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Abumere Department of Production Engineering, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.

Abstract Assignment problem refers to the class of LP problems that involve determining the most efficient assignment of people to projects, salespeople to territories, contracts to bidders, jobs to machines, vehicles to routes, operators to machines, offices to personnel etc. In this paper, a notion of assignment model approach to man-job matching using Hungarian method is presented. The results obtained in solving the generalized assignment problem examine the maximum profit of assignment of jobs to agents. Therefore, each job is assigned to precisely one agent subject to capacity restrictions on the agents. Finally, a theoretical brief flow chart for assignment problem was provided. Keywords: Assignment, Hungarian, maximum 1 Introduction

Imagine, if in a factory there is one machine and one operator is there to operate. How would you employ the worker? Your immediate answer will be, the available operator will operate the machine. Again, suppose there are machines in the factory and two operators are engaged at different rates to operate them. Which operator should operate which machine for maximizing profit? Similarly, if there are n machines available and n persons are engaged at different rates to operate them. Which operator should be assigned to which machine to ensure maximum efficiency? While answering the above questions we have to think about the interest of the productivity, so we have to fine such an assignment by which the factory gets maximum profit on minimum investment. Such problems are known as ³assignment problems´. In this paper, such problems are presented. Assignment problem is a special type of linear programming problem where the objective is most often to minimize total costs or total time of performing the tasks at hand. One important characteristic of assignment problems is that only one job or worker is assigned to one machine or project. Application Areas of Assignment Problem Though assignment problem finds applicability in various diverse business situations, some of its main application areas are: i. In assigning machines to factory workers.

Solution Methods The assignment problem can be solved by the following four methods: Enumeration method Simplex method Transportation method Hungarian method Enumeration Method In this method. In assigning sales/marketing people to sales territories. time or distance then the problem has multiple optimal solutions. Transportation Method Assignment problem is a special case of transportation problem. However. i. time. iii.ii. Each assignment problem has a matrix (table) associated with it. one needs to know only the cost of making all possible assignments. it can also be solved using transportation method. sometimes the simplex method is inefficient for assignment problems (particularly problems with a high degree of degeneracy). a list of all possible assignments among the given resources and activities is prepared. In assigning accountants to accounts of the clients. In assigning teachers to classes. It may be noted that the assignment problem is a variable of transportation problem with two characteristics. Then an assignment involving the minimum cost. But the degeneracy problem of solution makes the transportation method computationally inefficient for solving the assignment problem. If two or more assignments have the same minimum cost. the objects (or people) one wishes to assign are expressed in rows. distance or maximum profit is selected. Normally. It becomes unsuitable for manual calculations if number of assignments is large. In assigning contracts to bidders by systematic bid-evaluation. . The number in the table would then be the costs associated with each particular assignment. therefore. Simplex Method An assignment problem can be formulated as a linear program. This method can be used only if the number of assignment is less. Kuhn. The cost matrix is a square matrix. In order to use this method. iv. and the simplex method can be used to solve it. v. a Hungarian mathematician and is therefore known as the Hungarian method of assignment problem. whereas the columns represent the tasks (or things) assigned to them. Hungarian Method This method was developed by D.

. the problem is which work is to be assigned to whom so that the cost of completion of work will be minimum.. 2 The optimum solution for the problem would be such that there would be only one assignment in a row or column of the cost matrix.j ««.C1n ««. Mathematically.C2j ::::::::::::: ::::::::::::: ::::::::::::: :::::::::Cij ««.C1j ««. the problem can be expressed as follows: Min Z = n n i=1 j=1 Cij Xij Subject to the constraints n j=1 n i=1 Xij = 1 for all i (resourse availability) Xij = 1 for all i (activity requirement) and Xij = 0 or 1.ii. Where Xij is defined as an indicator variable expressed as follows: Xij = ....C2n :::::::::::: :::::::::::: :::::::::::: :::::::::Cin ««.Cnj ««. If the cost of doing jth work by ith person is Cij.n Now.. Formulation of Assignment Problem Let there be n jobs and n persons are available with different skills.Cnn 1 2 3 ««. for all i to activity j.. Then the cost matrix is given in table 1 below: TABLE 1: Persons Jobs 1 2 : : I N C11 C21 : : Ci1 Cn1 C12 C22 : : Ci2 Cn2 C13 C23 : : Ci3 Cn3 ««.

VjXij) i j i j = Min Z ± Min (UiXij + VjXij) i j j i = Min Z ± (K1 + K2) Where K1 and K2 are constants. = Min Z ± K Where K is called the lower bound.Vj)Xij i j = Min (Z .with the restrictions. The conversion is accomplished by subtracting all the elements of the given effectiveness matrix from the highest element. Here the manager can choose any of the solutions by his will and experience. It turns out that minimizing opportunity loss produces the same assignment solution as the original maximization problem. or layoff of an assignment of persons to tasks or of jobs to machines. UiXij . as it is easy to obtain an equivalent minimization problem by converting every number in the matrix to an opportunity loss. . jth work will be done only by one person. (i) (ii) ith person will do only one work. Motivation for Solution Let Ui = minimum element in row i Vj = minimum element in column j C¶ij = a new cost element Where C¶ij = Cij ± Ui . Maximization Case in Assignment Problem Some assignment problems entail maximizing the profit. the equivalent problem can be written as: Min Z¶ = C¶ijXij I j = (Cij ± Ui . effectiveness. The Hungarian Method can also solve such problems. Variation of Assignment Problem Multiple Optimum Solutions This situation of more than one optimal solution the manager has a elasticity in decision making.Vj So.

Theorem 2: If all Cij 0 and there exist a solution Xij = Xij such that CijXij = 0. examine all columns until a column containing exactly one zero (unique zero) is found. minimizes Z. (ii) Total assigned zeros < n. The computational procedure is given as follows: Step I: (A) Row Reduction: Subtract the minimum entry of each row from all the entries of the respective row in the cost matrix. This procedure should be adopted for each row assignment. Then make an experimental assignment in that position and cross other zeros in the row in which the assignment was made. Now all the zeros in the column in which the assignment is made are crossed-out (X). Step II: Zero Assignment: (A) Starting with the first row of the matrix received in step 1. 3 Assignment Algorithm (Hungarian Method) This method is dependent upon two vital theorems stated as follows: Theorem 1: If a constant is added (or subtracted) to every element of any row (or column) of the cost matrix (Cij) in an assignment problem then an assignment which minimizes the total cost for the new matrix will also minimize the total cost matrix. (i) Total assigned zeros = n.Unbalanced Assignment Problem It is an assignment problem where the number of persons is not equal to the number of jobs. After this step two situations arise. Then this solution is an optimal solution i. . subtract the minimum entry of each column from all the entries of the respective column. Then an experimental assignment indicated by ³ ³ is marked to that zero. if the number of jobs is less than the number of persons then we introduce one or more dummy jobs (columns) with zero values to make the assignment problem balanced. (B) Column Reduction: After completion of row reduction. examine the rows one by one until a row containing exactly one zero (unique zero) is found. If the number of persons is less than the number of jobs then we introduce one or more dummy persons (rows) with zero values to make the assignment problem balanced. an identical procedure is applied successively to columns. Continue these successive operations on rows and columns until all zeros are either been assigned or crossed-out. Likewise. Starting with the first column.e. the assignment is optimal. (B) When the set of rows has been completely examined. use step III and onwards.

Now. the matrix is modified with the help of step ii and finds the required assignment.Step III: Draw of Minimum Lines to Cover Zeros: The following procedure is adopted to cover all the zeros at least once. revenue or profit. this may be expressed in terms of cost. depending on circumstances. simply by multiplying each entry in the effectiveness matrix by -1 before solving in the usual manner. a measure of effectiveness is required. (ii) See the position of zero(s) in marked (¥) row(s) and then mark (¥) to the corresponding column(s). (i) (ii) Subtract this smallest element from all uncovered elements and itself. 4 Conclusion The Hungarian Method is implemented in subroutines that are used in generating optimum demand and supply plans and is included with the demonstration model package. Step V: Thus the number of zeros is increased. Many manufacturing and business problems involve oneto-one allocation of resources to uses. Add this smallest element to all elements at the intersection of two lines. (iii) See the marked (¥) column(s) and find the position of assigned zeros and then mark (¥) to the corresponding rows which are not marked till now. . A maximization assignment problem can be converted to minimization problem. (v) Draw the lines through unmarked rows and marked columns. Step IV: Select the Smallest Element from the Uncovered Elements. time. For each possible allocation of resource-to-use. (i) Mark (¥) to all rows in which the assignment has not been made. (iv) Repeat procedures (ii) and (iii) till the completion of marking. Note: If the above method does not work then make an arbitrary assignment and then follow step (IV).

FLOW CHART FOR ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM Start Construct the effectiveness matrix if not already given Row Reduction Column Reduction No Is zero assignment possible? (i) (ii) (iii) Draw minimum number of lines To cover all the zeros Choose the least uncovered Element Subtract this from the uncovered Elements and add it to the elements at intersection of the lines. ASSIGNMENT put square over the zeros and cross-out all zeros (if any) of the corresponding column or row respectively Yes No Is zero assignment possible? Yes SOLUTION Add the elements of the given matrix corresponding to each square Stop .THEORETICAL BRIEF.

´ Journal of Political Economy. H. Fair queuing and other probabilistic allocation methods.. Mathematics of Operations Research. pp. An Introduction Textbook of Operations Research. ³The Wage Distribution in a Model of the Assignment of Skills to Jobs. Kluwer Academic Publishers. A. C. 27. Ovuworie. eight edition. R. (2003).³ Moulin. Hamdy. University of Arkansas. Taha. Boston. Coen N (1995). G. Linear and Nonlinear Programming. (2007). Igboanugo (Associate Professor) and Prof. ³The Difference that CEOs Make: An Assignment Model Approach. 102. A. Stong. D. References Terviö.Acknowledgement The author gratefully acknowledge the training assistance for this paper from Dr. Teulings. 642±668. pp. Fayetteville. (2002). . 280±315.. Marko (2008).´ American Economic Review 98(3). 1-30. Luenberger.

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