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# EXAMPLE 9.

2-1: Diffusion Coefficient for Air-Water Vapor Mixtures
Heat and mass transfer applications involving air-water vapor mixtures can often provide significantly higher energy transfer rates than ‘dry’ heat exchange processes; therefore, the diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air is an important quantity in many engineering applications. a.) Calculate and plot the diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. The solution to this problem is a straightforward application of the method discussed in Section 9.2.2.1. The input parameters are entered in EES:
"EXAMPLE 9.2-1: Diffusion Coefficient for Air-Water Vapor Mixtures" \$UnitSystem SI MASS RAD PA K J \$Tabstops 0.2 0.4 0.6 3.5 in p=1 [atm]*convert(atm,Pa) T_C=20 [C] T=converttemp(C,K,T_C) G1\$='Air' G2\$='Water' "pressure" "temperature, in C" "temperature in K" "species 1" "species 2"

The Lennard-Jones 12-6 characteristic energies normalized by Boltzmann's constant are obtained for both species ( ε1 / k B and ε 2 / k B ) using the ek_LJ function in EES and used to estimate the normalized characteristic energy of the mixture according to Eq. (9-28):

ε1,2
kB

=

ε1 ε 2
kB kB

epsilon\kB_1=ek_LJ(G1\$) "Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential energy for species 1" epsilon\kB_2=ek_LJ(G2\$) "Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential energy for species 2" epsilon\kB_1_2=sqrt(epsilon\kB_1*epsilon\kB_2) "characteristic mixture energy"

The dimensionless temperature is computed according to Eq. (9-27):
T =T

ε1,2

kB

and used to estimate the dimensionless collision integral for diffusion using Eq. (9-30):

ΩD =

1.06036 0.1930 1.03587 1.76474 + + + 0.1561 T exp 0.47635 T exp 1.52996 T exp 3.89411T

(

)

(

)

(

)

T_bar=T/epsilon\kB_1_2 "dimensionless temperature" OMEGA_D=1.06036/T_bar^0.1561+0.1930/exp(0.47635*T_bar)& +1.03587/exp(1.52996*T_bar)+1.76474/exp(3.89411*T_bar) "collision integral for diffusion"

07x10-5 m2/s.2 Ω D MW1 + MW2 MW1 MW2 MW_1=MolarMass(G1\$) "molar mass of species 1" MW_2=MolarMass(G2\$) "molar mass of species 2" D_1_2=1. Notice that the values calculated using the method presented in Section 9.07x10-5 m2/s.775x10-6 ⎢ ⎥ + 4. (9-26): l1. w = −2. (9-25): D1.The Lennard-Jones 12-6 characteristic lengths for both species (l1 and l2) are obtained using the sigma_LJ function in EES and used to estimate the characteristic length of the mixture according to Eq.2 = l_1=sigma_LJ(G1\$) l_2=sigma_LJ(G2\$) l_1_2=(l_1+l_2)/2 l1 + l2 2 "Lennard-Jones 12-6 length for species 1" "Lennard-Jones 12-6 length for species 2" "characteristic mixture length" The molarmass of both species (MW1 and MW2) are obtained using the MolarMass function in EES and the binary diffusion coefficient is estimated according to Eq.883e-22*T^1.2 are approximately 15% low compared to the values from Bolz and Tuve (1976).EES = 2. The D_12_gas function can be accessed by selecting Function Info from the Options menu and selecting EES library routines.2. Also shown in Figure 1 are reference values for the diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air.2 = 1. scroll down to the Diffusion library and click on it to open the library and display the functions that are contained in the library. Figure 1 illustrates the calculated diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature.656x10-10 ⎢ ⎥ ⎥T s ⎦ s-K ⎦ s-K 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎣ (1) . Note that these calculations are automated using the D_12_gas function in EES.2 = 2. D_1_2_EES=D_12_gas(G1\$. provided by Bolz and Tuve (1976).2.G2\$. A more accurate function for the diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air is obtained using a regression curve fit to the data from Bolz and Tuve (1976): ⎡ m2 ⎤ ⎡ m2 ⎤ ⎡ m2 ⎤ 2 Da .P) "EES function for diffusion coefficient" which leads to D1.T.5*sqrt((MW_1+MW_2)/(MW_1*MW_2))/(p*l_1_2^2*OMEGA_D) "diffusion coefficient" which leads to D1.883 × 10−22 T 3/ 2 2 p l1.479x10-8 ⎢ T + 1.

5 x10 -5 Regression curve fit. .2 and provided by Bolz and Tuve (1976).3. (1) Bolz and Tuve (1976) calculated using method in Section 9.0 x10 -5 1.0 x10 -5 2. Eq.5 x10 -5 2.2.5 x10 Binary diffusion coefficient (m /s) -5 2 3.2 280 300 320 340 Temperature (K) 360 380 Figure 1: The air-water vapor diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature. estimated using the method described in Section 9.2.