultrafast molecular dynamics . wireless LAN. high-frequency microwave radio relay. amateur radio Terahertz imaging ± a potential replacement for X-rays in some medical applications. television broadcasts and line-of-sight ground-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-aircraft communications Television broadcasts. amateur radio Radio astronomy. time signals. AM longwave broadcasting (Europe and parts of Asia). most modern radars. RFID.000 km ± 10. Bluetooth. amateur radio. wireless LAN. geophysics Navigation. microwave remote sensing. amateur radio and over-the-horizon aviation communications.000 km ± 1000 km 300±3000 Hz 1000 km ± 100 km 3±30 kHz 100 km ± 10 km 30±300 kHz 10 km ± 1 km 300±3000 kHz 1 km ± 100 m 3±30 MHz 100 m ± 10 m 30±300 MHz 10 m ± 1 m Applications Communication with submarines Communication with submarines. radio astronomy. citizens' band radio.000 km 30±300 Hz 10. avalanche beacons Shortwave broadcasts. mobile phones. communications satellites. wireless heart rate monitors. amateur radio AM (medium-wave) broadcasts. ZigBee Microwave devices/communications.000 GHz 1 mm ± 100 m or THF Submarine communication. FM. Main power (50/60Hz) Communication within mines Medium frequency High frequency MF HF Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Super high frequency Extremely high frequency Terahertz or Tremendously high frequency VHF UHF 300±3000 MHz 1 m ± 100 mm SHF 3±30 GHz 100 mm ± 10 mm 30±300 GHz 10 mm ± 1 mm EHF THz 300±3. microwave ovens.

High-frequency allocations are still designated for ships. Radios are channelized. 2182 kHz is a medium-wave frequency still used for marine emergency communication.Broadcasting Broadcast frequencies: y y y Longwave AM Radio = 148.5 kHz (LF) Mediumwave AM Radio = 530 kHz ± 1710 kHz (MF) Shortwave AM Radio = 3 MHz ± 30 MHz (HF) Designations for television and FM radio broadcast frequencies vary between countries. with different channels used for different purposes. The Apex band in the United States was a pre-WWII allocation for VHF audio broadcasting. in North America some parts of the former television broadcasting band have been reassigned to cellular phone and various land mobile communications systems. Since VHF and UHF frequencies are desirable for many uses in urban areas.5 ± 283. marine Channel 16 is used for calling and emergencies. Marine band The greatest incentive for development of radio was the need to communicate with ships out of visual range of shore. Trans -oceanic aircraft also carry HF radio and satellite transceivers. see Television channel frequencies and FM broadcast band. From the very early days of radio. Air band Airband refers to VHF frequencies used for navigation and voice communication with aircraft. TV -band devices use channels without local broadcasters. Marine VHF radio is used in coastal waters and relatively short-range communication between vessels and to shore stations. although satellite systems have taken over some of the safety applications previously served by 500 kHz and other frequencies. it was made obsolete after the introduction of FM broadcasting. large oceangoing vessels carried powerful long-wave and medium-wave transmitters. . Even within the allocation still dedicated to television.

A wide range of personal radio services exist around the world. medical The ISM bands were initially reserved for non-communications uses of RF energy. Police radio and other public safety services such as fire departments and ambulances are generally found in the VHF and UHF parts of the spectrum. using channelized radios in the upper HF part of the spectrum (around 27 MHz).Amateur radio frequencies Amateur radio frequency allocations vary around the world. Other bands are national or regional allocations only due to differing allocations for other services. Many unlicensed devices such as cordless telephones or wireless computer networks now use ISM frequencies. . such as microwave ovens. Industrial. with no expectation of regulatory protection from primary ISM devices. usually emphasizing short-range communication between individuals or for small businesses. especially in the VHF and UHF parts of the spectrum. radio-frequency heating. It used for personal. See also Professional mobile radio. and similar purposes. usually in the shortwave part of the spectrum. are allocated for communication between fixed base stations and land mobile vehicle-mounted or portable transceivers. In the United States these services are informally known as business band radio. for example UHF CB is allocated in Australia. simplified or no license requirements. and usually FM transceivers using around 1 watt or less. Other frequency allocations are used for similar services in different jurisdictions. Several bands are common for amateurs world-wide. Trunking systems are often used to make most efficient use of the limited number of frequencies available. Citizens' band and personal radio services Citizens' band radio is allocated in many countries. scientific. especially in the VHF and UHF parts of the radio spectrum. Land mobile bands Bands of frequencies. small business and hobby purposes.

The demand for mobile telephone service has led to large blocks of radio spectrum allocated to cellular frequencies. Radio -controlled toys may use portions of unlicensed spectrum in the 27 MHz or 49 MHz bands. Industrial remote control of cranes or railway locomotives use assigned frequencies that vary by area. so radar is operated on bands not used for other purposes. Radar Radar applications use relatively high power pulse transmitters and sensitive receivers. although certain important applications for meteorology make use of powerful transmitters in the UHF band. but more costly aircraft. Licensed amateur radio operators use portions of the 6-meter band in North America. Radio control Reliable radio control uses bands dedicated to the purpose. boat. Most radar bands are in the microwave part of the spectrum. . or land vehicle models use dedicated remote control frequencies near 72 MHz to avoid interfer ence by unlicensed uses.

65 GHz. Starting in the early 1950s.16 specification.3 GHz) and 300 GHz Communication Before the advent of fiber-optic transmission.400 telephone channels on each microwave radio channel. 2.5 GHz.Microwave frequency and its applications These are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter. with frequencies between 300 MHz (0. iBurst) are designed to operate between 1.0 GHz range. Wireless LAN protocols.20 or ATIS/ANSI HC-SDMA (e. Metropolitan area networks: MAN protocols.8 GHz ranges.S. although 802.3 GHz to give mobility and in-building penetration characteristics similar to mobile phones but with vastly greater spectral efficiency.65 GHz band will give business customers another option for connectivity.11 specifications. The IEEE 802.3 GHz. up to 70 km away.2. frequency division multiplex was used to send up to 5. most long distance telephone calls were carried via networks of microwave radio relay links run by carriers such as AT&T Long Lines.5 GHz and 5.6 and 2.5±4. such as Bluetooth and the IEEE 802. Wide Area Mobile Broadband Wireless Access: MBWA protocols based on standards specifications such as IEEE 802. Licensed long-range (up to about 25 km) Wireless Internet Access services have been used for almost a decade in many countries in the 3. with as many as ten radio channels combined into one antenn a for the hop to the next site. ² with emphasis on 3.11a uses ISM band and U-NII frequencies in the 5 GHz range. such as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) based in the IEEE 802.g. 3. The FCC recently carved out spectrum for carriers that wish to offer services in this range in the U. The WIMAX service offerings that can be carried on the 3. or equivalently. The commercial implementations are in the 2. Dozens of service providers across the country are securing or have already received licenses from the FCC to operate in this band. also use microwaves in the 2 . .16 specification was designed to operate between 2 to 11 GHz.4 GHz ISM band.

and studio/transmitter link (STL).9 GHz in the Americas and elsewhere. respectively. Typically. remote pickup unit (RPU). due to their short wavelength.S. but active radar experiments have also been . highly directional antennas are smaller and therefore more practical than they would be at longer wavelengths (lower frequencies). uses around 2. or Ku bands of the microwave spectrum. Ka. Usually the naturally -occurring microwave radiation is observed. and other characteristics of remote objects. navigation of ships. Radar Radar uses microwave radiation to detect the range.3 GHz for DARS. X. weather forecasting. Satellite TV either operates in the C band for the traditional large dish fixed satellite service or Ku band for direct-broadcast satellite.452 to 1.492 GHz. Radio astronomy Most radio astronomy uses microwaves. Now radar is widely used for applications such as air traffic control. Development of radar was accelerated during World War II due to its great military utility. There is also more bandwidth in the microwave spectrum than in the rest of the radio spectrum.8 and 1. while proprietary/incompatible satellite radio in the U. See broadcast auxiliary service (BAS). the usable bandwidth below 300 MHz is less than 300 MHz while many GHz can be used above 300 MHz. These frequencies allow large bandwidth while avoiding the crowded UHF frequencies and staying below the atmospheric absorption of EHF frequencies. microwaves are used in television news to transmit a signal from a remote location to a television station from a specially equipped van. Most satellite communications systems operate in the C. Military communications run primarily over X or K u-band links. use the low-microwave/high-UHF frequencies around 1. A Gunn diode oscillator and waveguide are used as a motion detector for automatic door openers. with Ka band being used for Milstar. and speed limit enforcement. like GSM. DVB-SH and S-DMB use 1. Microwave radio is used in broadcasting and telecommunication transmissions because.Some mobile phone networks. speed.

following development of inexpensive cavity magnetrons. Microwave heating is used in industrial processes for drying and curing products. fats. and sugar contained in the food. Power A microwave oven passes (non-ionizing) microwave radiation (at a frequency near 2.done with objects in the solar system.2 GHz and 1. Water in the liquid state possesses many molecular interactions which broaden the absorption peak. In the vapor phase. Many semiconductor processing techniques use microwaves to generate plasma for such purposes as reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Galactic background radiation of the Big Bang mapped with increasing resolution Navigation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including the Chinese Beidou. causing dielectric heating by absorption of energy in the water. Microwave ovens became common kitchen appliances in Western countries in the late 1970s. isolated water molecules absorb at around 22 GHz. . such as determining the distance to the Moon or mapping the invisible surface of Venus through cloud cover.6 GHz. almost ten times the frequency of the microwave oven.45 GHz) through food. the American Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS broadcast navigational signals in various bands between about 1.

typically in the X-band region (~9 GHz) in conjunction typically with magnetic fields of 0.Microwave frequencies typically ranging from 110 ± 140 GHz are used in stellarators and more notably in tokamak experimental fusion reactors to help heat the fuel into a plasma state.4 mm). The microwave radiation can also be combined with electrochemistry as in microwave enhanced electrochemistry . The upcoming ITER Thermonuclear Reactor[5] is expected to range from 110±170 GHz and will employ Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Microwaves can be used to transmit power over long distances. A two-second burst of the 95 GHz focused beam heats the skin to a temperature of 130 °F (54 °C) at a depth of 1/64th of an inch (0. This technique provides information on unpaired electrons in chemical systems. Spectroscopy Microwave radiation is used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR or ESR) spectroscopy. such as free radicals or transition metal ions such as Cu(II). NASA worked in the 1970s and early 1980s to research the possibilities of using solar power satellite (SPS) systems with large solar arrays that would beam power down to the Earth's surface via microwaves. and post-World War II research was done to examine possibilities. Less-than-lethal weaponry exists that uses millimeter waves to heat a thin layer of human skin to an intolerable temperature so as to make the targeted person move away.3 T. . The United States Air Force and Marines are currently using this type of active denial system.

increasing in -the-dark visibility without actually using a visible light source.[14] Night vision devices operate through a process involving the conversion of ambient light photons into electrons which are then amplified by a chemical and electrical process and then converted back into visible light. Night vision Active-infrared night vision : the camera illuminates the scene at infrared wavelengths invisible to the human eye. The use of infrared light and night vision devices should not be confused with thermal imaging which creates images based on differences in surface temperature by detecting infrared radiation ( heat) that emanates from objects and their surrounding environment.3. Infrared is used in night vision equipment when there is insufficient visible light to see. Despite a dark back-lit scene.74 micrometers. and extending conventionally to 300 micrometres.Infrared (IR) frequency and its applications IR light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light. . activeinfrared night vision delivers identifying details. measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0. as seen on the display monitor. [14] Infrared light sources can be used to augment the available ambient light for conversion by night vision devices.

Thermography (thermal imaging) is mainly used in military and industrial applications but the technology is reaching the public market in the form of infrared cameras on cars due to the massively reduced production costs.T At i i of a dog Infrared radiation can be used to remotel determine t e temperature of objects (if t e emissi it is known). Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 900±14.9±14 m) and produce images of that radiation. Relative radiance spectra from various targets in the image are shown with arrows. ambient temperature -15°C.000 nanometers or 0. This is termed thermography. image produced with a Specim LWIR hyperspectral imager. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature. The contrast level indicates the temperature of the object. . Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures. according to the black body radiation law. or in the case of very hot objects in the NIR or visible it is termed pyrometry. The infrared spectra of the different objects such as the watch clasp have clearly distinctive characteristics. an outdoor scan in winter conditions. thermography makes it possible to "see" one's environment with or without visible illumination. H li i Hyperspectral thermal infrared emission measurement. therefore thermography allows one to see variations in temperature (hence the name).

mineralogical. Typical applications include biological. and indu strial measurements. A hyperspectral image. chemical identification of the object can performed without a need for an external light source such as the Sun or the Moon. a basis for chemical imaging. with the fundamental difference that each pixel contains a full LWIR spectrum. Recently T-ray imaging has been of considerable interest due to a number of new developments such as terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This is especially pronounced when taking pictures of subjects near IR -bright areas (such as near a lamp). defence. which is imaging using far-infrared or terahertz radiation. Other imaging In infrared photography. Digital cameras often use infrared blockers. and LWIR spectral regions. appearing as a bright purple -white color. is a "picture" containing continuous spectrum through a wide spectral range. SWIR. Consequently. There is also a technique called 'T-ray' imaging. Lack of bright sources makes terahertz photography technically more challenging than most other infrared imaging techniques. Hyperspectral imaging is gaining importance in the applied spectroscopy particularly in the fields of NIR. Such cameras are typically applied for geological measurements. where the resulting infrared interference can wash out the i mage. . Cheaper digital cameras and camera phones have less effective filters and can "see" intense near infrared. Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Camera can be applied similarly to a Thermographic camera. outdoor surveillance and UAV applications. infrared filters are used to capture the near -infrared spectrum.Infrared light from the LED of an Xbox 360 remote control as seen by a digital camera. MWIR.

Communications IR data transmission is also employed in short -range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. annealing. vehicle engines. and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. to encode the data. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA. and aircraft generate and retain heat. The beam is modulated. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam. curing of coatings. also known as infrared homing. Efficiency is achieved by matching the wavelength of the infrared heater to the absorption characteristics of the material. are especially visible in the infrared wavelengths of light compared to objects in the background. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter. eating Infrared radiation can be used as a deliberate heating source. In these applications. infrared heaters replace convection ovens and contact heating. absorbent objects. switched on and off. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as "heat-seekers". refers to a passive missile guidance system which uses the emission from a target of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared part of the spectrum to track it. e. the Infrared Data Association. forming of plastics. rather than the air around them.Tracking Infrared tracking.e. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current.g. i. since infrared (IR) is just below the visible spectrum of light in frequency and is radiated strongly by hot bodies. Infrared heating is also becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes. IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in . and as such. and also to remove ice from the wings of aircraft (de-icing). For example it is used in infrared saunas to heat the occupants. FIR is also gaining popularity as a safe heat therapy method of natural health care & physiotherapy. print drying. Infrared can be used in cooking and heating food as it predominantly heats the opaque. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. Many objects such as people. plastic welding.

are used to communicate with infrared. This can be used to gain information about the sample composition in terms of chemical groups present and also its purity (for example a wet sample will show a broad O-H absorption around 3200 cmí1). Infrared light with a wavelength around 1. Infrared is the most co mmon way for remote controls to command appliances. A spectrum of all the frequencies of absorption in a sample is recorded. Infrared remote control protocols like RC-5. SIRC. The vibrational frequencies of most molecules corre spond to the frequencies of infrared light. Free space optical communication using infrared lasers can be a relatively inexpensive way to install a communications link in an urban area operating at up to 4 gigabit/s. IR data transmission of encoded audio versions of printed signs is being researched as an aid for visually impaired people through the RIAS (Remote Infrared Audible Signage) project. Typically.330 nm (least dispersion) or 1.550 nm (best transmission) are the best choices for standard silica fibers. the mid-infrared.g. Each chemical bond in a molecule vibrates at a frequenc y which is characteristic of that bond. Infrared lasers are used to provide the light for optical fiber communications systems. the technique is used to study organic compounds using light radiation from 4000±400 cmí1. Spectroscopy Infrared vibrational spectroscopy (see also near infrared spectroscopy) is a technique which can be used to identify molecules by analysis of their constituent bonds. compared to the cost of burying fiber optic cable. A group of atoms in a molecule (e. If an oscillation leads to a change in dipole in the molecule. then it will absorb a photon which has the same frequency. CH 2) may have multiple modes of oscillation caused by the stretching and bending motions of the group as a whole.adjoining rooms. .

Fishermen and farmers are interested in knowing land and water temperatures to protect their crops against frost or increase their catch from the sea.3 12. Shallower Cumulus and Stratocumulus can be seen off the Eastern Seaboard.5 µm) and the near-infrared channel (1. One disadvantage of infrared imagery is that low cloud such as stratus or fog can be a similar temperature to the surrounding land or sea surface and does not show up.64 µm). producing a fog satellite picture.5 µm (IR4 and IR5 channels).3-11. Using color-digitized techniques. . Even El Niño phenomena can be spotted. Weather satellites equipped with scanning radiometers produce thermal or infrared images which can then enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types. The main advantage of infrared is that images can be produced at night. the gray shaded thermal images can be converted to color for easier identification of desired information. low cloud can be distinguished.58-1. allowing a continuous sequence of weather to be studied. and to locate ocean surface features. to calculate land and surface water temperatures. However. High. cold ice clouds such as Cirrus or Cumulonimbus show up bright white. A frontal system can be seen in the Gulf of Mexico with embedded Cumulonimbus cloud. The scanning is typically in the range 10.Meteorology IR Satellite picture taken 1315 Z on 15th October 2006. These infrared pictures can depict ocean eddies or vortices and map currents such as the Gulf Stream which are valuable to the shipping industry. lower warmer clouds such as Stratus or Stratocumulus show up as grey with intermediate clouds shaded accordingly. using the difference in brightness of the IR4 channel (10. Hot land surfaces will show up as dark grey or black.

This limitation can be partially alleviated by placing the telescope observatory at a high altitude. To form an image. Space . This is a broadband infrared radiometer with sensitivity for infrared radiation between approximately 4. the components of an infrared telescope need to be carefully shielded from heat sources. The sensitivity of Earth-based infrared telescopes is significantly limit ed by water vapor in the atmosphere. including mirrors. atmospheric infrared radiation is monitored to detect trends in the energy exchange between the earth and the atmosph ere. A pyrgeometer is utilized in this field of research to perform continuous outdoor measurements. and the detectors are chilled using liquid helium. Astronomers observe objects in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum using optical components.5 µm and 50 µm. Astronomy The Spitzer Space Telescope is a dedicated infrared space observatory currently in orbit around the Sun. It is one of the primary parameters studied in research into global warming together with solar radiation. or by carrying the telescope aloft with a balloon or an aircraft.Climatology In the field of climatology. which absorbs a portion of the infrared radiation arriving from space outside of selected atmospheric windows. For this reason it is classified as part of optical astronomy. These trends provide information on long term changes in the Earth's climate. lenses and solid state digital detectors. NASA image.

The infrared portion of the spectrum has several useful benefits for astronomers. Infrared can also be used to detect protostars before they begin to emit visible light. the glare from the star will drown out the reflected light from a plane t. Cold. Art historians are looking to see if the visible layers of paint differ from the under-drawing or layers in between . are taken of paintings to reveal underlying layers. Generally .telescopes do not suffer from this handicap. and whether it has been altered by over -enthusiastic restoration work. Stars emit a smaller portion of their energy in the infrared spectrum. so nearby cool objects such as planets can be more readily detected. in particular the underdrawing or outline drawn by the artist as a guide. dark molecular clouds of gas and dust in our galaxy will glow with radiated heat as they are irradiated by imbedded stars. (In the visible light spectrum. so long as it has not also been used in the ground underlying the whole painting.such alterations are called pentimenti when made by the original artist. so they are more readily observed in the infrared. as called by art historians. This often uses carbon black which shows up well in reflectograms. This is very useful information in deciding whether a painting is the prime version by the original artist or a copy. Distant galaxies with a high redshift will have the peak portion of their spectrum shifted toward longer wavelengths.) Infrared light is also useful for observing the cores of active galaxies which are often cloaked in gas and dust. and so outer space is considered the ideal location for infrared astronomy. Art history Infrared reflectograms.

hers wa s higher. and the Silk Road texts found in the Dunhuang Caves. and then overpainted in a third. It also gives useful insights into working practices. Other organisms that have thermoreceptive organs are pythons (family Pythonidae). especially very old written documents such as the Dead Sea Scrolls. the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus). a variety of jewel beetles (Melanophila acuminata). painted in another. and possibly blood-sucking bugs (Triatoma infestans). the more likely a painting is to be the prime version. These alterations are seen in infra -red reflectograms. and her eyes looked more to the front. Biological systems Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse Thermographic image of a fruit bat. . darkly pigmented butterflies (Pachliopta aristolochiae and Troides rhadamantus plateni).the more pentimenti. Among many other changes in the Arnolfini Portrait of 1434 (right). the Roman works in the Villa of the Papyri. Carbon black used in ink can show up extremely well. his face was higher by about the height of his eye. There is uncertainty regarding the exact thermal sensitivity of this biological infrared detection system. Similar uses of infrared are made by historians on various types of objects. The pitviper has a pair of infrared sensory pits on its head. some boas (family Boidae). Each of his feet was underdrawn in one position.

is used for treatment of chemotherapy induced oral ulceration as we ll as wound healing. or photobiomodulation. Research projects include work on central nervous system healing effects via cytochrome c oxidase upregulation and other possible mechanisms. Visible light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm.Light or visible light It is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye.Photobiomodulation Near infrared light. 4. with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz. . and is responsible for the sense of sight. There is some work relating to anti herpes virus treatment.

that are visible only under ultraviolet light. passports) may also include a UV watermark that is visible only under a UV-emitting light. sensitive documents (e. E. credit cards. Passports issued by many nations have UV sensitive watermarks on all pages.5.Ultraviolet (UV) frequency and its applications This light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light.g. but strongly visible under UV illumination. but longer than X-rays. Security A bird appears on many Visa credit cards when held under a UV light source To help prevent counterfeiters. Visa stamps and stickers on passports of visitors contain large detailed seals invisible under normal light. which would help police identify them later Forensics UV is an investigative tool at the crime scene helpful in locating and identifying bodily fluids (semen.. It is named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet. irrespective of the structure or colour of the surface the fluid is deposited upon. Passports issued by most countries usually contain UV sensitive inks and security threads. as well as many multicolored fibers. driver's licenses. ejaculated fluids or saliva are detected by high-power UV. Currencies of various countries' banknotes have an image.. in the range 10 nm to 400 nm.g. . bile etc. and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV.). blood [citation needed]. Some brands of pepper spray will leave an invisible chemical (UV dye) that is not easily washed off on a pepper sprayed attacker.

A phosphorescent coating on the inside of the tubes absorbs the UV and converts it to visible light. deuterium arc lamps. Other practical UV sources with more continuous emission spectra include xenon arc lamps (commonly used as sunlight simulators). (See UV astronomy. very hot objects preferentially emit UV radiation (see Wien's law). including birds. can see nearultraviolet light.Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps produce UV radiation by ionising low-pressure mercury vapour. . and tungsten -halogen incandescent lamps. The main mercury emission wavelength is in the UVC range. Many fruits. mercuryxenon arc lamps.) Biological surveys and pest control Some animals. and insects such as b ees. Unshielded exposure of the skin or eyes to mercury arc lamps that do not have a conversion phosphor is quite dangerous. most UV observations are made from space. flowers. reptiles. space observatory. metal-halide arc lamps. The light from a mercury lamp is predominantly at discrete wavelengths. Because the ozone layer blocks many UV frequencies from reaching telescopes on the surface of the Earth. In astronomy. Astronomy Aurora at Jupiter's north pole as seen in ultraviolet light by the Hubble Space Telescope. and seeds stand out more strongly from the background in ultraviolet wavelengths as compared to human color vision.

cats. A local ultraviole t emissor will normally disrupt the navigation process and will eventually attract the flying insect. and the urine and other secretions of some animals. is much easier to spot with ultraviolet. Spectrophotometry UV/VIS spectroscopy is widely used as a technique in chemistry. or trapped once they come into contact with the device. thus assisting in the control of these arachnids. Main article: Ultraviolet communication Many insects use the ultraviolet wavelength emissions from celestial objects as references for flight navigation. including dogs. They are attracted to the UV light. to analyze chemical structure. the most notable one being conjugated systems. Different designs of ultraviolet light traps are also used by entomologists for collecting nocturnal insects during faunistic survey studies. Butterflies use ultraviolet as a communication system for sex recognition and mating behavior. Many birds have patterns in their plumage that are invisible at usual wavelengths but observable in ultraviolet. and human beings. UV radiation is often used in visible spectrophotometry to determine the . and are killed using an electric shock. Entomologist using a UV light for collecting beetles in the Paraguayan Chaco.Scorpions glow or take on a yellow to green color under UV illumination. Urine trails of rodents can be detected by pest control technicians for proper treatment of infested dwellings. Ultraviolet traps called bug zappers are used to eliminate various small flying insects.

converting otherwise irritating pathogens.fluorescence of a given sample. Alternatively. UV light is used for quantification of nucleic acids. and mold spores into harmless inert byproducts. hand rails. public toilets. Many hospitality industries use UV lamps to inspect for unsanitary bedding to determine lifecycle for mattress restoration as well as general performance of the cleaning staff. if the lamps are held in a radiation chamber (a box or drum) and the air is recycled between the room and the reaction chamber. air may be treated by passing by a single UV source operating at 184 nm and subsequent . The cleansing mechanism of UV is a photochemical process. Air purification Using a catalytic reaction from titanium dioxide and UV light exposure. UVC's effectivenes s is directly related to intensity and exposure time.[33][34][35] Scott and his colleagues demonstrated that the correct mixture of UV lamps radiating at 184 and 254 nm can remove LOW concentrations hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. In biological research. Short-wave ultraviolet light can destroy DNA in living microorganisms and break down organic material found in indoor air. and such. A perennial news feature for many television news organizations involves an investigative reporter's using a similar device to reveal unsanitary conditions in hotels. Both urine and phosphate soaps are easily detected using UV inspection. Pet urine deposits in carpeting or other hard surfaces can be detected for accurate treatment and removal of mineral tracers and the odor-causing bacteria that feed on proteins within. These compounds break down when exposed to high-intensity UV at 240 to 280 nm. The contaminants that pollute the indoor environment are almost entirely based upon organic or carbon-based compounds. a strong oxidative effect occurs on any organic objects that pass thro ugh the media. This arrangement prevents the introduction of ozone into the treated air. UV light has also been shown (by KJ Scott et al) as effective in reducing gaseous contaminants such as carbon monoxide and VOCs. pollens. Sanitary compliance UV lamps including newer LEDs (light-emitting diode) aid in the detection of organic mineral deposits that remain on surfaces where periodic cleaning and sanitizing may not be properly accomplished.

and in other detective work including authentication of various collectibles. but fluoresce to different degrees under ultraviolet light. Chemical markers UV fluorescent dyes are used in many applications (for example. Analyzing minerals A collection of mineral samples brilliantly fluorescing at various wavelengths as seen while being irradiated by UV light.catalysis with iron oxide. biochemistry and forensics). but fluoresce to different degrees under ultraviolet light. or may fluoresce differently under short-wave ultraviolet versus longwave ultraviolet. Authentication In other detective work including authentication of various collectibles and art. . or may fluoresce differently under short wave ultraviolet versus long wave ultraviolet. Materials may look the same under visible light. Ultraviolet lamps are also used in analyzing minerals and gems. such as proteins. Materials may look the same under vi sible light. and detecting counterfeit currency absent of marker dyes. have significant light absorption bands in the ultraviolet that are of use and interest in bioc hemistry and related fields. Many substances. The iron oxides remove the ozone produced by the UV lamp. The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. UV-capable spectrophotometers are common in such laboratories.

D.E. or systemic treatments such as methotrexate and soriatane. costly trips to the office/clinic and back. the 310 nm narrowband UVB range. PUVA may be used only a limited number of times over a patient's lifetime.). and others. Home systems permit patients to treat themselves every other day (the ideal treatment regimen for most) without the frequent. Certain fungal growths under the toenail can be treated using a specific wavelength of UV delivered from a high-power LED (light-emitting diode) and can be safer than traditional systemic drugs.Photochemotherapy Exposure to UVA light while the skin is hyper-photosensitive by taking psoralens is an effective treatment for psoriasis called PUVA. coal tar. Due to the potential of psoralens to cause damage to the liver. Almost all of the conditions that respond to UVB light are chronic problems. vitiligo. [36] UVB phototherapy does not require additional medications or topical preparations for the therapeutic benefit. Side-effects may include itching and redness of the skin due to UVB exposure. if patients do not minimize exposure to natural UV rays during treatment days. so continuous treatment is required to keep those prob lems in check. the maximum amount of UVB your skin can receive without burning. in particular. [38] "Proper use" is generally defined as reaching the "Sub-Erythemic Dose" (S. phototherapy can be effective when used in conjunction with certain topical tre atments such as anthralin. only the light exposure is needed. is an effective long-term treatment for many skin conditions like psoriasis. Cataracts can frequently develop if the eyes are not protected from UVB light exposure. Home UVB systems are common solutions for those whose conditions respond to treatment. However. eczema. There is no link between an increase in the patient's risk for skin cancer and the proper use of UVB phototherapy. and possibly sunburn. and repeated sessions may be required before results are noticeable. [37] Typical treatment regimes involve short exposure t o UVB rays 3 to 5 times a week at a hospital or clinic. and Vitamin A and D derivatives. . Phototherapy Exposure to UVB light.

a pattern determined b y the mask remains on the sample. a procedure wherein a chemical calle d a photoresist is exposed to UV radiation that has passed through a mask. . Checking electrical insulation An application of UV is to detect corona discharge (often called "corona") on electrical apparatus. UV radiation is used extensively in the electronics industry because photolithography is used in the manufacture of semiconductors. The light causes chemical reactions to occur in the photoresist. which may subsequently react with water in the air to form nitrous acid and nitric acid vapour in the surrounding air. and. Steps may then be taken to "etch" away areas of the sample where no photoresist remains. Corona produces ozone and to a lesser extent nitrogen oxide. Degradation of insulation in electrical apparatus or pollution causes corona. after development (a step that removes either the exposed or the unexposed photoresist). [40] Sterilization A low pressure mercury vapor discharge tube floods the inside of a hood with shortwave UV light when not in use. integrated circuit components. sterilizing microbiological contaminants from irradiated surfaces. [39] and printed circuit boards.Photolithography Ultraviolet radiation is used for very fine resolution photolithography. causing the emission of ultraviolet radiation. The corona degrades the insulation level of the apparatus. wherein a strong electric field ionizes the air and excites nitrogen molecules.

One such facility exists in Orange County. Disinfecting drinking water UV radiation can be an effective viricide and bactericide. NASA has examined the use of this technology. if enough of these defects accumulate on a microorganism's DNA.000 m3/d) ultraviolet drinking water disinfection facility. Many bottlers of spring water use UV disinfection equipment to sterilize their water. as well as environmental media such as water. since microorganisms can be shielded from ultraviolet light in small cracks and other shaded areas.. One of these peaks is at about 265 nm and the other is at about 185 nm. There are also several facilities under construction and several in operation that treat waste water with several stages of filters. Although 185 nm is better absorbed by DNA. Disinfection using UV radiation is commonly used in wastewater treatment applications and is finding an increased usage in drinking water treatment. However. which coincides very well with one of the two peaks of the germicidal effectiveness curve (i. California.e.. Commercially available low -pressure mercury-vapor lamps emit about 86% of their light at 254 nanometers (nm). thereby rendering it harmless (even though the organism may not be killed outright).g. than for larger pathogens that have outer coatings or that form cyst states (e. Giardia) that shield their DNA from the UV light. effectiveness for UV absorption by DNA).Ultraviolet lamps are used to sterilize workspaces and tools used in biology laboratories and medical facilities. its replication is inhibited. for breaking down harmful products in spacecraft waste water. it was recently discovered that ultraviolet radiation can be somewhat effective for treating the microorganism .600. 1992). UV light at these germicidal wavelengths causes adjacent thymine molecules on DNA to dimerize. are more opaque to 185 nm than 254 nm (C. these lamps are used only as a supplement to other sterilization techniques.. Solar water disinfection is the process of using PET bottles and sunlight to disinfect water. and UV light to bring the water up to drinking standards. the quartz glass used in commercially available lamps. hydrogen peroxide. using titanium dioxide as catalyst. which have more exposed genetic material. However. New York City has approved the construction of a 2-billion-US-gallon-per-day (7. von Sonntag et al. It used to be thought that UV disinfection was more effect ive for bacteria and viruses.

In addition. whereas a coal fire emits very weakly in the UV band yet very strongly at IR wavelengths. the disinfection process is three times faster. Food processing As consumer demand for fresh and "fresh-like" food products increases. . U ltraviolet radiation is used in several food processes to kill unwanted microorganisms. whereas the Sun's radiation at this band is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. The sunlight treats the contaminated water through two synergetic mechanisms: UV -A irradiation and increased water temperature. Virtually all fires emit some radiation in the UVC band. Fire detection Ultraviolet detectors generally use either a solid -state device.Cryptosporidium. The result is that the UV detector is "solar blind". Contaminated water is poured into transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full sunlight for six hours. so it can easily be used both indoors and outdoors. UV detectors that are sensitive to UV light in any part of the spectrum respond to irradiation by sunlight and artificial light. It has been found that protists are able to survive high UV-C doses but are sterilized at low doses. such as one based on silicon carbide or aluminium nitride. or a gas-filled tube as the sensing element. the demand for nonthermal methods of food processing is likewise on the rise. The effectiveness of such a process depends on the UV absorbance of the juice (see Beer's law). thus. public awareness regarding the dangers of food poisoning is also raising demand for improved food processing methods. Giardia in turn has been shown to be very susceptible to UV-C when the tests were based on infectivity rather than excystation. The findings resulted in the use of UV radiation as a viable method to treat drinking water. for instance. UV light can be used to pasteurize fruit juices by flowing the juice over a high -intensity ultraviolet light source. If the water temperatures rises above 50 °C ( 120 °F). A burning hydrogen flame. meaning it will not cause an alarm in response to radiation from the Sun. radiates strongly in the 185.to 260-nanometer range and only very weakly in the IR region. a fire detector that operates using both UV and IR detectors is more reliable than one with a UV detector alone. Solar water disinfection[46] (SODIS) has been extensively researched in Switzerland and has proven ideal to treat small quantities of water cheaply using natural sunlight.

UV detectors are sensitive to most fires. UV LEDs. Thus. Herpetology Reptiles need long wave UV light for de novo synthesis of vitamin D. polymerization occurs. This includes UV lamps. a matter of a few seconds. which can be energized . adversely affecting the ability of the detector to detect flames. Arc welding. UV Coating and paper finishes in offset printing. this reaction is very quick. When exposed to the correct energy and irradiance in the required band of UV light. Xrays used in nondestructive metal testing equi pment (though this is highly unlikely). Fast processes such as flexo or offset printing require high-intensity light focused via reflectors onto a moving substrate and medium. and dental fillings. doped)-based bulbs are used. and high -pressure Hg (mercury) or Fe (iron. in a typical reptile enclosure. lightning. sulfur. either in the same or by another lamp. This should be combined with the provision of heat for basking. metals. and radioactive materials can produce levels that will activate a UV detection system. the presence of an oil mist in the air or an oil film on the detector window will have the same effect. An industry has developed around the manufacture of UV sources for UV curing applications. hydrazine. The advantages are low VOC emissions and rapid curing. the coating of flooring. adhesives. Applications include glass and plastic bonding. varnishes and coatings Certain inks. and so the adhesives harden or cure. Curing of electronic potting resins Electronic components that require clear transparency for light to exit or enter (photo voltaic panels and sensors) can be potted using acrylic resins that are cured using UV light energy. Vitamin D is needed to metabolize calcium for bone and egg production. coatings. a fluorescent UV lamp should be available for vitamin D synthesis. hydrogen. Curing of inks. electrical arcs. The presence of UV-absorbing gases and vapors will attenuate the UV radiation from a fire. and ammonia. Curing of decorative finger nail "gels". including hydrocarbons. and Excimer Flash lamps. optical fiber coatings. and adhesives are formulated with photoinitiators and resins. Likewise. Usually.

LED) can be used for static applications. Sunscreen protects only against the direct DNA damage. Melanin protects against the direct DNA damage and against the indirect DNA damage. These modules often have a transparent glass (quartz) window on the top of the chip that allows the UV radiation in. Erasing EPROM modules Some EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) modules are erased by exposure to UV radiation. Some studies suggest that this may be the cause of the higher incidence of melanoma found in sunscreen users compared to non users. in some cases. thus raising the surface energy of the polymer. Lower-power sources (fluorescent lamps. a suntanned area can also develop sunburn. The increased production of melanin is triggered by the direct DNA damage. but increases the indirect DNA damage.with electric arc or microwaves. Melanin dissipates the UV energy as harmless heat. and. Polymers exposed to UV light will oxidize. and therefore it is an excellent photoprotectant. These have been largely superseded by EEPROM and flash memory chips in most devices. Sun tanning Sun tanning describes a darkening of the skin in a natural physiological response stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunshine (or a sunbed). Reading otherwise illegible papyruses and manuscripts . Preparing low surface energy polymers UV radiation is useful in preparing low surface energy polymers for adhesives. This kind of damage is recognized by the body and as a defense against UV radiation the skin produces more melanin. small high pressure lamps can have light focused and transmitted to the work area via liquid-filled or fiber-optic light guides. With excess exposure to the sun. Once the surface energy of the polymer has been raised. the bond between the adhesive and the polymer is stronger.

finely tuned to capture certain wavelengths of light. or the Archimedes palimpsest. Most conventional solar cells use visible and infrared light to generate electricity. Simple NUV sources can be used to highlight faded iron -based ink on vellum Lasers Ultraviolet lasers have applications in industry (laser engraving). the optimum spectral portion ca n be found for distinguishing ink from paper on the papyrus surface. or from Ce:LiSAF crystals (cerium doped with lithium strontium aluminum fluoride). In contrast. Thus. free air secure communications and computing (optical storage). the innovative new solar cell uses ultraviolet radiation. medicine (dermatology and keratectomy). leading to potential uses that take advantage of the combined functions of power generation. a nanocrystallin e layer of Cu2O in the construction of photovoltaic cells increases their ability to utilize UV radiations for photocurrent generation . On the other hand.Using multi-spectral imaging it is possible to read illegible papyruses. They can be made by applying frequency conversion to lowerfrequency lasers. Also PEDOT-PSS solar cells is an ultraviolet (UV) light-selective and -sensitive photovoltaic cell easily fabricated. Used to replace conventional window glass. the installation surface area could be large. The technique involves taking pictures of the illegible papyruses using different filters in the infrared or ultraviolet range. UV solar cells and UV degradation of solar cells Main articles: Solar cell and UV degradation Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has succeeded in developing a transparent solar cell that uses ultraviolet light to generate electricity but allows visible light to pass through it. lighting and temperature cont rol. such as the burned papyruses of the Villa of the Papyri or of Oxyrhynchus. a process developed in the 1990s at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

01 to 10 nanometers. within limits.X-radiation frequency and its applications It is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X -rays have a wavelength in the range of 0. These dyes may be carried into surface-breaking defects by capillary action (liquid penetrant inspection) or they may be bound to ferrite particles caught in magnetic leakage fields in ferrous materials (magnetic particle inspectio n). Body response When gamma radiation breaks DNA molecules. a study of Rothkamm and Lobrich has shown that this repair process works well after high-dose exposure but is much slower in the case of a low-dose exposure . corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×10 16 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) X-rays are useful in the detection of pathology of the skeletal system as well as for detecting some disease processes in soft tissue 7. a cell may be able to repair the damaged genetic material. is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency (very short wavelength). 6. by analogy with X-rays) and denoted as .Nondestructive testing UV light of a specified spectrum and intensity is used to stimulate fluorescent dyes so as to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. However.Gamma radiation frequency and its applications It is also known as gamma rays or hyphenated as gamma-rays (especially in astronomy.