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Difference Between Intranet & Extranet

An intranet is an information portal designed specifically for the internal communications of small, medium or large businesses, enterprises, governments, industries or financial institutions of any size or complexity. Intranets can be custom-designed to fit the exact needs of businesses no matter where they are situated. Users of intranets consists mainly of: Members of the executive team. Accounting and order billing. Managers and directors. Sales people and support staff. Customer service, help desk, etc.. An extranet is somewhat very similar to an intranet. Extranets are designed specifically to give external, limited access to certain files of your computer systems to: Certain large or priviledged customers. Selected industry partners. Suppliers and subcontractors... etc.

Currency Data
Country Co. Code Currency Curr. Code

Afghanistan

AF

Afghani

AFA

Albania

AL

Lek

ALL

Algeria

DZ

Algerian Dinar

DZD

American Samoa

AS

US Dollar

USD

Andorra

AD

Euro

EUR

Angola

AO

Kwanza

AOA (replacement for AON)

Anguilla

AI

East Caribbean Dollar

XCD

Antarctica

AQ

Norwegian Krone

NOK

Antigua and Barbuda

AG

East Caribbean Dollar

XCD

Argentina

AR

Austral and Argenintinian Neuvo Peso (replacement for the Peso)

ARA, ARS (replacement for ARP)

Armenia

AM

Dram (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use)

AMD

Aruba

AW

Aruban Guilder (Florin)

AWG

Australia

AU

Australian Dollar

AUD

Austria

AT

Euro

EUR

Azerbaijan

AZ

Azerbaijani Manat (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use)

AZM

Bahamas

BS

Bahamian Dollar

BSD

Bahrain

BH

Bahraini Dinar

BHD

Bangladesh

BD

Taka

BDT

Barbados

BB

Barbados Dollar

BBD

Belarus (formerly known as Byelorussia) BY Belarussian Rouble (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use) BYR Belgium BE Euro EUR Belize BZ Belize Dollar BZD Benin BJ Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Bermuda BM Bermudian Dollar BMD Bhutan BT Ngultrum (Indian Rupee also circulates) BTN (also INR) Bolivia BO Boliviano and Bolivian Peso BOB. BOP Bosnia & Herzegowina BA Convertible Mark BAM .

SCR Brunei Darussalam BN Brunei Dollar BND Bulgaria BG Lev BGL Burkina Faso BF Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Burundi BI Burundi Franc BIF .Botswana BW Pula BWP Bouvet Island BV Norwegian Krone NOK Brazil BR Real BRL British Indian Ocean Territory IO Pound Sterling (United Kingdom Pound). Seychelles Rupee GBP.

CLP China CN Yuan Renminbi CNY .Cambodia (formerly KH Kampuchea) Riel KHR Cameroon CM Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Canada CA Canadian Dollar CAD Cape Verde CV Escudo Caboverdiano CVE Cayman Islands KY Cayman Islands Dollar KYD Central African Republic CF Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Chad TD Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Chile CL Unidades de Fomento and Chilean Peso CLF.

Democratic Republic of the (formerly Zaïre) CD (formerly ZR) New Zaïre CDZ (formerly ZRZ) Congo CG Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Cook Islands CK New Zealand Dollar NZD Costa Rica CR Costa Rican Colón CRC .Christmas Island CX Australian Dollar AUD Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC Australian Dollar AUD Colombia CO Colombian Peso COP Comoros KM Comorian Franc KMF Congo.

Croatia (local name: HR Hrvatska) Kuna and Croatian Dinar HRK. HRD Cuba CU Cuban Peso CUP Cyprus CY Euro EUR Czech Republic CZ Czech Koruna CZK Denmark DK Danish Krone DKK Djibouti DJ Djibouti Franc DJF Dominica DM East Caribbean Dollar XCD Dominican Republic DO Dominican Republic Peso DOP .

East Timor TP Timorian Escudo TPE Ecuador EC US Dollar (superseded Sucre in 2000) USD (ECS) Egypt EG Egytian Pound EGP El Salvador SV US Dollar USD Equatorial Guinea GQ Franc de la Communauté financière africaine and Ekwele XAF. GQE Eritrea ER Eritreian Nakfa. ETB Estonia EE Kroon EEK Ethiopia ET Birr ETB European Community Euro (formerly known as the ECU) EUR (formerly XEU) . Ethiopian Birr ERN.

Falkland Islands (Malvinas) FK Falkland Pound FKP Faroe Islands FO Danish Krone DKK Fiji Islands FJ Fiji Dollar FJD Finland FI Euro EUR France FR Euro EUR France. Metropolitan FX Euro EUR French Guiana GF Euro EUR French Polynesia PF Franc des Comptoirs français du Pacifique XPF .

French Southern and Antarctic Territories TF Euro EUR Gabon GA Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Gambia GM Dalasi GMD Georgia GE Lari (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use) GEL Germany (West and DE (formerly DE for East) West and DD for East) Euro EUR Ghana GH Cedi GHC Gibraltar GI Gibraltar Pound GIP Greece GR Euro EUR .

XAF Guyana GY Guyana Dollar GYD .Greenland GL Danish Krone DKK Grenada GD East Caribbean Dollar XCD Guadeloupe GP Euro EUR Guam GU US Dollar USD Guatemala GT Quetzal GTQ Guinea GN Guinea Syli (also known as Guinea Franc) GNS Guinea-Bissau GW Guinea-Bissau Peso and Franc de la Communauté financière africaine GWP.

Haiti HT Gourde HTG Heard and McDonald Islands HM Australian Dollar AUD Holy See (Vatican City State) VA Euro EUR Honduras HN Lempira HNL Hong Kong HK Hong Kong Dollar HKD Hungary HU Forint HUF Iceland IS Icelandic Króna ISK India IN Indian Rupee INR .

Islamic Republic of IR Iranian Rial IRR Iraq IQ Iraqi Dinar IQD Ireland IE Euro EUR Israel IL Shekel ILS Italy IT Euro EUR Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) CI Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Jamaica JM Jamaican Dollar JMD Japan JP Yen JPY .Indonesia ID Rupiah IDR Iran.

Jordan JO Jordanian Dinar JOD Kazakhstan KZ Tenge (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use) KZT Kenya KE Kenyan Shilling KES Kiribati KI Australian Dollar AUD Korea. Republic of (South Korea) KR South Korean Won KRW Kuwait KW Kuwaiti Dinar KWD Kyrgyzstan KG Kyrgyzstani Som KGS . Democratic KP People's Republic of (North Korea) North Korean Won KPW Korea.

Lao People's Democratic Republic (formerly Laos) LA Kip LAK Latvia LV Lats LVL Lebanon LB Lebanese Pound LBP Lesotho LS Loti. Maloti and South African Rand LSL. LSM. ZAR Liberia LR Liberian Dollar LRD Libyan Arab Jamahiriya LY Libyan Dinar LYD Liechtenstein LI Swiss Franc CHF Lithuania LT Litas LTL .

MLF . the Former Yugoslav Republic of MK Macedonian Dinar MKD Madagascar MG Malagasy Franc MGF Malawi MW Malawian Kwacha MWK Malaysia MY Ringgit (Malaysian Dollar) MYR Maldives MV Rufiyaa MVR Mali ML Franc de la Communauté financière africaine and Malian Franc XAF.Luxembourg LU Euro EUR Macao (also spelled MO Macau) Pataca MOP Macedonia.

Malta MT Euro EUR Marshall Islands MH US Dollar USD Martinique MQ Euro EUR Mauritania MR Ouguiya MRO Mauritius MU Mauritius Rupee MUR Mayotte YT Euro EUR Mexico MX Mexican New Peso (replacement for Mexican Peso) MXN (replacement for MXP) Micronesia. Federated States of FM US Dollar USD .

Moldova MD Moldovian Leu MDL Monaco MC Euro EUR Mongolia MN Tugrik MNT Montenegro Montserrat MS East Caribbean Dollar XCD Morocco MA Moroccan Dirham MAD Mozambique MZ Metical MZM Myanmar (formerly MM (formerly BU) Burma) Kyat MMK (formerly BUK) .

Namibia NA Namibia Dollar and South African Rand NAD. ZAR Nauru NR Australian Dollar AUD Nepal NP Nepalese Rupee NPR Netherlands NL Euro EUR Netherlands Antilles AN Netherlands Antilles Guilder (Florin) ANG New Caledonia NC Franc des Comptoirs français du Pacifique XPF New Zealand NZ New Zealand Dollar NZD Nicaragua NI Córdoba NIC .

XAF Nigeria NG Naira NGN Niue NU New Zealand Dollar NZD Norfolk Island NF Australian Dollar AUD Northern Mariana Islands MP US Dollar USD Norway NO Norwegian Krone NOK Oman OM Rial Omani OMR Pakistan PK Pakistani Rupee PKR Palau PW US Dollar USD .Niger NE West African Franc and Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XOF.

Panama PA Balboa and US Dollar PAB. USD Papua New Guinea PG Kina PGK Paraguay PY Guarani PYG Peru PE Inti and New Sol (New Sol replaced Sol) PEI. PEN (PEN replaced PES) Philippines PH Philippines Peso PHP Pitcairn Island PN New Zealand Dollar NZD Poland PL New Zloty (replacement for Zloty) PLN (replacement for PLZ) .

Portugal PT Euro EUR Puerto Rico PR US Dollar USD Qatar QA Qatari Riyal QAR Réunion RE Euro EUR Romania RO Romanian Leu ROL Russian Federation RU Russian Federation Rouble RUB (formerly RUR) Rwanda RW Rwanda Franc RWF Saint .

XAF .Saint Kitts (Christopher) and Nevis KN East Caribbean Dollar XCD Saint Lucia LC East Caribbean Dollar XCD Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC East Caribbean Dollar XCD Samoa WS Tala WST San Marino SM Euro EUR São Tomé and Príncipe ST Dobra STD Saudi Arabia SA Saudi Riyal SAR Senegal SN West African Franc and Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XOF.

Euro (Montenegro). Euro (Kosovo and Metohia) CSD.Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia) CS Serbian Dinar (Serbia). EUR Seychelles SC Seychelles Rupee SCR Sierra Leone SL Leone SLL Singapore SG Singapore Dollar SGD Slovakia (Slovak Republic) SK Euro EUR Slovenia SI Euro EUR Solomon Islands SB Solomon Islands Dollar SBD Somalia SO Somali Shilling SOS .

South Africa ZA Rand ZAR South Georgia and GS the South Sandwich Islands Pound Sterling GBP Spain ES Euro EUR Sri Lanka LK Sri Lankan Rupee LKR St Helena SH St Helena Pound SHP St Pierre and Miquelon PM Euro EUR Sudan SD Sudanese Pound (Dinar no longer used) SDG Suriname SR Surinam Guilder (also known as Florin) SRG .

United Republic of TZ Tanzanian Shilling TZS Thailand TH Baht THB .Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands SJ Norwegian Krone NOK Swaziland SZ Lilangeni SZL Sweden SE Swedish Krona SEK Switzerland CH Swiss Franc CHF Syrian Arab Republic SY Syrian Pound SYP Taiwan. Province of TW China New Taiwan Dollar TWD Tajikistan TJ Tajik Rouble (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use) TJR Tanzania.

Togo TG Franc de la Communauté financière africaine XAF Tokelau TK New Zealand Dollar NZD Tonga TO Pa'anga TOP Trinidad and Tobago TT Trinidad and Tobago Dollar TTD Tunisia TN Tunisian Dinar TND Turkey TR New Turkish Lira TRY Turkmenistan TM Turkmenistani Manat TMM Turks and Caicos Islands TC US Dollar USD .

Tuvalu TV Australian Dollar AUD Uganda UG Ugandan Shilling UGS Ukraine UA Hryvna and Karbovanet UAH. UAK Union of Soviet Socialist Republics SU USSR Rouble SUR United Arab Emirates AE UAE Dirham AED United Kingdom GB Pound Sterling GBP (sometimes incorrectly seen as UKP) United States of America US US Dollar USD United States Minor UM Outlying Islands US Dollar USD .

Uruguay UY Uruguayan Peso UYU Uzbekistan UZ Uzbekistani Som (Russian Ruble [RUR] was formerly in use) UZS Vanautu VU Vatu VUV Venezuela VE Bolivar Fuerte VEF Viet Nam VN Dông VND Virgin Islands (British) VG US Dollar (Pound Sterling and East Caribbean Dollar also circulate) USD (also GBP. XCD) Virgin Islands (US) VI US Dollar USD Wallis and Futuna Islands WF Franc des Comptoirs français du Pacifique XPF .

The use of commerce is conducted in this way. or e-business consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. electronic data interchange (EDI). spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. supply chain management. commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce. inventory management systems. . and automated data collection systems. although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well. Internet marketing. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle.West Africa XO? West African Franc XOF Western Sahara EH Moroccan Dirham and Mauritanian Ouguiya MAD. MRO Yemen (unified North and South) YE (formerly YE for North Yemen and YD for South Yemen) Riyal (Dinar was used in South Yemen) YER (YDD formerly in use in South) Zambia ZM Zambian Kwacha ZMK Zimbabwe ZW US Dollar (and other currencies) USD Terms Related to 'E' (Electronic): E-Commerce Electronic commerce. online transaction processing.

then the sale and purchase transaction is called electronic commerce such as eBay. e-commerce involves the application of knowledge management systems. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. commonly referred to as "eBusiness" or "e-business". Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers. groups and individuals and can be seen as one of the essential activities of any business.com. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon. sent by means of the Internet. on the other hand.Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business-tobusiness or B2B. Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce where the buyer is directly online to the seller's computer usually via the internet. E-Payment E-Payment is a smart option for businesses and organizations to collect their bills or other payments on-line through Post office network. The sale and purchase transaction is completed electronically and interactively in real-time such as Amazon. While e-business refers to more strategic focus with an emphasis on the functions that occur using electronic capabilities. pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). In practice. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions. usually through email. e-business is more than just e-commerce. e-commerce is a subset of an overall e-business strategy. E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the World Wide Web or the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners and to improve efficiency using the Empty Vessel strategy.com for new books. may be defined as the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and services between businesses. Electronic business Electronic business. Often. If an intermediary is present. Post Office offers you a simple and convenient solution E-Card An E-card is a postcard. . Electronic commerce focuses on the use of ICT to enable the external activities and relationships of the business with individuals. There is no intermediary service.com. If you are a business looking for collection of your bills and other payments from customers across the country. groups and other businesses [1]. commodity exchange) or limited to specific. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g.

the details of the reservation are stored in a computer. When checking in at the airport. particularly in the commercial airline industry. and the passenger can check luggage and proceed through security to the gate area.A user sending an e-card to a person would select a pre-written card style with image and message. and sales. but it is not needed at the check-in desk. and destination location(s).0 . Another advantage is that it eliminates the possibility of critical documents getting lost in the mail or being sent to the wrong address. development. also referred to as i-marketing. The principal advantage of e-ticketing is the fact that it reduces booking expense by eliminating the need for printing and mailing paper documents. The Internet has brought media to a global audience. and this link would go to the ecard as a webpage. and Web 2. but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. Management of digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. Virtually all major airlines now use this method of ticketing. e-mail marketing. departure location(s). onlinemarketing or e-Marketing. Then necessary boarding passes are issued. and would add their own personal message. The customer can request that a hardcopy confirmation be sent by postal mail. the recipient would receive an email with a link to the ecard provider's webpage. Note that the actual card is not usually sent through the email. advertising. with the sender's personal message and card. search engine optimization (SEO). When a customer books a flight by telephone or using the Web. E-Ticket An e-ticket (electronic ticket) is a paperless electronic document used for ticketing passengers. On sending the card. is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. along with the flight number(s). the passenger simply presents positive identification. Internet marketing ties together creative and technical aspects of the Internet. date(s). banner ads on specific websites. The interactive nature of Internet marketing in terms of providing instant responses and eliciting responses are the unique qualities of the medium. but only a link to the card hosted as a website. E-Marketing Internet marketing. Internet marketing is sometimes considered to be broad in scope because it not only refers to marketing on the Internet. and specify the recipient's email address. web-marketing. including: design. Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM). A confirmation number is assigned to the passenger.

audio or video tape. governance. satellite TV. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text. and cheap interaction between government and citizens (G2C – government to citizens). digital government. online government. streaming video and audio. transparent. IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-Based Training) have been used as synonyms to e-learning. computer-based learning. also known as e-gov.[1] The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology. Abbreviations like CBT (Computer-Based Training). Elearning. Content is delivered via the Internet. intranet/extranet. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning. Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks. virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. image. and eLearning. E-Government e-Government (short for electronic government. E-Learning E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. government and business enterprises (G2B –government to business enterprises) and relationship between governments (G2G – inter-agency relationship). along with variations of e-learning such as elearning.working with comScore . even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. The terms will be utilized throughout this article to indicate their validity under the broader terminology of E-learning.published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies. The Information and communication systems. In 2008. Today one can still find these terms being used. serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The New York Times . business process re-engineering(BPR)and e-citizen Types Of Taxes . information and communication technology(ICT). and CD-ROM. animation. the authors found the potential for collecting data upward of 2. whether networked or not.strategies.500 times on average per user per month. E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. There are four domains of e-government namely. or connected government) is creating a comfortable.

recreational vehicles and watercraft are property taxes as well. Of all of the seven types of taxes. These taxes are often collected by the state and county to help fund their budgets. they are usually not paid by people under a certain income or who have special situations such as a disability. while a S-corporation pays quite differently. bonds. 5. 3. these taxes are often fairly rigid. Toll road fees are a tax. "FUDA" and "FICA" fund social security and other similar programs. Main Types of Taxes: Other Taxes 6. 1. and real estate. Frequently these investments have been sold. Consumptive Taxes: These are taxes on sales goods or items that are subjected to being used by either an individual or business. even if they call it a user fee. and one reason why "independant contractors" have become so popular. Tax consequences are important when structuring a business. An C-corporation is best held by shareholders because of tax implications. and like corporate taxes. this one is usually the one that requires the use of a professional to figure out the complicated tax requirements. 2. A fishing or hunting licesnse is a tax. Taxes Paid by Businesses Some of the other 7 types of taxes are those paid by businesses 4. Most losses can be "written off" on the federal income tax level. Property Taxes: These are paid by anyone who owns property such as land. For example. April 15th is the day that income tax filings are due in the United States. Examples would be stocks. So are travel fees. Licensing fees on cars. many people overlook other taxes.Taxes Paid by the Individual There are 7 types of taxes that are paid for by an individual. Income Taxes: These taxes are paid out by anyone who earns an income by any means. While income taxes are subject to deductions or credits. and anyone earning income needs. Corporate Taxes: All business structures pay taxes on the income made in that particular business. These are commonly called "FUDA" and "FICA" and businesses need to match a certain amount of these payroll taxes. These payroll taxes must be paid by the individual contractor if the regular business is not paying them. these . Income taxes are subject to deductions and tax credits. sole proprietorships will pay their taxes through their regular income taxes. a home or commercial real estate. This is an additional cost of having an employee. Payroll Taxes: These taxes are taken out by the businesses before income is distributed to the individual in exchange for the work that was done. Capital Gains taxes are paid on investments that have appreciated. While everyone understands that a small amount of money is added on to the purchase of goods in the stores.

coverage analysis. the taxes are usually quite steep. Answers the question "Did we build the right system?" Answers the question "Did we build the system right?" E. The techniques for validation are testing. Integrated testing. this is the only type where a tax can happen because of a death.g. it has been proven that 65% defects can be discovered here. black box techniques. code walkthroughs. for removing defects.are usually best handled by professional tax preparers. It has been proven that 30% of defects can be discovered here. While few people relish paying taxes. Effective. Includes Requirement reviews. Inheritance or Estate Taxes: Of the 7 types of taxes. taxes improve our overall quality of life. 7. . A certain amount of estate money that may be passed on with no tax consequence. In the end. confirmation in which 3rd party attests to the document. traceability matrix. Relies on non-executable methods of analyzing various artifacts. Executes the system functions through a series of tests that can be observed & evaluated. but not as effective as verification. design reviews. Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan. Once that level is met. desk checking. Can be used throughout SDLC. Difference between Verification and Validation: The ISO would say that Verification is a process of determining whether or not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meets the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. Most effective. code inspections. independent static analyzers. everyone enjoys having good schools. Verification:Determination of the correctness of the product with respect to the test conditions/requirement imposed at the start. Uses functional or structural testing techniques to catch defects. System testing & User Acceptance testing. and is one reason insurance is so critical in estate planning. test reviews. inspection and reviewing. Validation is a process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for verification are testing. Verification ensures that the system complies with organizations standards & processes. however. Life insurance is often used to offset inheritance taxes. Validation:Determination of the correctness of the products with respect to the user needs and requirements. Includes Unit testing. inspection and reviewing. roads and services. Check sheets.

today it has become an integral part of business. Which means that 96% of exporters are small companies. For many small companies importing and exporting is becoming an essential cornerstone in achieving success. Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade Advantages to consider: • • • • • • • • • • Enhance your domestic competitiveness Increase sales and profits Gain your global market share Reduce dependence on existing markets Exploit international trade technology Extend sales potential of existing products Stabilize seasonal market fluctuations Enhance potential for expansion of your business Sell excess production capacity Maintain cost competitiveness in your domestic market . For example.S. While international trade accounted for 5% of U.S.S.2 billion. accounting for more than 25% in 2002. Why is international trade so important to starting small businesses? In some cases the products or services you may wish to market are not available or made in your home country. International trade is enormously beneficial for entrepreneurs and enables producers of goods and services to move beyond the U. market of 280 million people to the world market of 6. think about selling cashmere sweaters. You may need to become an importer in order to compete with imported products sold by your competitors.Is International Trade Appropriate for Small Businesses? The answer is definitely yes! According to the U. economic growth in 1950.S. yet it requires knowledge of business disciplines far beyond the basic do’s and don’ts of operating a domestic business. big companies make up about 4 % of U. Department of Commerce. Exports.

there is no way to obtain information about the buyer. You transfer the certificate to the vendor to pay for a product or service. One of the key features of digital cash is that. For large purchases. like real cash. That is. Most digital cash systems start with a participating bank that issues cash numbers or other unique identifiers that carry a given value. This is one of the key differences between digital cash and credit card systems. you must have an account at the bank. Like the serial numbers on real dollar bills. there a number of competing protocols. Another key difference is that a digital cash certificate can be reused.Disadvantages to keep in mind: • • • • • • • • • You may need to wait for long-term gains Hire staff to launch international trading Modify your product or packaging Develop new promotional material Incur added administrative costs Dedicate personnel for traveling Wait long for payments Apply for additional financing Deal with special licenses and regulations Digital Cash A system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. the digital cash numbers are unique. . To obtain such a certificate. and it is unclear which ones will become dominant. . the vendor can check the validity of a cash number by contacting the issuing bank. However. Each one is issued by a bank and represents a specified sum of real money. such as five dollars. Digital cash transactions are expected to become commonplace by the year 2000. when a digital cash amount is sent from a buyer to a vendor. and the vendor deposits the cash number in any participating bank or retransmits it to another vendor. it is anonymous and reusable. the money is withdrawn from your account. when you purchase digital cash certificates.