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SPRINGS Design

Aims
The aim of this document is to provide as much information as possible on spring design It is the result of work to which a large number of professions and functions have contributed: designers, material specialists, calculation engineers, buyers, suppliers The aim is to allow the designer to quickly identify best practices for spring design This guide aims at a large degree of openness. The aim is not to forbid but to specify.

Contents
Spring design cycle Choosing the material Material correspondences Wire diameters Influence of temperature Choosing anticorrosion protection Stress level Stainless steels: stress corrosion Very stressed springs When must a spring be shot peened? Relaxation Fatigue, endurance Tolerances Spring packaging Information to be marked on the drawing Purchasing reflexes

Compression springs - Definition Advice End geometry Setting Tangling Specification Control method Extension springs - Definition Advice Ends Loop radii Loop fatigue behaviour Initial tension Tangling of extension springs Specification Control method Torsion springs: Definition Advice Legs geometry Radial legs bending radius Polarisation of torsion springs Specification Control method

tolerances.Spring design cycle Preliminary Design: functional needs. tolerances. temperature withstand. overall dimensions and environment known – feasibility study: dimensioning + material Proposal to the industrial supplier who checks the calculations. efficiency of spring in product. environment and material are defined Qualification tests in product: corrosion withstand. overall dimensions. creates prototypes. Validation of the drawing: the functional needs. etc. Validated spring . etc. makes proposals. endurance in product.

when several solutions satisfy the functional needs. fatigue) is a second sort criterion Finally. relaxation.Choosing the material Choice of material depends on several criteria: Temperature withstand Corrosion withstand Mechanical withstand Spring cost Temperature withstand is an initial criterion allowing an initial sort to be made according to requirements Mechanical withstand for each material (resistance. their cost will be a decisive factor in their choice .

Choosing the material Material Carbon steel SM .DH EN 10270 pt1 Hardened and tempered steel VDCrSi EN 10270 pt2 Stainless steel X10CrNi18-8 NS / HS EN 10270 pt3 Applications Wire diameters Temperature Material Cost SM : + SH : ++ DH : +++ ++++ All springs 0.00 mm < 250° C NS : ++++ HS : +++++ .00 mm < 80 to 100° C Compression 0.50 to 10.SH .05 to 20.00 mm < 200° C All springs < 10.

When choosing carbon steels. the loops will have to be added as this steel has a low tolerance to bending Caution: VDCrSi steel is expensive and few wire manufacturers propose it. easier to supply or more economic As soon as the spring is validated. It is not produced in Eastern Europe and is hard to find in Asia. material provides an indication: the spring manufacturer can then propose a material better suited to the functional needs. the material is defined once and for all. the SM or SH grades will be selected for applications not subjected to fatigue (<10 000 cycles) – the DH grade will be chosen for applications requiring fatigue behaviour (> 10 000 cycles) VDCrSi steel will mainly be used for compression springs. For extension springs.Choosing the material On the initial consultation. .

Up to now. for wire diameters less than 1 mm. . use of stainless steels was essential. As far as possible avoid specifying commercial grades on the drawings (Sandvik or other). which is not the case of the HS grade The commercial grades Sandvik 12R10 and 11R51 correspond to grades X10CrNi18-8 NS and X10CrNi18-8 HS respectively. With the emergence of galvanised wires. This was due to the problem of implementing anti-corrosion surface treatments and to the risk of hydrogen embrittlement during electroplating.Choosing the material X10CrNi18-8 NS stainless steel is very easy to procure. steel wires with a diameter of less than 1 mm can be considered.

D H Ha rde ne d a nd te mpe re d s te e l VD C rS i S ta inle s s s te e l X 1 0 C rNi1 8 -8 NS S ta inle s s s te e l X 1 0 C rNi1 8 -8 HS 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 d 6 7 8 9 10 .Mechanical properties: Rm mini 3000 2800 2600 2400 R m (M P a ) C a rbo n s te e l S M C a rbo n s te e l S H .

JIS EN Carbon steel SM EN 10270 pt1 Carbon steel SH EN 10270 pt1 Carbon steel DH EN 10270 pt1 Hardened and tempered steel VDCrSi EN 10270 pt2 Stainless steel X10CrNi18-8 NS / HS EN 10270 pt3 ISO ISO 8458-2 SM 2002 (=) ISO 8458-2 SH 2002 (=) ISO 8458-2 DH 2002 (=) ISO 8458-3 VDSiCr 2002 (<) ISO 6931-1 X9CrNi18-8 1994 (=) ASTM ASTM A227/A227M 1999 Class II (>) ASTM A228/A228M 1993 (<) ASTM A228/A228M 1993 (<) ASTM A877/A877M 1993 (=) ASTM A313/A313M 302 1995 JIS JIS G 3521 SW-C 1991 (>) JIS G 3522 SWPB 1991 (>) JIS G 3561 SWOSC-V 1994 (<) JIS G 4314 SUS 302 1988 (<) (=): Rm identical. (<) Rm less.ISO ASTM . (>) Rm more than the EN standard .Correspondences for EN .

D H J IS G 3 5 2 2 S W P -B A S TM A 2 2 8 /A 2 2 8 M 2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 0 1 2 3 d 4 5 6 .Mechanical Resistance Comparison Carbon steels EN-ASTM-JIS 2900 2700 2500 R m (M P a ) C a rb o n s te e l S H .

Mechanical Resistance Comparison Hardened and tempered steel SiCr ENASTM-JIS 2200 2100 2000 R m (M P a ) E N 1 0 2 7 0 -2 V D C rS i JIS G 3 5 6 1 S W O S C -V A S TM A 8 7 7 /A 8 7 7 M IS O 8 4 5 8 -3 V D S iC r 1900 1800 1700 1600 0 1 2 3 4 5 d 6 7 8 9 10 .

Mechanical Resistance Comparison Stainless steels EN-ASTM-JIS 2400 E N 1 0 2 7 0 -3 X 1 0 C rN i1 8 -8 H S 2200 2000 R m (MP a) E N 1 0 2 7 0 -3 X 1 0 C rN i1 8 -8 N S J IS G 4 3 1 4 S U S 3 0 2 W P A J IS G 4 3 1 4 S U S 3 0 2 W P B 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 0 1 2 3 d A S TM A 3 1 3 /A 3 1 3 M 3 0 2 4 5 6 .

00 4.75 0.30 9.50 2.10 7.40 5.70 6.80 3.00 9.40 4.10 1. 1.10 0. Up to a diameter of 1 mm.45 0.15 0.80 8.20 5.90 2.90 3.90 7.40 8.00 7.30 0.50 1.40 7.70 0.60 8.60 5.70 7.90 9.30 5.90 8.10 4.80 9.60 4.10 6.30 4.85 0.40 0.00 8.80 1.90 0.60 7.30 2.30 1.50 9.10 9.40 3.25 0.30 7.60 6.30 6.40 1.90 4.Wire diameters There are no standards for wire diameters.00 6.20 2.30 3.05 mm 0.60 0.10 mm.10 3.70 5.40 9.20 7.70 3.55 As from 1 mm.00 2.80 0.20 8. we shall choose a wire diameter every 0.20 6.10 5.60 9.50 5.00 5.70 8.50 4.80 2.20 4.30 8.40 2.10 2.00 3.70 1.20 9.65 0.50 3.10 8.60 1.50 8.80 4.40 6.35 0. we shall choose a wire diameter every 0.60 2.50 7.50 6.90 6.20 3.90 5.80 5.70 4.95 0.80 7.60 3.70 2.80 6.20 0.90 .50 1.00 1.20 1.70 9.00 0.

G) that will lead to variations in proportional loads.Influence of temperature Temperature variations result in variation of rigidity modules (E. Rigidity variation T°C .

Trade brand example: Bezinal® (Bekaert). Electroplating is prohibited due to hydrogen embrittlement .Steel anticorrosion protection There are two main processes for anticorrosion protection of steel springs: Lamellar zinc organo-metallic coating Hot galvanised wire Lamellar zinc organo-metallic coatings are produced after shaping of springs and are hot polymerised. In the process of qualification: Geomet®. this coating can be completed by an additional coloured coat for identification (trade brand example: Delta Seal) The hot galvanised wire is a wire on which either zinc only. Zintek®. In some cases. A trade brand example: Delta Tone®. The coatings are made by spraying or centrifugal process. or a zinc alloy + 5% aluminium is deposited at a high temperature (380°C). The galvanised wire can be re-drawn without damaging the protective coat.

to a lesser extent than zinc plating. as there is.Steel anticorrosion protection Advantages Hot galvanised wire Lamellar zinc organometallic coating • Ideal for draw and torsional springs with close coils • Low cost : no ST reworking • ideal for compression springs Disadvantages • For compression springs. grinding the ends removes the coating • difficult to properly cover draw and torsional springs with touching coils – for small gprings. the coils are bonded after coating. particularly on small diameters Zinc and copper are incompatible: galvanic couple . do not use phosphating. a risk of hydrogen embrittlement during acid pickling. Do not use electrolytic zinc plating: there is a risk of hydrogen embrittlement requiring degassing that is hard to control at industrial level and whose effects are not guaranteed. Likewise.

BS: Hardened and centrifugal process: 9 m +/.3 Sprayed: 15 m +/.Steel anticorrosion protection Lamellar zinc organo-metallic coating: Surface preparation: Mechanical preparation by grain blasting with stainless steel balls of a diameter < 0.5 Temperature withstand: 150°C continuously 200°C for 1 hour .3 mm Small wires: alkalin chemical degreasing No phosphating: risk of hydrogen embrittlement Protection example for a 6-day damp heat withstand + 48 h.

there is prestressing as soon as an operating point exhibits a stress ratio in excess to Unprestress Level For extension springs. SH and DH EN10270-1 Oil hardened steel VDCrSi EN10270-2 Austenitic stainless steel X10CrNi18-8 EN10270-3 Unprestress Level %Rm 49 53 40 Prestress Level %Rm 70 70 59 .Shear stress level Shear stress limits apply to compression and extension springs (in the body) They refer to the corrected shear stress For compression springs. do not exceed Unprestress Level Unprestress No plasticity Prestress Plasticity Fracture risk Material Patented carbon steel SM.

Stainless steels: stress corrosion – acceptable stresses In 1998. ABT issued rules applying to stainless steel spring design to avoid stress corrosion: ‘The corrected stress level in permanent state must be less than 56% of mechanical resistance’: k σperm < 0. preliminary degreasing is required: to be specified on a drawing Chlorinated products are forbidden for spring degreasing The new rules defined in this document incorporate the rules defined by ABT with respect to design of a new spring For more details ...56 Rm (compression springs) For springs undergoing heat treatment at more than 300°C. ? .

in particular for stainless steels This is possible provided there is compliance with rules not included in the software and not mentioned in this document. work in co-operation with the simulation engineer. the spring manufacturer and/or the IST. For this spring type.Stress level: very stressed The rules defined in this document are springs used to design a spring guaranteeing a safety margin with respect to stress In some cases. the stress level in the wire may have to be increased. .

Shot peening Shot peening is a process consisting of. impacting the spring with solid spherical particles at high speed The aim of shot peening is to enhance spring fatigue behaviour The effect of shot peening is to create surface compression stresses and erase surface defects Shot peening is only applicable to compression springs and to extension spring loops . after coiling.

steels may have a viscous behaviour. Under certain conditions.Relaxation Relaxation and creep are two consequences of the same phenomenon. Consequences: 450 400 350 300 effort (N) 250 200 150 100 50 0 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 longueur (mm) 1ère mesure après SJ . Viscosity is characterised by a flow that will tend to relax stresses. This phenomenon is particularly pronounced when temperature and/or stress is high.

Fatigue and endurance
Component fatigue is the damage incurred by the component for stresses less than the elastic limit, under the effect of a large number of cycles The fatigue behaviour of a spring will be calculated as from the moment when it must withstand more than 10 000 cycles (10^4). For fatigue behaviour of between 10 000 and 100 000 cycles, a fatigue behaviour of 100 000 cycles (10^5) will be calculated. The exact number of cycles required will be marked on the drawing.
1 2 cycles

L2 L1

For springs working between two positions L1 and L2, a cycle is defined by the path L1, L2, L1 Fatigue behaviour can be enhanced (in some cases) by shot peening Prestressing also enhances fatigue behaviour of compression springs

Fatigue and endurance
Fatigue behaviour of a spring is estimated by use of the Goodman diagram The Goodman diagram represents an envelope in which the minimum and maximum shear stresses are placed A spring has a good fatigue behaviour when its operating point is placed in the required envelope A point on the envelope characterises springs at risk

Tolerances
P2 P1

Springs (compression, extension, torsion) will be defined by two operating points, or one operating point and the rate
P2
R

L2

L1

L2 1 operating point + Rate

2 operating points

In order to determine tolerances on forces, we can take as a starting point DIN 2095, 2097 et 2194 standards To determine tolerances on rate, we can take as a starting point BS 1726-1, 1726-2 et 1726-3 standards

specify the bend radii in the loops and legs Do not mark the supplier references Functional needs: 2 operating points or 1 operating point + spring rate Assembly length Operating temperature Fatigue behaviour: clearly specify working lengths and required cycles Shot peening: clearly specify shot peening when the aim is to enhance spring endurance Control method . surface treatments End geometry A drawing with details of loop geometry or the torsion spring legs may be essential For extension and torsion springs.Information to be marked on the drawing Material. material correspondences.

Spring packaging Spring packaging is linked to tangling risks This risk concerns all springs Packaging in coils (Staer tubes) is very restrictive with respect to logistics and is very expensive For compression springs. prefer addition of dead coils at the ends of the spring or in the middle of the body. .

Paintwork: requirements relating to paintwork generate high additional costs. Is it always essential? For compression springs. grinding of ends accounts for 30% of spring cost. Prestressing of compression springs is expensive: more than 30% of spring cost. and has a serious impact on spring cost Avoid springs requiring a specific manufacturing means.Purchasing reflexes Marking sales references on a drawing is equivalent to permanently choosing one supplier. . Is it always essential? Packaging: packaging in Staer tubes is extremely costly: prefer addition of dead coils. Special machines are costly and bind us to one supplier.

F2: forces (N) Ln: minimum operating length (mm) . De: inner.Definition Design parameters: d: wire diameter (mm) Di. D. average and outer coil diameters (mm) n: number of active coils nt: number of total coils L0: free length (mm) End geometry Functional parameters: L1.Compression springs . L2 : working lengths (mm) F1.

5 For lengths close to solid length.Compression springs: advice Always determine the spring before permanently defining the overall dimensions As a rule. it must be possible for a compression spring to work at solid length The minimum number of effective coils: 1. the spring is no longer linear: do not exceed 85% of total deflection Do not grind wires with a diameter of less than 1 mm Spring index must comply with: 4 < D/d < 14 Clearly define minimum operating length Ln and assembly length Remember to check spring buckling Remember to check the increase in outer diameter to prevent tightening in the housing Check tangling Tolerances: prefer qualities 1 or 2 of DIN 2095. .

ends Shape A B C D E F Execution Representation Open.December 96 . ground Close in ‘pigtail’ form Close and directed towards the centre End geometry of compression springs is specified in standard: ISO 2162-2 . ground Close. Unground Close. Unground Open.Compression springs.

Prestressing of compression springs Only compression springs can be prestressed if required Prestressing consists of compressing springs to solid length Prestressing results in creation of a state of residual stresses that will oppose operating stresses Prestressing is used to: Reduce relaxation of springs in operation Enhance spring fatigue behaviour This operation is expensive (30 to 40% of spring cost) .

Tangling of compression springs Addition of dead coils at the spring ends or in the middle of the body may prevent them from tangling .

Compression springs specification P2 +/R P1 +/P1 +/- P2 +/R Lmax Lc L2 L1 Lc Lmax L2 L1 Lc Lmax L2 L1 P1-P2 P1-Rate P2-Rate .

Measure P2 under L2 3 .Compression springs .Compress to Ln 2 .Measure P1 under L1 4 .Compress to solid length 4 .Measure P2 under L2 Second values have to correspond to the specified values and variations between both measures have to be less than 1% For springs defined with a force and the rate.Measure P1 under L1 2 .control method The control method of a compression spring depends on it ’s manufacturing : unprestressed spring or prestressed spring Example of control method of an unprestressed spring : 1 . and calculate the rate between lengths L1 and L2 .Measure P1 under L1 6 .Measure P2 under L2 Example of control method of a prestressed spring : 1 .Release to L0 3 .Return to L0 5 . we can apply the same control method.

Definition Design parameters: d: wire diameter (mm) Di. F2: forces (N) Ln: maximum operating length (mm) R: rate (N/mm) . De: inner.Extension springs . D. average and outer coil diameters (mm) n: number of coils L0: free length (mm) Loop geometry Functional parameters: L1. L2 : working lengths (mm) F1.

advice Always determine the spring before permanently defining the overall dimensions For correct operation. Extension springs have a non zero initial tension: ensure that it is compatible with the recommended limits Spring index must comply with: 4 < D/d < 14 Clearly define maximum operating length Ln and assembly length Loop orientation determines the number of coils Tolerances: prefer qualities 1 or 2 of DIN 2095. .Extension springs . L1 must be greater than or equal to 1.2 L0.

ends Several types of ends can be considered: loops hooks inserts .Extension springs .

Extension springs – loop geometry A distinction is made between German and English loops. German loop English loop Give preference to German loops: the bend radii are greater than for English loops Loop geometry is dealt with in appendix A of the .

additional lengths) English loop .Extension springs – loop geometry German loop Double side German loop German half loop Sloping German loop Double German loop Side German loop Loop definition: Loop type Orientation Drawing indicating the functional dimensions (opening.

loop resistance is identical to body resistance if we respect: 2 . In all cases. comply with the limits laid down by the spring index : D/d > 4 to 5 r>2d .Extension springs – radii in loops LOAD LOAD For German loops. Do not forget that the calculations that can be made (finite elements or other) do not allow for the residual stresses relating to wire bending.d For specific geometries. despite the tempering treatment. r2 = Di = D . Such stresses are particularly great when the bend radius is small. calculations must be performed case by case.

3 ×1.3 ×1. For German loops. with ratios assigned a coefficient of 1. an initial approach is to place a second point representing the loops.3 . fatigue behaviour is only estimated in the body.Extension springs – loop fatigue behaviour For extension springs.

the aim of which is to relax stresses. The lower limit is linked to an accuracy notion. springs undergo tempering treatment. The upper limit is linked to an accuracy notion. the smaller free length and the greater the tension. particularly large when the initial stress is high. . IST shows in the graph opposite the limits that can be reached for spring coiling. This relationship determines the space allocated to spring manufacturing. but also to technical feasibility: further to coiling. the greater free length. The free length of a spring is directly linked to initial tension: the lower the tension. An initial tension loss will then occur.Extension springs – initial tension The initial tension of a extension spring must comply with certain rules.

the springs will tend to tangle due to assembly reasons .Tangling of extension springs Extension spring tangling is linked to loop geometry When the loops are closed. there is less risk of tangling When the loops are open.

Extension springs specification P2 +/K P1 +/P1 +/L0 max L0 max P2 +/K L0 max L1 L2 Lmax L1 L2 Lmax L1 L2 Lmax P1-P2 P1-Rate P2-Rate .

Return to L0 3 .Extend to Ln 2 .Control method Example of control method : 1 . we can apply the same control method. and calculate the rate between lengths L1 and L2 .Measure P2 under L2 For springs defined with a force and the rate.Extension springs .Measure P1 under L1 4 .

Definition Design parameters: d: wire diameter (mm) Di. D.Torsion springs . Rb: legs distance (mm) . average and outer coil diameters (mm) n0: number of coils in the free state Lk0: length of body in the free state (mm) Legs geometry Functional parameters: Ra. De: inner.

Advice Always determine the spring before permanently defining the overall dimensions Torsion springs deliver a torque Their characteristic is linear when they are mounted on an axis Use the spring in the winding direction (closing the ends) Comply with a minimum number of 2 coils In case of radial legs.Torsion springs . take into account the bending radius Clearly define maximum working angle An and assembly angle Remember to check body diameter reduction to avoid tightening on the axis Remember to check the increase in spring height to avoid tightening in the housing Tolerances: prefer qualities 1 or 2 of DIN 2194 .

Torsion springs – Legs geometry 2 radial legs 1 radial leg and 1 tangent leg 2 tangent legs .

5 3 Bending radii recommended by EN 10270 standard.2 1.25 d 2 In the case of radial legs.radial legs radius r r + 1.Torsion springs . the stress factor is (EN 13906-3) : .3 1.5 d 1.5 r>d d > 6. without damage for the wire are : In addition.7 1.1 1 0 0.5 r/d 2 2.5 1.6 1.5 r > 1. the bending radius radius generates additional stresses d≤3 r > d/2 3 < d ≤ 6.07 d q= r 2 + 0.5 1 1.4 q 1.

torsion springs are polarised on the axis bearing them A sketch is used to measure the real angle under which the spring works Spring positioning is determined as follows: the spring is in plane equilibrium under the action of three forces concerted at a point P actions on legs are perpendicular action in the spring body moves through the centre of the axis P .Polarisation of torsion springs When operating.

if polarisation is not considered. the real operating angle of the spring is less than the design angle When the spring exhibits a large polarisation. and the spring designed with the angles αreal αreal .Polarisation of torsion springs αdesign When the spring is designed. a working drawing is used to obtain the real position of the spring αreal The angles αdesign can then be marked on the drawing.

C2 +/K C1 +/A1 +/- A2 +/K A1 A2 Amax A1 A2 Amax A1 A2 Amax C1-C2 C1-Rate C2-Rate ..Specification of torsion springs ..

Specification of torsion springs A1 +/- A1 A2 Amax C1-drawing In some cases. coil diameter and number of turns (or height) Drawing example . when housing is restricted. it might be interesting to specify the rate by defining wire diameter.

Control method Torsion springs present the difficulty to generate friction during operation Control method has to precise if measures are done increasing the torque or decreasing the torque Moreover.Return to Ao 3 .Wind to An 2 .Measure C1 under A1 .Torsion springs .Wind to An 2 .Measure C2 under A2 For springs defined with a torque and the rate. and calculate the rate between angles A1 and A2 Example of control method by decreasing the torque : 1 . legs supports shall be blades in order to obtain constant angles Example of control method by increasing the torque : 1 . we can apply the same control method.Measure C2 under A2 4 .Measure C1 under A1 4 .Return to Ao 3 .Wind à An 3 .

For more details on stress ratios Standard-related aspects EN/DIN standards: In static: stresses not corrected In dynamic: stresses corrected compression: 56% Rm extension: 45% Rm torsion: 70% Rm ts essor r rosc_ P rules New BS and ASTM standards: Stresses corrected for all applications No limit stress ratio recommendations Stress ratios recommended by IST .

the following stress ratios.For more details on stress ratios Limit stress by material type (IST) The Institute of Spring Technology proposes to use. These limits must be applied to corrected stresses. in addition to British standards. Unpresstress level is the stress ratio beyond which plasticity appears Prestress level is the stress ratio not to be exceeded. A compression spring sized greater than the Unprestress Level is a spring that must be prestressed A extension spring must not work beyond the Unprestress Level Material Patented carbon steel EN10270-1 (SL – SM – SH – DM – DH) Oil tempered steel CrV – SiCr EN10270-2 (FDCrV – TDCrV – VDCrV – FDSiCr – TDSiCr – VDSiCr) Austenitic stainless steel EN10270-3 (X10CrNi18-8 – X5CrNiMo17-12-2) Unprestress Level %Rm 49 53 40 Prestress Level %Rm 70 70 59 .

56 Rm. for torsion springs For springs not conforming to this rule. . for compression springs k σperm < 0. preliminary degreasing is required: to be specified on a drawing.For more details on stress ratios Stainless steel stress corrosion The stress corrosion problems highlighted by ABT have allowed definition of rules for stainless steels: ‘The stress ratio corrected in permanent state must be less than the limit stress’: k σperm < 0. for extension springs k σperm < 0.70 Rm. a Technical Specification has been drawn up to ensure cleanliness of the spring prior to heat treatment. For springs undergoing heat treatment at more than 300°C.45 Rm.

56 Rm σMax < 0.45 Rm Goodman(k ∆σ) + σMax < 0.: k σMax < 0.45 Rm Goodman(k ∆σ) + σMax < 0.70 Rm Stain.56 Rm Goodman(k ∆σ) + k σMax < 0.70 Rm Stain.56 Rm σMax < 0.56 Rm + Stainless steel : k σ perm < 0.49 Rm Stain.For more details on stress ratios Summary – carbon steels and austenitic stainless steels Spring type Stress type Static Prosc-ressorts IST : EN – DIN IST : BS – ASTM Steel : k σMax < 0.: k σMax < 0.45 Rm + Inox : k σperm < 0.59 Rm Steel σMax < 0.: k σMax < 0.40 Rm Steel + Goodman(k ∆σ ) Steel : k σMax < 0.: k σMax < 0.45 Rm Compression Dynamic Steel : k σMax < 0.49 Rm Stain.59 Rm Steel + Goodman(k ∆σ ) Steel : k σMax < 0.56 Rm σMax < 0.45 Rm k Goodman(k ∆σ) + σMax < 0.40 Rm Steel + Goodman(k ∆σ ) Static extension Dynamic .

BS/ASTM + IST Compression springs Carbon steels (49-70%Rm) Austenitic stainless steels (40-59%Rm) .EN/DIN Static .For more details on stress ratios Comparison of criteria .

EN/DIN static .BS/ASTM + IST extension springs Carbon steels (49%Rm) Austenitic stainless steels (40%Rm) .For more details on stress ratios Comparison of criteria .

criteria are very close . We observe that: For small winding ratios.For more details on stress ratios Comparison of criteria In the previous pages. EN/DIN. which is why we find in the abscissa the winding ratio that defines the stress correction factor. BAS/ASTM criteria and the ABT stress non-corrosion rule have been superimposed for springs not subjected to fatigue. the EN/DIN criteria lead to very loaded springs The stress ratios recommended by IST for austenitic stainless steels are far smaller than those proposed by the EN/DIN standards The rule defined by ABT for stainless steels makes it possible to converge with Anglo-Saxon criteria For fatigue stressed springs. Criteria are expressed in corrected stress.

For more details on stress ratios Comparison of criteria .EN/DIN Dynamic BS/ASTM + IST Compression springs in Fatigue τmax τmax 70 % Rm 56 % Rm Rm Carbon steels τmin 56 % Rm 59 % Rm EN/DIN IST Rm Stainless steels τmin .

BS/ASTM + IST extension springs in fatigue τmax τmax 49 % Rm 45 % Rm Rm Carbon steels τmin 45 % Rm 40 % Rm EN/DIN IST Rm Stainless steels τmin .For more details on stress ratios Comparison of criteria .EN/DIN Dynamic .

there will no longer be any ambiguity on interpretation of stresses. access is systematic to corrected stresses. Finally. by choosing to use the Anglo-Saxon method. . The Anglo-Saxon approach appears more rigorous insofar as it allows for the corrected stress (thus the real stress) in all cases. By choosing to size springs according to the Anglo-Saxon method. thus allowing very easily for stainless steel springs to ensure compliance with ABT stress non corrosion rules. the EN/DIN standards lead to very high acceptable corrected stress ratios. whether static or dynamic.For more details on stress ratios New rules For small winding ratios and for static springs.