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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The subsequent report on the research philosophies and principles is reviewed on the articles selected. In this report, four peer journals are selected to refer research philosophies and its principles adopted. The report has been made by referring various academic journals and books which helped to understand the theory and the basics in the subject. The topic of the four articles was in the area of background in the mentioned theory. This also helped to understand the concerning influe nce of these principles in this research. The concerned paper was formatted in the non scientific report basis. The report always looked into relevant theories to identify which types of the research approaches have been adopted. The articles have different purposes and literature review of the topic is also discussed in this report. The base of the report includes the fundamentals of the principles of tourism research. When the report formation was needed the academic reading came useful and was utilised t o the maximum. The report has given many statements in the preferred and chosen theory. The reading the background of the journals will help in finding the needed points in the report domain. The bibliography used in the finishing parts of these non- scientific reports.

INTRODUCTION
The report is literally based on the research philosophies and principles of the four articles selected according to the research basis .These peer four articles is completely based on the tourism fundamentals and the tourism management. The entire study will reveal the different research paradigms which entirely conquers the research domains. The research philosophies are based on the basis of ontological, epistemological and methodological. There are different researches such as quantitative and qualitative. The research has different theoretical paradigms which enables us to identify the right kind of flavours. The report is entirely based on the different research approaches entitled in the four peer journals. The first article reviews the topic ³Urban ecotourism, defining and assessing dimensions using fuzzy number construction´. This article researches about the ecotourism adopted in the tourism industry. The second article reviews the topic ³Has Ryanair¶s pricing strategy changed over time?An empirical analysis of its 2006 -

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J. Where and what?´ The above mentioned articles provide the res earch approaches needed to be analysed. There are two types of has taken up the research criteria for some particular years. The theoretical underpinnings establishes that that there is also four different types of paradigms which is known as the Interpretive social sciences paradigm. The last article mentioned in report is the Vacationers and e WOM: Who Posts.Ryanair is the existing revolutionary low budget flights which is one of the growths of tourism in that area. there was a so called moments of research. and Goodson. So the tourism research has been centre of attraction in the preceding years. they were also classified on ontological basis. and Why. From the early 19th century. They divided and categorised the moments into five a) Traditional (1900 ) b) Modernist (1950) c) Blurred genres (1970) d) Crisis in representations (1986 ) e) Fifth moment (1990) (Denzin and Lincoln¶s) According to the worldviews and their perspective. The third article has the domain as ³Performance of French destinations: Tourism attraction perspectives. According to Denzin and Lincoln¶s.2007 flights´ . epistemological basis and methodological basis. 2004). Throughout the report the articles are reviewed based on Page 2 . Many anthropological approaches have been taken into account for the raised reviews. Feminist perspectives paradigm and Postmodern paradigm (Phillimore. L. the researchers started to do with traditional formats. The researches across the globe are been in and around the tourism subject. Critical theory paradigm. This has interestingly reached the heights of different researches. REVIEW ON THE THEORIES Tourism across the globe is having booming age in the current economic scenarios. These articles are under the scanner for different research theories adopted by the authors.´ This tourism research is on the tourism perspective of France.

The fourth and the final article refer to the traditional interpersonal information sources. This part is very important when we consider the overall designing of the research. In the third article the authors try to understand the French destinations and their performances. the approach used in this article was pretty advantages and useful.R Brent Ritchie and Charles R. The article reviews on the subject eWOM which is the comments of certain individuals in the internet. When it comes to touri sm research is done on the review on the social. The main context of the articles is on the different r esearch paradigms undergone. epistemological basis and methodological basis. Tourism research has been taken up as huge challenges by different countries for the improvement and advancement of this sector. the first article prescribed helps in illustrating the Urban Ecotourism which researches increasing and revolutionary study of the innovative Tourism sector. The review or the study also wanted to the particular years between 2006 and 2007. In the second article.R Brent Ritchie and Charles R. Page 3 . The research undergone through all these process will have a descriptive point of analysis (J. The results showed contrasting implications of advance booking. Goeldner ) When we consider the purposes of the articles. economicpolitical and gender wise analyses. this reviews the pricing strategy of Ryanair over a certain period of time. This is done on the tourist perspective of attraction.these research philosophies and theories. Goeldner ) RESEARCH PHILOSOPHIES AND PRINCIPLES According to many research theories. philosophies and principles is to do something with individuals responses. according to the worldviews and their perspective. (J. These articles will be the leverage to ensure the transparency and reliability of the concerned researches. In this article or research also showed merits in its approaches. Like mentioned in the above sections of the report. The articles itself explains and illustrates qualitative and quantitative approaches for different analysis. In this article the author has examined with the help of different methodologies in the mentioned article. These results have to be yielded in different formats as the competitiveness of France is measured. Tourism research had much literature in the preceding years. According to the author. they were also classified on ontological basis.

they have come across the fact that they have Inter pretivist paradigm. Page 4 . Feminist perspectives paradigm and Postmodern paradigm (Phillimore. In the first article. The third article is also an Interpretivist paradigm which has a subjective approach rather than the objective. In this they research about the performance level of the France in the tourism sector when looked from the viewpoint of tourist attractions. L. the authors have chosen different approaches with various research processes. Critical theory paradigm. actions and interactions of people who inhabit it´ ( Brotherton). phenomena and events that occur in this world are created by the subjective thoughts. Some of the authors have chosen different ones according to the research doma in. This is a subjective approach. When the four articles are taken into considerations. the author has used the critical paradigm which shows that the author has given the liberty of sociological and modern approach have been in the revelation researches. and Goodson.The theoretical underpinnings establishes that that there is also four different types of paradigms which is known as the Interpretive social sciences paradigm. the author explains the nature o f urban tourism which enables the current tourism scenarios. The selected four articles by the authors have their way of research approaches. In the final article. they have come across the critical paradigms which think and explain about the µsociological thinking and modernity approach. In this tourism research they have called upon two different approaches to come across these modern and social thinking. In this article. J. The eWOM which is a critical part of the analysis gives the description of the place and the performance of the place in a tourist perspective. The research in the articles is based on these approaches. Interpretative approach places much emphasis on subjective research rather than objective research. In this article have subjective in nature and the article focus on the pricing strategy which is intended to produce results for the future research. y Paradigms The paradigms can be simply defines as the set of beliefs. 2004 ). In the second article. This is based on the belief that the real world.

deductive. When the third article is also considered. The author has made use of the empirical analysis in the research which helps to use wider individuals and for a wider study. In the first article that research on the urban tourism has used the historical ontology which adopts that ³it is a reality created and shaped by social. In this particular article they come across the fact that the Page 5 . ethnic and gender -based forces that have been reified or crystallized over time into social structures that are taken to be natural or real´. the author has used the quantitative method because of the numerically based evaluation of the research methods. n umerically-based. In the first article. the methodology used is the quantitative. cultural. the eWOM theory or analysis has made use of the qualitative approaches of the methodology.y Methodology Basis The methodology is categorised into the quantitative. the author has come across the facts that they should be the positivist paradigm. The methods and the results are all based on the numerica l data and the theoretical framework. the authors have used the quantitative methods to research the main topic. quantitative and mixed method. In the quantitative methods. The major methods used in this article are the estimation of efficiency scores. and raises questions about the nature of reality while referring to the claims or assumptions that a particular approach to social inquiry makes abo ut the nature of social reality´ (Denzin and Lincoln 1998). political. y Ontological basis According to the theory. In this article the eWOM theory is pretty dealt with the human behaviour. economic. In the last and final article. In the selected articles in this report. ontology is defined as the ³ study of being. regression analysis and according numerical data collected.The methodology is determined by levying the methods used to make outcomes of the research. Ontology sees the nature of reality in a research approach. The author h as used objective approach with in the methodology. they are categorized on the ontological basis. outsider perspectiveand surveys. In the second article.

In this type the research looks into the total apprehension which is done on the basis of social. Subjectivist epistemology undertakes that³ we cannot separate ourselves from what we know. Even in the second article the epistemology used is the subjective one through which it is found out that they spea k about the Ryanair pricing strategy which shows the link between the object and investigator. the epistemology used is the subjectivist epistemology. Dalmiya and Alcoff 1993) . others and the world. The article itself talks about the Ryanair¶s pricing strategy which complements them into the category of the relativist ontology. In the first article of the selected or chosen. This is the traditiona l way of information sources. the performance of French destinations is a historical ontology. The research is on the eWOM which really looks into the social and cultural data to pass on the information.urban tourism has to use the historical ontology. The ontology helps to apprehend its result outcome. In the article we cannot separate the subject of urban tourism and the researcher¶s data. They come across the data and information which is socially experimented which can bring positive and negative inputs. In the final article they have come across the fact that a historical ontology is used in this particular one. y Epistemology Used Epistemology is defined as the ³It is theory of knowledge. In t he third article. cultural and ethnic types. ´ The research domain of the first article explains the ur ban ecotourism which is a subjective epistemology. In the second article they have used the relativist ontology which undertakes that ³reality as we know it is constructed inter-subjectively through the meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially ´. and is interested in the origins and the nature of knowing and construction of knowledge. and the claims and assumptions that are made about what the nature of knowledge is´ (Longino 1990. The investigator and the object of investigation are linked such that who we are and how we understand the world is a central part of how we understand ourselves. economic. The same is with the last two articles one which analysis the performances of the French destinations and the last one analyses the Page 6 .

The articles have different purposes and literature review of the topic is also discussed in this report. This also helped to understand the concerning influence of these principles in this research. CONCLUSION The topic of the four articles was in the area of background in the mentioned theory. Many countries have been in the hunt of tourism research. The tourism management across the world have given access to different types of researches.eWOMof the vacationers. The tourism growth in the following years has traditionally put more and more inputs regarding the entire research.The tourism researches should be on the contemporary methods which would really help the growth of this sector. These articles are under the scanner for different research theories adopted by the authors. The report always looked into relevant theories to identify whic h types of the research approaches have been adopted. the research has been in the moments of research . The article reviewed was based on the tourism possibilities and the existing behaviour of it towards. Many anthropological approaches have been taken into account for the raised reviews. The above mentioned articles provide the research approaches needed to be analysed. This also helped to understand the concerning influence of these principles in this research. The report always looked into relevant theories to identify which types of the research approaches have been adopted . The academic readings have enabled to widen the horizon the research approaches. They all are used epistemology which incurs a relationship between the objective and researcher¶s. The concerned paper was formatted in the non -scientific report basis. The concerned paper was formatted in the non -scientific report basis. This report has been done on the prior basis of understanding the theories of the research philosophies and their principles. These research philosophies and principles help the investigators of the study to categorise their work according to different aspects. In the selected articles. The research has to look into the fact Page 7 . The articles selected are the core referencing and analysing part.The topic of the four articles was in the area of backgrou nd in the mentioned theory. The contemporary use of this research has enabled to bring positive researches in this sector.

Page 8 .that many researches don¶t have any future recommendations of the results and often the outcome is biased enough for inaccurate one. The advantages and disadvantages of the research itself will compromise the whole scenario.

T. Travel.R Brent Ritchie and Charles R. London: Sage May. Creswell. London: Routledge. Delanty. and hospitality research second editon. 2nd edn. (1994) Beginning Qualitative Research .org/editorial30(2).Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd ed. ‡ ‡ Bryman. N. Qualitative Research in Tourism: Ontologies. R. (2001) Tourism Research. Goeldner. ‡ ‡ Gilbert. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (2008) Researching Hospitality and Tourism: A Student Guide. (1988) Quantity and Quality in Social Research. (2004) Social Research Methods. Phillimore. tourism. London: Sage. & Hussey R. L.A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and ‡ ‡ Postgraduate Students 2nd edn. P. 2ndedn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ‡ Bryman.pdf Page 9 . (eds) (2004). Open University Press. methods and process. J. and Morehouse. (2003) Research Design . and Goodson. (2005) Social Science: Philosophical and Metho dological Foundations. ‡ Brotherton. Milton: John Wiley and Sons. ‡ Collis J. A. J. ‡ ‡ Epistemologies and Methodologies. Unwin Hyman. 3rd edn.REFERENCES ‡ J. B. (2008) Researching Social Life.trrworld. Buckingham Open University Press ‡ Maykut. ‡ ‡ Jennings. The Falmer Press. A. London: Sage. (2001) Social Research: issues. (2003) Business Research . http://www. G. G.A Philosophic and Practical Guide.

org/dl/Qualitative -Research-in-Tourism-Ontologies- Epistemologies-and-Methodologies-Routledge-Contemporary-Geographies-ofLeisure-Tourism-and-Mobility/ ‡ http://prism.‡ http://ebookee.talis.com/derby-ac/items/864967 Page 10 .