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AND

PHILLIP A. REGALIA, STUDENT MEMBER, IEEE, SANJIT K. MITRA, P. P. VAIDYANATHAN, MEMBER, IEEE

FELLOW, IEEE,

The digital all-pass filter is a computationally efficient signal processing building block which is quite useful in many signal pmcessing applications. In this tutorial paper we review the properties of digital all-pass filters, and provide a broad overview of the diversity of applications in digital filtering. Starting with the definition and basic properties of a scalar all-pass function, a variety of structures satisfying the all-pass property are assembled, with emphasis placed on the concept of structural losslessness. Applications are then outlined in notch filtering, complementary filtering and filter banks, multirate filtering, spectrum and group-delay equalization, Hilbert transformations, and so on. In all cases, the structural losslessness property induces very robust performance in the face of multiplier coefficient quantization. Finally, the state-space manifestations of the all-pass property are explored, and it is shown that many all-pass filter structures are devoid of limit cycle behavior and feature very low roundoff noise gain.

I. INTRODUCTION

In many signal processingapplications,thedesigner must determine the transfer function of a digital filter subject to constraints on the frequency selectivity andlor phase response which are dictated by the application at hand. Once a suitable transfer function i s found, the designer must select a filter structure from the numerous choices available. Ultimately, finite precision arithmetic i s used in any digital filter computation, and traditionally the roundoff noise and coefficient sensitivity characteristics have formed the basis of selecting one filter structure in favor of another. In the quest for low coefficient sensitivityand low roundoff noise, an elegant theory of losslessness and passivity in the discrete-time domain has evolved [I], (21. Although this theory has been motivated by the desire to obtain digital filters with predictable behavior under finite word-length conditions, many useful by-products have emerged which have contributed to a better understanding of computaManuscript received July IO,1987;revised October 16,1987. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants MIP 85-08017and MIP 8404245. P. A. Regalia and S. K. Mitra are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. P. P. Vaidyanathan is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. I E E E Log Number 8718413.

tionally efficient filter structures, tunable filters, filter bank analysis/synthesis systems, multirate filtering, and stability under linear and nonlinear (i.e., quantized) environments. This paper considersa basic scalar losslessbuilding block, which i s a stable all-pass function. The interconnections of such lossless building blocksform useful solutions to many practical filtering problems. The many results presented here can be derived by appealing to elegant theoretical forms; however, in maintaining a tutorial tone it i s our aim to expose the salient features using direct discrete-time concepts, in the hope that the references cited will further aid both thedesigner and researcher alike. Weshould point out that many of the results which are developed in terms of scalar all-pass functions in one dimension can be generalized tovector or matrixall-pass functions [3]and to multidimensional filtering [4],though for the presentwe restrict our attention to the one-dimensional scalar case. We begin in Section I I by defining a scalar all-pass function and reviewing some basic properties. Section Ill assembles avariety of all-pass filter structures, with emphasis placed on the concept of structurallosslessness. Section IV outlines applications to notch filtering, Section V to complementary filters and filter banks, Section VI to multirate signal processing, SectionVII to tunablefilters, and Section V l l l togroupdelay equalization. Finally, Section IX explores state-space representations of lossless transfer functions, and the implications of losslessness in obtainingvery robust performance under finite word-length constraints. II. DEFINITIONS PROPERTIES AND The frequency responseA(ei'")of an all-pass filter exhibits unit magnitude at all frequencies, i.e., JA(e'")(*= 1, for all

U.

(2.1)

The transfer function of such a filter has all poles and zeros occurring in conjugate reciprocal pairs, and takes the form

(2.2)

For stability reasons we assume (Ykl < 1 for all k to place all the poles insidethe unit circle. Now, ifA(z) isconstrained to be a real function, we must have 0 = 0 or 0 = T , and any

00189219/88/0100-0019601.000 1988 I EE E

PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 76, NO. 1, JANUARY 1988

19

2 isasecond-order all-pass functionoftheform of(2. (2.y(n . 1 JANUARY 1988 . If we lift the restriction that A(z) be a real function. TI. For example. for IzI I 1. minimum multiplier delay-canonic all-pass filter structures can be developed using the multiplier extraction approach [q. setting A(z) = Y(z)/U(z) reveals The (Hermitian) mirror-image symmetry relation between the numerator and denominator polynomials of an all-pass transfer function can be exploited to obtain a computationally efficient filter realization with a minimum number of multipliers.7) Upon integrating both sides from w = --a to r a n d applying Parseval's relation [I]. Since an all-passfunction i s devoid of zeros on the unit circle according to (2. plier of value b. Properties From the definition of an all-pass function in (2. To see this. A(z) = a2 . dw d (2.8) as the output energy and input energy of the digital filter.2)1 + al[u(n .11) i s that the change in phase of the all-phase function as w goes from 0 to r is -MT radians. the numerator polynomial is obtained from the denominator polynomial by reversingthe order of the coefficients.1) 1 y(eju)12 = I u(eju)12. 20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE. we obtain "c m m = -m I y(n)12 = ldn)l2. 1. For example. it i s termed Lossless Bounded Real (LBR) [2].1).~ + alz-' + a 2 2 .1) .9) > . 1. In particular. this does not represent a canonic realization. [5]. consider the second-order allpass function of (2.1) requiresfour delay (or storage) elements to be realized as a filter structure. Digital two-pair network constrained with a multi. and exhibits unit magnitude along the unit circle.corresponds to the second-orderdifference equation y(n) = -32[u(n). [8]. (2. Another useful property follows from (2./ao).M D*(l/z*) D(z) lou 111. consider the digital two-pair network of Fig. In this sense. since the output energy equals the input energy for all finite energy inputs.[arg A(e/")]. the phase response of a stable all-pass function i s a monotonically decreasing function of w.complex pole at z = Yk must be accompanied by a complex conjugate pole atz = 7 In this caseA(z) can be expressed : .8) It i s convenient to interpret the two sides of (2. a direct-form filter realization would in general require 2M 1 multiplications to computeeach output sample. which is usually defined as 7(w) = In effect. in the form (2.I ) ] + u(n . satisfies the property z .1). since the numerator coefficients appear in the reverse order ofthose in thedenominator.3) This relation i s useful in verifying stability in lattice realizations of all-pass filters. so that T ( W ) i s everywhere positive. for Iz( I in which terms have been grouped in such a way that only two multiplications are required. at the second "port": U2(z)= bl Y2(z). A similar strategy can be applied to an arbitrary Mth-order all-pass filter.The transfer function as seen from the remaining port is constrained to be a first-order all-pass + > < 1 (2. upon expressing A(z) = Y(z)/U(z).y(n . On the other hand. which has a constraining multiplier b. one can deduce < . for all w. or more generally Lossless Bounded Complex [6] if the coefficients are not all real. then A(z) takes the more general form A(z) = Note that the phase function must be taken as continuous or "unwrapped" [5] if 7(w) i s to be well-behaved. NO. in fact. the phase function arg A(ei") can always be unwrapped with no ambiguities.. An Mthorder real all-pass function.10) I + alz-l + z . such that only M multiplications are required to compute each output sample.5) The numerator and denominator polynomials now form a Hermitian mirror-image pair. Thedifferenceequation as expressed in (3. 76.1) with the aid of the maximum modulus theorem.. For example.3)above. ALL-PASS FILTER STRUCTURES with0 = arg(a. respectively [I]. 7(w) dw = Mr. The interpretation of (2. Since the difference equation i s of second order. Thus an all-pass filter is lossless. since a stableall-pass function hasall its poles insidethe unitcircle. (2.thenumeratorand denominator polynomials are said to form a mirror-image pair. Fig.11) (2. We start with the group delay function T ( W ) of an all-pass filter. all i t s zeros outside.2) (3. Now. In thiscase. The last property of interest is the change in phase for real all-pass filter over the frequency range w E [0.an all-pass filter represents a computationally efficient structure. . isrecognizedasacomplexall-passfunction due to the Hermitian mirror-image relation between the numerator and denominator polynomials. VOL.4) which. However. If the all-pass filter i s stable as well.

numerous first-order and second-order all-pass filter structures have been catalogued [7-[10].with properties similar to those of their real arithmetic counterparts. although the lattice filter i s easily generalized for complex all-pass functions as well [6]. A o A&) A&) A. . which has the advantage that all internal nodes are automatically scaled in the f2 sense [14].2) This allows one to solve for the internal parameters of the digital two-pair.4a) where AMWl(z) i s an (M . the numerator polynomial and denominator polynomial retain a mirror-image relationship.1. and with the minimum multiplier property.3) for the first step in the recursion appears as Fig. m * m . Each lattice two-pair i s realized as in Fig. 2. 4(a) or (b). .andthatA.3b) Now. 2. upon quantizing the multiplier coefficients. which leads to the cascaded lattice realization of Fig. The structural interpretation of (3. Such filter structures have the property that. The cascaded lattice implementation of the all-pass function A. the recursion of (3.(z). = A:(=). Lattice filter interpretation of order reduction process for complex all-pass functions. 4(b) is the normalized form [13]. Two multiplier lattice interpretation of all-passfunction order reduction process. Fig. the connection of these lattice filters with system stability tests is explained in [12].: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 21 .4appearas Fig. With all the lattice structures above. An alternate method of realizing complex all-pass functions i s to cascade first-order complex all-pass filters. in fact. where * . where now k. Accordingly. isastableall-pass using(2. stability of AM(z) i s equivalent to . each term in the product corresponds to the REGALIA er al.(d Fig. (b)The normalized lattice two-pair. stability of the filter Fig. As in the real coefficient case. the all-pass property for these lattice filters i s structurally induced. is equivalent to the condition that Ik. These structures. The signals at all nodes are assumed to be complex-valued.3) becomes - + Fig. Another useful structure for realizing all-pass functions is the Gray and Markel lattice filter [ l The synthesis proIl .=. izationsof thestructuresof Fig. many with roundoff noise expressions as functions of the pole locations.-l(z) function of one order lower. and so on. The above discussion has assumed that AM(z)is a real allpass function. the condition I k < 1 for all rn. * . The complex generall. m =M M-1 . M . and thus the all-pass characteristic i s independent of any multiplier quantization. By following this and similar strategies. The recursion of (3. although the overall transfer function is unaltered if each lattice two-pair i s implemented as per Fig. rn = M. where the constraining multiplier A has unit magnitude.J < 1 for all m. As such. Although more multipliers are required. 4(a) is the single multiplier form [ l .21. (a) The single multiplier lattice two-pair.1 (3.4b) The complex lattice two-pair now appears as Fig. 3. have other favorable finite word-length properties which are explored in greater detail in Section IX. .6. 5. Filter structures with this property are termed structurally lossless or structurally LBR [2].I 1' k (b) Fig. 1161. Fig. (3. In addition. In this case. (3. it can be verified ( .Vth-order all-pass function. 4. the four multiplications can be performed simultaneously using CORDlC processor techniques [15]. with AJz) a stable all-pass function.1 (3. the mirror-image relation between the numerator and denominator polynomials holds in spite of coefficient quantization (except for the normalized form). cedure uses the following recursion [12]: (a) / I .function (3. I lwhich requires the fewest number of multipliers. Referring to (2.lO)that 1 k < l.3a) k = A( ) . 2. A&) AF ( 2) . 3.3) then continues on AM-l(z). 5. the all-pass lattice filters form a useful model for checking stability of transfer functions.

u(n . A particularly useful choice for the second-order allpass filter i s the lattice filter. 7.1) + u(n)l +j Im { y k } [ y(n . This i s easily implemented using the circuit of Fig. The notch characteristics of (4. (3. In practice though.(a) plex all-pass filter has a pole and zero on the imaginary axis.1) . (3.2) multiplication) and offering again the structurally induced all-pass property. VOL. which is useful for removing a single-frequency component from a signal. As shown in Section VI. The signals at all nodes are in general complex-valued.u(n . As such. Implementation of structurally lossless first-order complex all-pass filter. shown in minimum multiplier form for convenience in Fig. 9.7) + kl(l + k2)z-' + z . in general. first-order difference equation The first filtering application of the all-pass filter we will investigate is the design of a digital notch filter. o (4. IV. We should point out that the connection between discrete-time losslessness (and passivity) and continuous-time lossless (and passive) networks i s well established [I]. if the transformation of (3. such as an unmodulated carrier in communication systems. the structurally induced lossless property may not be preserved. etc. 9. 1. Finally. a complex all-pass function can be obtained from a real all-pass function using the frequency transformation [17l.1). The second-order all-pass filter A(z) realized using a cascade of single multiplier lattice two-pairs.7) becomes + + + + z-l - Fig.5) y(n) = Y k y h .6) The all-pass function is chosen as second-order. As such. so that the change in phase of A(ei") as w goes from 0 to x i s -2x radians.7) is applied to a minimum multiplier real all-pass filter. [I81 z-' -+ where coo is the angular frequency at which the all-pass filter provides a phase shift of A radians. the interested reader i s referred to the overview in [19].3) This transformation rotates the pole-zero plot of a real allpass filter by radians in the z-plane.8) This transformation requires no explicit multipliers. 76. from (4. (3. where A(z) = k2 1 eimz-' = (cos + +j sin 4)z-l.8) is applied to a first-order real all-pass filter. such structures form useful building blocks in certain multirate filtering systems. be quantized such that their squares sum to unity. and retains the structurally induced all-pass property. Design procedures and a catalogue of minimum-multiplier structures are detailed in [20]. Thus many of the all-passfilter structures above can be developed as the wave digital counterpart of the appropriate lossless electrical networks. kjz-'.4a) 22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE. one useful exception i s with = 7r12. Indeed. the resulting com- One can show that this choice of all-pass filter allows independent tuning of the notch frequency wo and the 3-dB attenuation bandwidth i according to ? kl = -COS WO (4. Complex generalizations of the "single multiplier" lattice two-pair (a).u(n) . 8.u(n)l . The structures presented here have emphasizedthe concept of losslessnessin the discrete-timedomain. a great body of literature has been devoted to this subject. JANUARY 1988 .1) which may be arranged as G(z) = . DIGITAL NOTCH FILTERS Fig. or power supply hum from a sampled analog signal.1) + Y.2) are structurally induced provided A(z) i s realized in a structurally lossless form.' + kl(l + k2)z-l + k2z-2' (4. whence (3. (4. the multipliers which implement cos and sin cannot.1) y(n) = Re { y k }[ y(n . where the transfer function realized i s (3. 6. and the normalized two-pair (b).[I + A(z)]. NO.1) it follows that G(eiw) = Fig.The signals at all nodes are in general complex valued. If (3.

wherer is the pole radius.1 0. We begin by writing (4..4b) holds once 62 is taken as the total 3-dB attenuation bandwidth. byabsorbing the factor e'' in (4.8a) H.As such.k - 1 . Fig.3 0. In view of the "orthogonal" tuning obtained accordingto(4. both Gl(z) and Hl(z) are second-order real transfer functions with a complex-conjugate pole pair at z = a f jb. N .of Fig.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 23 . 10. 10(a) shows how the 3-dB attenuation bandwidth 62 can be changed by adjusting only the multiplier k. given a pair of poles at z = a & jb (which then determines D(z). which allows the removal of symmetric periodic signals with period 7 = 4N of otherwise arbitrary waveshape. notch frequency can be tuned by varying only k. (4.2 + + + + (4.l A(z) = e'' 1 . and second..7) 0. with the zeros of these polynomials determined by the pole locations.1.0 One very useful alignment results with kl = 0 in (4. The "orthogonal" tuning of the notch filter: (a) illustrates how the rejection bandwidth can be adjusted by varying a single coefficient k while (b) illustrates how the .2abz-' I.yz-1 ~ where y = a + jb. N n = 0. Complementary filters find applications in various signal processing sys- with coo given by (4.2 0. illustrates howthenotch frequencywocanbechangedwithout affecting the 3-dB attenuation bandwidth by adjusting only kl. . The circuit then provides Ncomplex-conjugatezero pairs along the unit circle.0 0. An interesting modification to the circuit.I+ tan (6212)' (4.b2)z-' a z . the frequency w = r12N and all its odd harmonics are filtered out.1 0.tan (6212) .2 0. the 3-dB atten2N uation band about each notch frequency has width 6 l .thestructure isseen to bequite amenable to adaptive notch filter applications.0 0. while Fig. the zeros of G2(z) can be placed at z = e *lwoprovided that (4. From (4.which implies a solution is for B always exists.(1 a2 .4b) Note from (4.4).0 -= D(z) Q(z) b .8) the following observations are noted. In particular.5 where G1(z)= f(z) -= D(z) a .4a). with transfer function y* . DOUBLY COMPLEMENTARY FILTERS Two filters are said to be complementary if the passbands of one match the stopbands of the other. -' 2 m & wo radians.1. f ( z ) . REGALIA et al.z .5 (a) k = 0. 10(b) I""I""I""I""] 1. The application of such filters in low-sensitivity cascade realizations of elliptic transfer functions can be found in [21]. located at angles of and H2(z) can be moved along By varying 8.11) Since both P(z)and Q(z)arf symmetric polynomials.and Q(z)).4 Normalized Frequency 0. First.2az-' (a2 b 2 ) z . Greater flexibility in the notch characteristic can be gained by using a first-order complex all-pass filter.5 (b) Fig.8b) 0. the lefthand side of (4. I O .(z) = 0. Symmetry of f ( z )and Q ( z )implies the zeros of either polynomial occur as a complex-conjugate pair on the unit circleorasareciprocal pair on the realaxis.2az-1 + + (a2 + b2)z-2' (4. In this case. low-pass ribtch and high-passnotch characteristicscan be realized.4 Normalized Frequency 0.3) that k2 = r 2 .5) V.7) we obtain A(z) = Gz(z)+ ~Hz(z) (4.2 1 . The filtering function G2(z) realized by feeding a real input sequence to the complex all-pass filter A(z) and retaining the real component of the output sequence.which sets w0 = d 2 and places 2N zeros spaced equally along the unit circle.10b) 0.Now. both pEz) and Q ( z ) are symmetric polynomials. Some frequency response examples are shown in Fig.875 .11) i s real for anywo.4a).9) where now (4.3 0. the zeros of G2(2) the unit circle (or along the real axis) without affecting the pole locations. Equation (4. 8 results by replacing the delay variable z byz-N.and thefactthat stability istrivial toensure inaquantizedenvironment.6) in the form A(z) = e''[GI(z) + jHl(z)l (4.

in the form of the sum and difference of two all-pass filters. the phasors [G(e/") H(e/")] exhibit the same magnitude.In view of (5. and thus its order will be M1+ M2. stopband) of G(e/") occurs for frequencies for which the two all-pass functions are in phase (respectively. From (5. Thus let Al(z) be a complex allpass function such that complex poles appear without their conjugates.1I (5.M2a. Note that this implies for the dc values of the transfer functions G(e/') = 1 and H(e1') = 0. 11. Then from (5.6) Transfer function pairs which satisfy both complementary properties in (5.8) G(z) . even-ordered low-pass-high-pass complementary filters can be realized as well [16].1) Fig. and vice has versa. for all w. by interpreting G(e/") and H(e/") as phasors in the complex plane. by combining (5. 11was first recognized in digital filter design in terms of wave digital lattice filters [23].H(z) = A ~ ( z ) where Al(z) and A2(z) are stable all-pass functions. By analytic continuation we thus obtain + In particular. [22].4) (5.[Ai(z) .1) and (5. it is clear that M1 + M2 must be an odd integer if a low-pass-high-pass complementary pair is desired. for a bandpass-bandstop pair Mi M 2 = +2. Since H(z) i s the difference of the two all-pass filters.13) Two real transfer functions C(z) and H(z) can then be defined according to G(z) = $[A(z) jH(z) = i[A(z) + A*(z*)] - A*(z*)] (5. the condition M 1 - M 2 = +L (5. In this section we consider two stable transfer functions which are all-pass complementary IG(e/") + H(e/")J= 1. as G(z) is the sum of two all-pass functions. at w = 71 G(z) + H(z) = Al(z) I H(e/")l= 1 le/[M1-M21* .3) reveals that G(e/") and /+(e/") must exhibit phase quadrature with respect to each other for all w . Implementation of the doubly complementary filter pair as the sum and difference of all-pass functions.(O) = 42(0) 0. First. and in phasor Similarly.10) then. Referring to Fig. Liu and Ansari [IO] have shown optimized bandpass filter designs which cannot be derived from classical lowpass filter approximations.2) are termed doubly complementary[22].(a) = -M1a. in accordance with (5.5) appears as Fig. The structure of Fig. [25].2). whereby bilinearly transformed versions of G(z) and H(z) are interpreted as the reflection and transmission coefficients. H(el") has a stopband where G(e/") a passband. we have A2(z) = A.12) leads to a total of at least L + 1 passbands (counting those of G(e9 plus those of Me'")).10) A structural implementation of (5. and let A2(2) be obtained from A. 11. (5. We shall see that all-pass filters play a natural role in doubly complementary filters.2) we obtain I G(e/") + H(e'")l2 = 1 G(e/")I2 + I H(elW)l2 I. Let A2(z) be an M2th real order all-pass function.9) But if m i s nonzero. Byexploitingcertainanalogies with classical network theory. 11. Solving for G(z) and H(z) results in which shows that a low-pass-high-pass complementary pair requires M1 . (5. As and [G(e/") . application of the law of cosines to the left equality of (5. VOL. (5. it is seen that.A~(z)].(e/") = e/@?(") A2(e/")= e/@2(w) (5. m = integer. namely unity. (5. the passband (respectively. this leads to multiple passbands. with +. (5. By lifting the restriction that the all-pass filters be real. of a real symmetric lossless two-port network with equal resistiveterminations. as well as power complementary I C(e/")I2 + 1 H(e/w)12= I. Gazsi [24] has developed explicit formulas for the multiplier coefficients of the all-pass filters to implement odd-ordered classical low-pass filter approximations.3) where +l(w) and @2(w)are monotone decreasing functions = = of U .14) 24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE.1) and (5.(z*). (5.H(e/")]must such.(z) by replacing each coefficient with i t s complex conjugate. for example. and +2(a) .11) In general. 1 JANUARY 1988 . Let Al(z) be an Mlth real order all-pass function.5) Mi M 2 = +I. = for all w.tems where different frequency bands are to be processed separately to measure signal strengths in each band or to achieve. for all w (5. . 11 can also be examined in terms of direct z-domain design techniques [IO]. Thestructureof Fig. 76. and so for a low-pass-high-pass pair H(z) = . for all W . NO. respectively. Accordingly.5) it i s clear that G(z) will have the poles of both Al(z) and A2(z). compression or noise reduction. We briefly review some design considerations in what follows.5) we obtain I G(e/")l = 1 (e/[6l(w)-+2(~)1 + 11 Now. (5.M2= 2m + 1. out of phase)with each other. +.2) notation let A. For example.

which i s power complementary to that of G(z).4 Normalized Frequency (o/2n) 0.5 complex all-pass filter to realize an even-ordered complementary filter pair. Chebyshev.14) [26].I I . the desired transfer function G ( z )can be decomposed into complex all-pass functions as per (5. (Fig.501533 f j0. Itturnsoutthatasixthorder elliptic transfer function will satisfy these specifications.14).2) left intact. . and so i s canonic with respect to the number of multiplications.where the numbered subscript has been dropped from the complex all-pass function.1 0. and greater than 45-dB attenuation forfrequenciesgreaterthan 0. . Regardless of the sign of any multiplier perturbation (due to quantization) the magnitude of the transfer function at w = W k can only decrease. Fig. 8 .2 rad1s. 7. i. Returning to the design example above.0 Fig. but requiring only N + 2 distinct (real) coefficient values.and M2th-order all-pass function. .e. . 12 has important practical significance.780218 + 10.k mentary filter pair. i -20 h I v B 0) r 4 -40 d ! i l -60 i n p u t j T p G(z) (real) I imag . A(z) contains one pole from each complex conjugate pair of G(z). M2. A frequency response plot for G(z)appears as Fig..14) above can be interpreted as the conjugate symmetric and conjugate antisymmetric parts. Let us now turn to the sensitivity properties. the magnitude function 1 G ( e 9 ) i s structurally bounded above by one.475711 = 0. with the all-pass filters realized in a minimum multiplier form.14 rad/s (normalized frequency). respectively. as one can show that all even order Butterworth. 12 has similar Computational economies.468823 . 11in fact makes two complementary transfer functions available.780218 e 0. I G(e"')l = 1.+ H(z) ' -80 0.025-dB attenuation for frequencies less than 0.575375 = 0. . 1 .3 0. 12). the overall filter requires only N multiplications to compute each output sample. 11and 12 ingreaterdetail. 12. In effect. A(z) becomes an N12th-order complex all-pass function.14) is redundant. But the structureof Fig. But.475711 -+ j0. the real and imaginary parts of the complex output sequence are identified as the outputs of the filters G ( z )and H(z).jH(2) = A*(z*) (5. We can thus apply Orchard's argument [27J at these frequencies (the so-called points of maximum power transfer) to establish the low-passband sensitivity behavior. I 1 1 . the outputs of the filters A(z) and A*(z*) are complex conjugates of each other. Now. a complementary transfer function i s made available at no extra cost. Fig. 72 i 0.468823 f 10. respectively. recall that with A. 13.5) or (5. and elliptic low-pass (and high-pass) transfer functions can be decomposed as per (5. the passband amplitude achieves the upper bound of unity. respectively.15) which shows thecomplex all-pass complementary property of G(z) and jH(z). Recall that a direct-form realization would require typically 2N 1 multiplications to compute each output sample. if the all-pass filters are realized in structurally lossless form.2) with M = 3 and 7 = 0. Separating the real and imaginary outputs of a 0.2 0. it i s clear that I G(e/")l can never exceed unity for any value of W . 13.j0. as expected. and so tepresents an optimum in terms of computational efficiency. with the poles of the transfer function located at z = and three zero pairs on the unit circle. and slightly better than that df a cascade realization if the filter order i s larger than four.510542. A realization ofA(z) can be obtained by cascading first order complex all-pass filters as in Fig. With G(z) an Nth-order transfer function. to be denoted W k . The structure of Fig.14). The number of multiplications is comparable to that of a direct-form realization. this can be configured as 2N 2 real multiplicationsfor each complexoutput sample. By inverting (5. As such. The terms G(z) andjH(z) in (5. and thus implementing both complex all-pass filters in (5. input sequence. only one complex all-pass function need be implemented.14) we obtain G(z) G(z) Low Sensitivity Properties + jH(z) = A(z) . as above. Included on the plot i s the frequency response of the transfer function H(z)obtained from the imaginary part of the complex output. 14(a) shows the passband response obtained for G(z) using an &bit binary representation for each multiplier coefficient of the + + + + REGALIA et al.575375 0. Asan illustration. G ( z ) has an order N = M. . of the complex function A(z) [5]. C(z) and jH(z) are seen to form a doubly complementary pair.501533 = 73 + j0.(z) and A2(z)an 1 Mjth.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 25 . If the complex all-pass filter processes a real input sequence. and so its order i s half that of G(z).221266 0. where A(z) i s in the form of (2. Let usexaminethefiltersof Figs. The realization scheme of Fig. This allows a filter realization using no more that N12 1complex multiplications to compute each (complex) output sample. when processinga real 0 I F . Suppose now that G(z) i s designed such that at specific frequencies. That is.221266 . Frequency responses of the sixth-order cornple. supposewedesireafilterwith less that 0. I . Following design procedures in [16]. With respect to Fig. Referring to (5. With the power complementary relation of (5.

In this case.10 0. Also. z-~+'AN(z~)]'. it i s easily verified that (5. (5.2) can now be extended to N transfer functions. 1.1 0. One attractive design strategy i s to obtain the all-pass function elements of a(z) from a polyphase decomposition of an Nth-band low-pass filter [30]-[32].0 " " I " " 1 ' " ' I I " " I " " 0. ( z ~. 14.(el")12 = 1 N I=' c which shows the power complementary property of the N transfer functions. respectively.' Shown for comparison purposes i s a conventional cascade realization of G(z) using again 8 bits per multiplier coefficient. using the N-band extension of (5. where the filters G(z) and H(z)are chosen typically as half-band low-pass and highpass filters. 'The quantization is such that the mantissa of a floating-point representation is rounded to the specified number of bits. Effects of coefficient quantization on I C(e'")( using a complex all-pass-based realization and a cascade realization. In addition.5 (b) Fig. NO.20 0. (a) Passband details and (b) stopband performance.5) as In matrix form this becomes where In the coding and transmission of signals. VI. so that the relativecoefficient accuracy does not depend o n its magnitude.e. MULTIRATE APPLICATIONS complex all-pass filter.and R2 i s two-point DFT matrix. The doubly complementary definitions of (5. other unitary matrix families reduce to the same R2 in the 2 x 2 case [34]. 76.4 Normalized Frequency 0. Such filter banks are computationally efficient in applications requiring the output signals to be decimated [32]. the application of ParseVal's relation [5] to (5. Filter Bank Extensions Let us rewrite the doubly complementary filter pair of (5. 26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE.[36]. .21) The transfer functions elements of g(z) in (5. the frequency response for each band i s a frequency shifted version of that for the adjacent band). -100 0. 14(b)).3 0.2 0. Although in (5.R. .18b) -0. Moreover. In particular. AN(z)IT . Since the signal at each analysis filter bank output occupies only half the available digital 'The tilde notation indicates the conjugate transpose operation.(e/")12 = gel") g(e/") = 1ii(e/w)a(el") N (5. Thistechnique istermed subband coding[33].18a) where now g(z) = [Gdz) GAZ) . As such. (5.15 and RN is an N-point DFT matrix.~ A .18) reveals2 Normalized Frequency (a) I=' I G.The basic two-band system is depicted in Fig.a(z) N (5. doubly complementary filter banks can be developed for RN chosen as virtually any N x N unitary matrix. .20) which shows the all-pass complementary property. The stopband behavior i s superior for the cascade realization though (Fig.) . computer-aided design procedures for choosing the all-pass functions in (5. GN(Z)IT a(z) = [A&) A~(z) .18).18a) can be shown to form a uniform filter bank [33] (i.16) we have interpreted R2 as a DFT matrix. VOL.21) have been reported [31].. it is often convenient to split a signal into its various subband components so that perceptual and statistical properties which differ in each frequency band can be exploited separately. the low-passband sensitivity argument above remains intact. [35]. JANUARY 1988 . by exploitingthe properties of DFT matrices.1) and (5. 15. [32].00 0 05 0.a(z)takes the form a(z) = [Al(zN) z-'A2(zN) z . as it i s known that the cascade structure has very good stopband sensitivity characteristics (281.19) Complex Allpass -80 I N =IA. The complex all-pass scheme is seen to exhibit much better passband performance. This formulation naturally suggests the following generalization [29]: 1 g(z) = . .

5) (or (6. REGALIA et al. Fig.1) The first term on the right-hand side of (6.2).H(z)l 2 1 = . so that the frequency responses of the filter pair form a "mirror image" about w = d2. The signals are then coded. any reduction in the transmitted bit rate via the coding stage is very dependent on adequate frequency selectivity of the analysis bank filter pair. can be decomposed as per (6. the overall system becomes linear and shift-invariant with transfer 31npractice though. 16(c).H(z) H ( .2). despite critical subsampling of the analysis filter bank outputs. In a practical system. Note also that this result makes no assumption as to the quality of frequency selectivity provided by the analysis bank filter pair.4) bandwidth.4) is easilyverified using (6. and thus belong to the class of quadrature mirror filters.z -'A. Modified two-band multirate system using evenordered filters G(z) and H(z).2) implies H(z) = C ( . Butterworth and symmetric elliptic halfband filter pairs. and i s considered a rather objectionable by-product of the decimation operation. The overall transfer function of the multirate system is thus an all-pass function (save for the scale factor error of i). ( . leads to the name Quadrature Mirror Filters (QMF) [36]. This choice of filter pair has the following significance. Basic two-channel maximally decimated subband coding system. In the absence of coding or transmission errors.1) i s a filtered version of the desired signal.2) where A . and summed into a composite output.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 27 . the aliasing cancellation and perfect magnitude reconstruction properties become structurally induced. Moreover. 2 Fig.1) vanishes. combined with the phasequadrature condition pointed out in Section V. and decoded. (a) Two-band maximally decimated quadraturemirror filter system using all-pass filters. (b) Equivalent system obtained by passing the decimators and interpolators through the all-pass functions.H(z) H ( . every other sample may bediscarded at the output. . straightforward analysis reveals the composite output may be expressed as The last substitution in (6.2)). Further design considerations may be found in [381. 16(a).z ) Fig. the synthesis bank output signal is completely free of aliasing effects. 17. consider the modified twochannel multirate scheme of Fig.[G(z) + H(z)l[G(z) .(z2)A2(z2).z ) . with the aliasing effects removed. thereby minimizing the system bit rate. Note that the terms A1(z2) and A2(z2) even functions of z. (6. 16(b)). )are real all-pass functions. multirate identities [33] allow the decimators and interpolators to be passed through the all-pass filters. (6. As are such. 17 [39].z ) ] .G ( . synthesis fdter bank 1 = .3) = G(z) G(-z) .z ) (6. This result is important because.Z ) . filtered. The polyphase structure + ~ U ( . the signals are up-sampled. As such. First. which leads finally to the polyphase arrangement of Fig. transmitted to the receiver. 16. In the synthesis filter bank stage.) and A 2 ( . 15. For the sake of completeness. To this end.z ) it follows that G(z) G ( . the aliased signal term in (6.function analysis fdter bank codjng and traosmission ________-______. where the analysis filter bank output signals are now subsampled alternately. This aliasing distortion then propagates through the remainder of the system. For this sys- - . This.Z ) [ G ( ZC) ( . with the alLpassfilters realized in a structurally losslessform. Note that (6. while the second term represents the aliasing distortion. Recall from Section V that low-pass-high-pass filter pairs must be of odd order to be realized as per (5. while replacingz2 by z (Fig.which indicates perfect magnitude reconstruction of the original signal from its critically sampled subbands. it is of interest to develop a corresponding result for even ordered low-pass-high-pass pairs.z ) G(z) = 0. (c) The polyphase implementation. The resulting system may be redrawn as Fig. [37l. for example.z-'A2(z2)] (6. Consider now the following choice of filtering functions: G(z) = H(z) = + z-lA2(z2)1 . i s attractive because it allows the all-pass filters to operate at the reduced sampling rate.3 Next. the nonperfect frequency separation of the analysis bank filter pair results in aliasing distortion upon discarding every other sample. using H(z) = G ( .

Frequency responses of a sixth-order symmetric elliptic half-band filter pair. Fig. Implementation of the half-band filter pair as the cascade of three first-order complex all-pass filters.2 0.[A1(-z2) + /z-’A2(-z2)] (6. we obtain for G(z) and n ( z ) Fig. which can be shown to be a necessary consequence of the QMF conditions [16]. 1.8) [40]. A realization scheme incorporating (6.11)inherits the propertyq(z) = G(-z). As above.to which we apply the frequency transformation of (3. and so G(z) and H ( z ) are simultaneously implemented using only six real multiplications. NO.’ o f (3. (6.(-z2)] The frequency response for this symmetric elliptic filter pair is shown as Fig. 76. the factor is e’*’4 = (1 +/)/A implemented in a multiplierless “denormalized” form. G(z) and H(z) are chosen according to [I61 G(z) = . 20. so that the aliasing term of (6. 17 using complex all-pass filters.(-z2) and A2(-z2) remain real all-pass functions. c ( z ) in (6.H(z) H ( .3 0. A complex signal flowgraph of the analysis filter bank appears as Fig. An illustrative example can be developed with the aid of design procedures contained in [16].674524 z . Each term in the product of (6.6) 0. Such a filter satisfies the frequency-domain constraintsof a Hilbert transform system [5]. The signals at all nodes are in general complex valued. Hence.5 where A(z) i s a complex all-pass function which satisfies A(-z) = &/A*(z*).3)(upon replacing C(z)and H(z)with their barred versions).6)i s shown as Fig. if the filter pair is configured into the multirate system of Fig.’ .’ + j z . In particular. The overall transfer function for the 28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE. sample.5) In this case. Note that the filter pair of (6. JANUARY 1988 . 19. 19. VOL.2).7)ensures that H(z) = 7 G(-z). If G(z)and H ( z ) form a real half-band filter pair as per (6. 21. 21 reduces to a pair of all-pass filters which exhibit phase quadrature over the passband region of the complex transfer function C(eju).0 0.jO. Note that the poles of A(z) lie along the imaginary axis. (6. The resulting analysis filter bank requires only three multipliers to compute each complex output where A.9) can be implemented using a first-order real all-pass function upon applying the frequency transformation z . which represents a real all-pass function. a sixthorder symmetric elliptic transfer function pair i s chosen for the analysis filter bank. aliasing distortion i s absent from the output according to (6. The transfer function of the overall system then becomes Fig.5)vanishes.10) becomes a complex half-band filter with its passband on the upper half of the unit circle.tem.’ j0. 20. Fig.674524~-’ 1 .6) where A ( ~= ) ei*/4 z-’ j0.z 2 ) . Each coefficient i s real valued and operates on complex data. To save on multipliers.z ) ] .1 0.9) G(z) = . A real-equivalent signal flowgraph for the complexfiIterG(z) appears as Fig. The corresponding synthesis filter bank can be obtained from the analysis filter bank by replacing j everywhere with -j.jz-’A. 18. Implementation of Fig. If the input signal i s real-valued.10) If G(z)i s a half-band low-pass filter with its passband on the “right half” of the unit circle.j0. The transfer function pair C(z)and H(z) are obtained via (6.4 Normalized Frequency ( w / 2 n ) 0.261935 1 .8) G(z) = G(-jz) H(z) = H(-jz).261935~-’ + - z . 18.A*(z*)] 2) (6.jO.[A(z) + A*(z*)] 1 H(z) = .U(Z)[G2(Z)+ H2(z)1 + iU(-z)[G(z) G(-z) 1 2 . aliasing distortion i s eliminated and the system provides perfect magnitude reconstruction of the critically sampled subbands.912402 1 jO.7) The constraint of (6.9124022-’’ + + (6. (6.11) - H(z) = i [ A 1 ( . Multirate Hilbert Transform Systems Suppose nowthatwe have a real half-band filter pair [G(z) H(z)]. 15.[A(z) . the output signal is found as O(z) = .

Due to the phase quadrature relationship between G(ej”) and H(ej”9. This example thus reaffirms the feasibility of downsampling complex analytic signals [41]. multirate results are not applicable.z ’ ) I . we point out that Hilbert transform systems with passbands that are not symmetric about o = 1~/4 be obtained from can the above-mentioneddesigns by using standardfrequency To transformations [a].6). at each stage. A polyphase arrangement i s readily obtained as Fig. Finally. (6. and let 0 be the 3-dB notch bandwidth obtained for K = 0. however. (7. Implementation of acomplex half-bandfilter using real all-pass filters.10) for half-band filters obtained as the sum and differenceof real all-passfunctions. (b) Equivalent polyphase system. As such.11) reveals (6. k2 + kl(l k2)z-’ + z-’ + kl(l + k2)z .: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 29 . although analogous results can be developed for those obtained from complex all-pass functions as per (6. 1421.j z .3) shows that the frequency response F(ej9 modifies the gain about the center frequency of /-/(e’”) while leaving the remainder of the spectrum unaffected. shown that +R @e + G(n) (b) Fig. 22. As explained in [42]. 15 process signals which. with the output formed from the difference of these two channels. many of these designs can be identically obtained by applying the transformation z-’ -+ .(7.’ to known real half-band filter designs. with the imaginaryoutput from the remaining channel retained as the desired (real) output signal. Although we have derived a Hilbert transform system from a real half-bandfilter pair.’ + k2z-” + (7. Using Fig. it should be pointed out that the all-pass functions in the filter pair of (6.1) The transfer function G(z)is recognized as the digital notch filter of Section IV. share a complex conjugate relation. Consider now fhe transfer function formed with the following linear combination: F(z) = G(z) + KH(z). Design equations can be developed as an extension of those presented in (4. 23. 23. 22(b). Thus let coo be the frequency about which boost or cut in the magnitude response is desired. system becomes extension of a result by Jackson [47] showing that the approximation problem for Hilbert transformers is closely related to that for half-band low-pass filters. 21. further simplifications are possible. If the input signal i s real-valued. and multirate results in each case can be developed [42]. This has been exemplified in (6. The design equations become kl = -COS WO REGALIA et al. as (6. Tunable frequency response equalization filter.11) can also be obtained using the design formulas in [43]. The resulting designs have passbands which are symmetric about o = d4. 21 as the model for c(z). If the input signal is real. the system reduces to a parallel all-pass network Hilbert transform system. 1 .2) - A realization i s sketched in Fig. (a) Multirate Hilbert transform system offering no aliasing distortion and perfect magnitude reconstruction of the input spectrum. Such a filter is ideally suited as a magnitude equalization filter [49]. The analysis bank output signals may be interpreted as the real and imaginary parts of a complex ”analytic” sequence with only positive frequency components. In view of the power complementary relation of (5.such systems.13) H(z) = C*(z*).12) VII. and finds extensive application in digital audio systems [50]-[52] to compensate for frequency response deficiencies in an acoustic playback environment. -1 which is an all-pass function as expected. TUNABLE FILTERS AND GENERALIZED C M L M N A Y O PE E T R FILTERS Let us return to the doubly complementary filter of Fig.Fig. Several other authors have also discussed design techniques for obtaining Hilbert transform systems using all-pass sections [44][46].(-z’) A ~ ( . and consider the filter pair which results from choosing 1 A&) = 1 =1 = T / Z A. as well as half-band designs obtained from approximately linear phasefilters (to be introduced in Section VIII). This i s an In view of the filter type realized for G(z) and H(z). This allows one channel of the complex multirate system to bediscarded.the real-equivalent signal flowgraph of Fig. 22(a) is obtained. the two channels of Fig. H(z) must be a bandpass filter with center frequency oo = cos-‘ (-kl). it is easily 1 +J& T + j? 2 Fig.4).2).

so that the unit circle in thez-plane maps to the unit circle in the P(z)-plane.4 Normalized Frequency 0.3125 + - +). 0. . a low-pass-tolow-pass transformation results for [48] z-1 with + P(z) = z . = -0.3 0. (a) Variable gain at the center frequency. .75 1 1 .j .1 0. Some frequency response examples are shown in Fig.0.. 0.5) may be understood as the frequency mapping K = 3. If the all-pass filters are realized in lattice form. . and as such has the drawback of requiring excessive coefficient storage.e.4) It can also be shown that with K > 0. the designs in [50]-[52] require precomputing the multiplier coefficient values for all desired equalizer settings.5) may lead to delay-free loops if P(z) does not contain a pure delay factor. . Substituting (7. the transformation of (7. 1 1 = 0.7a) K = 1 1 3. One remedy is to express the coefficients of A1(P(z-')) and A2(p(z-l))as functions of the variableal. . high-pass. Illustrating the parametric adjustment of the frequency response.2 0.3 0. VOL.5 (b) kl = -0. . Thus by writing @(el")= e. Al(z) and A2(z) have orders which differ by one. l O L . Such a tunable filter realization i s attractive since it allows both the poles and zeros of an Nth-order transfer function G(z) to be tuned by varying only N coefficients in the all-pass filters. which demon- h v % ? 5 U a l 2 B K k. . (7. Moreover. For example. = 0. G(p(z-')) i s also the sum of two all-pass functions.3125 = 0.) i s related to the orders of the all-pass filters in view of the discussion surrounding (5. (b) adjusting the modification bandwidth.2) are determined so that their sum G(z) i s a satisfactory low-pass filter with cutoff frequency wl. . The resultingcoefficientscaneach beexpanded 30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE.0 0.0. the circuit provides minimum phase equalization [49]. . k.4 Normalized Frequency (C) Fig.k - 1 .2 0. . a complete parametrically adjustable digital frequency response equalizer may be realized.6) 0.ff.5). the direct implementation of (7.4 Normalized Frequency (a) 10 - k . 76. 1 I I .. .. etc.3125 Procedures for selecting P(z)can be found in many texts on digital fiIters[5]. low-pass. = -0. 1 . 1.(z) would introduce delay-free loops. the frequency response type (i. 24.1 0.12). assuming of course that stability is not impaired.0 0.ff1z-I (7.1) for the all-pass functions. 0. . Suppose that Al(z) and A2(z)in (5.3 0. 1 .5) maps an all-pass function to an all-pass function.10)-(5. I .7b) 0.5) where P(z) i s a stable all-pass function. If. The next problem i s to determine the tuning algorithms for the all-pass filter coefficients to achieve the desired tunability of G(z).[28]. A new low-pass filter with a different cutoff frequencycan beobtained from G(z)using the frequency transformations of Constantinides [48] z-1 + h m v U P(z) (7. where w2 i s the new desired cutoff frequency. This does not represent a tunable design.0 .I tan ( ~ 1 2 ) + K = F(e/"O).1 I I (7. In practice though. stability i s trivial to ensure simply by constraining the lattice parameters to have magnitudes less than unity.1 . (7. By cascading a few such circuits. 24. Thus the problem of tunability i s "solved" by implementing the all-pass functions Al(P(z -I)) and Az(/3(z-')) in (5.tan (012) . NO. Hence if G(z) i s the sum of two allpass functions.Io("). for example.5 0. By comparison.2 0. .The important point for ourdiscussion i s that the transformation of (7. JANUARY 1988 . bandpass.7a) directlyfor each delay element inAl(z) andA. I .625 - strate the true parametric tuning ability of the circuit. More general tunable filters can be realized by using a less trivial choice than (7. 1 1 1 1 1 k .8125 . then we are guaranteed in some sense a low-pass characteristic (though not always optimal) for any choice of the all-pass filter parameters.5 0. and (c) tuning the center frequency.

18) holds true upon replacing "max" everywhere with "min. with (7. VI II. if neither K1nor K. tuning ranges of several octaves have been reported for narrow-band lowpass filters [53]. REGALIA et al. GROUP-DELAY EQUALIZATION with CY. save for a minus sign in the second transfer function. 1 K2().and truncating after the linear term.13) can be directlysubstituted for each delay element inA. and generalized magnitude equalization [52]. and call attention to a class of IIR filters which has intrinsically good phase response properties.al(l .l + [a2 + a. where w3 is the desired center frequency of the band-pass filter.(e/"))' = K: I G(e/")I2+ K: I I Fl(e'")12 + I F2(e/")1' = K: + K$.12) Note that with 0 = 1r/4 and r = Il&. (7. the doubly complementary filters of Section V result.15) the following i s easily inferred: max. This results in a bandpass filter G(B(z-')) whose center frequency may be tuned by adjusting a single parameter a2.14) one can show [56] that the group-delay response becomes F~(z) K~C(Z) K. and a.al(l .(z) andA2(z) without introducingdelay-free loops. I Fl(e/")l = max.If a.10) and (7.a:)] z . Generalized ComplementaryFilters Let us removeany constraints from the all-pass functions. For example.[al + a1(2 + 2a2 . such filters find application in multi-level passband filters [54]. Another useful choice for P z is the following low-pass() to-band-pass transformation: Equation (7. then the transfer function pair provides no stopband per se.)]z-" (7. and consider now the transfer function pair which results from = F~(z) KlG(z) Thus far we have overlooked the obvious implication of (2.15) Using the fact that C(e/") and H(e'") are power complementary.17) + which can be realized using any all-pass implementation scheme by adding to the multiplier branch of value a.10) and (7. we obtain the approximation (7. with the results of (7.18) Noteagain that thetransfer function coefficients haveatuning branch ofthetypebial. where b = 1 .. if A2(z)i s a second-order all-pass function (7. [55]. the parallel tuning branch of value ba.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 31 .14) results in By expanding the coefficient (ao + al)/(l alao)in a Taylor series in a.11) where e = tan-' (2 J 3. substituting (5.as a Taylor series in al. Recall from (2. iszero. + a..a.16) we find Such filter pairs may be termed generalized complementary filters. we find (7.H(z).' + a1(2 + 2a2 . Higher order all-pass functions can be factored into first-order and second-order factors.a.13) that the group-delay response T ~ ( wof ) a given filter F(z) i s defined as the negative of the derivative of its phase response With the transfer function F(z) expressed in rational form (8.8) I Fl(e/")I2= K: 1 G(e/")(' + K $ l H(e"91' I F. = -cos (a3). we provide an overview of applications to group delay equalization. Note that (7.2. I Fz(el")l = max (1 K1(.ai. Now.H(z) (7.12) immediately applicable. in parallelwith thenominal multiplier values a.2) + K.[a.5) into (7. = - By exploiting the phase quadrature relationship between G(e/") and /-/(e/") we obtain where the prime denotes differentiation with respect to z. (7. Although the derivation of (7. However.)] .12) assumes a small tuning variation for al. Likewise. Using (7. i s small (corresponding to a small shift in the cutoff frequency)." As such. a similar procedure results in Az(B(z [a2 I I .a:)lz-' + z . each series expansion may be truncated afterthe linear term toobtain a simplified expression for the coefficients [53].1): An all-pass filter can be cascaded with another filter to alter the phase response while leaving the magnitude response unaffected.i= 1. In this section.

The losslessness property satisifed by all-pass functions induces some elegant properties on a state-space description. VOL. (8. €(U) is chosen as a constant over the passband interval(s) of F(e/"). Design procedures for all-pole filters offering an equiripple group-delay response have also been reported in the literature [60]-[62].(z) = z .6) be rewritten as . Recallingthat the group-delay response i s additive in a cascade connection. the resulting group-delay function approximates some desired response €(U)over the passband interval($ of F(e/"). Roughly stated.MI as the "ideal" groupdelay response.3) to an all-pass function we obtain the result I/D(z) with the best group-delay approximation. JANUARY 1988 .(z) such that its group-delay response i s favorable over the desired passband region. STATE-SPACE MANIFESTATIONS ALL-PASS OF THE PROPERTY Thus let the error function of (8.6) alternates in sign from extremum to extremum with equal magnitude. 1. The all-pass function A(z) obtained from (8.7) The group-delay response 7&) corresponding to B(e/") can be found with the aid of (8. by equalizing the passband group delay of G(e/").10) if we let 7. Although the order of these filters i s typically higher than that of an elliptic filter (with nonlinear phasecharacteristics) meeting the samefrequency-selective specifications [64]. Consider the all-pole counterpart to the all-pass function of (8. These methods can be used for groupdelay equalization following a minor reformulation of the problem. one must resort to iterative computer approximation methods. We consider a single-input/single-output (SISO) statespace description x(n = . .Applying (8. Such filters are termed approximately linearphase [63].~ ~ ( in a Chebyshev (or minimax) w ) sense is found when the error function E(W) in (8.6) over the passband interval($ of F(el") with proper choice of 7A(w).(z) over the passband and stopband regions. and x(n) = [x. Nonetheless.12) Our goal then i s to choose A(z) such that. ( w ) and ~ ~ ( over this same frequency range. respectively. group-delay functions do not satisfy the conditions of the alternation theorem. These filters are thus attractive in applications requiring low waveform distortion with small delay.4) (8. The passband magnitude and phase characteristics of G(e/") are simultaneously optimized by forcing A2(e/")to approximate a linear phase characteristic over the passband region of G(e/"). (8.€(U) The state-space description provides a powerful framework whereby many concepts of system theory can be addressed in a unified manner.[€(U) 7F(w) - M] - 7B(w). A slight variation to this strategy results if we consider the phase response. b and care N x 1. respectively.5) G(Z) . the group-delay w ) responses of A. an equiripple approximation to a constant group delay is attractive in applications where waveform distortion i s to be avoided.7 F ( W ) . this theorem asserts that the unique best optimum 7A(w) approximating €(U) .(n) .11) Recall that the passband(s)for G(e/")occur whereA.3) reveals.(z) such that it phase response i s in-phase and out-of-phase with respect to A. following some algebra. Consider now one filter from the doubly complementary pair of (5.(e/") and A. Some applications of this lemma to finite word-length effects in digital filters are outlined. as pointed out by Deczky[58]. Unfortunately. However.(w) and ~ ~ (denote. d is 1 x 1. using the methods in [60]-[62]. Thus let us choose one all-pass function as a pure delay A. which we summarize below in the discrete-time lossless bounded real lemma [65]. EE 76. rather than the group-delay response.4) then achieves the desired group-delay equalization of F(z). and as such an equiripple error function does not ensure a minimax solution. This suggests that good magnitude and group-delay responsescan be simultaneously achieved by choosingA. that the group-delay response 7 c ( w ) for G(e/") becomes (8. [64].~ (8. the signal delay i s typically less than that obtained using an FIR filter. If a minimax approximation to a constant group delay i s desired. An early report of all-pass filter design for groupdelay equalization using the Fletcher-Powell algorithm was given by Deczky [59]. respectively. the optimization of 7A(w) imposes nonlinear constraints on the parameters of the all-pass function A(z). and search for the all-pole filter B(z) = N. As such.1) We can thus take . . our problem i s equivalent to minimizing the magnitude of the error function = [(a) - [7F(w) + 7A(w)] (8. and then choosingA. then one is tempted to appeal tothe powerful alternation theorem for rational functions [57. when cascaded with F(z).we approximatelyequalize the groupw ) delay functions 7 . An improvement in speed using a modified Remez-type exchange algorithm was subsequently reported in [58]. Hence.[€(U) . Ix.9) where A is + 1) = Ax(n) + bu(n) y(n) = c'x(n) + du(n) (9. to be important. then using (8. and closed-form solutions for the all-pass filter parameters are not generally available.(el") and A2(e'") are in-phase.[A~(z) + A2(~)1.(e'"). NO.3) and choose A2(z) to be in-phase and out-of-phase with respect to the delay over the passband and stopband regions. xN(n)]'i s the state vector. The transfer function N x 32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I E . Typically.

c.8). 25.1). (9. there exists a nonsingular matrix T such that P = T'T. upon recognizing that (9. 25(b) holds. If Y(z)/U(z) is an all-pass function.10) is an energybalance relation. e. REGALIA et al. wecan derive from (9. all minimal realizations of a given transfer function are related through a similarity transformation. (9. there exists a similarity transformation which renders the structure in an energy balanced form.2) is a stable all-pass function if and only if there exists an N x Nsymmetric positivedefinite matrix P such that A'PA Equation (9. for example.10). as shown in Fig.' b ci = c'T. 4(b)). 3.4c) Consider. Fig. (9. orthogonal digital filters [ 6 7 . anystructuresatisfyingtheenergybalance relation certainly satisfies the (external) losslessness condition of (2. and with various choices of T.b.1) satisfysomeveryelegant properties which have implications in roundoff noise gain. Applications to Roundoff Noise Gain The state-spacedescription of (9. overflow characteristics.10) states that.Y(z)IU(z) is given by -) ( ' U(Z) the orthogonality of R i s in turn equivalent to . If one quantizer i s inserted after each lattice section just priorto each delay.4) interms of the parameters {A2.4) an important "energy balance" result.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 33 .) From this observation. the 6] transfer function Y(z)/U(z) in (9. be constructed from the observabilitygrammian of the system [66]. the model of Fig. Bychoosingtheoutputsof thedelayvariablesasthestates x&).can vary markedly among different representations. However.e. d } in (9.x'(n) x(n) = u'(n) u(n). and LBR digital filters [2]. (a) (9.8) (b) Now. In fact. 25(b). (Such a transformation can.6) become equivalent to orthogonality of R R'R = 1 .8). quantizers must be introduced into the feedback loop to prevent an unlimited accumulation of the number of bits required to represent the signals. we can invoke a similarity transformation by replacing the set { A . Sincean arbitrary stable all-pass function can be realized using the normalized cascaded lattice. b. [65] to satisfy the energy balance realization of (9.c2.8). a bit accumulation occurs pro- To better understand this lemma. [68]. c} with AI = T-'AT b.4b) (9. we may restate the scalar discrete-time LBR lemma as follows: + + Y(z)/U(z)i s an all-pass function if and only if i t admits a realization whose state-space description satisfies the energy balance relation of (9. We begin by quoting a scalar (SISO)version of the discrete-timelossless bounded real (LBR) lemma: lemma [5: Given the state-space system o f (9.2) y'(n) y(n) + x'(n + I) + I) x(n (9. so that the order of Y(z)lU(z) i s N (i. We assume also that the realization i s minimal in the number of states.6~) A 8 2 + ~ 2 = 0. cascaded lattice structure of Fig.7) the constraints of (9. (In fact.. Since Pis symmetric and positive-definite.g. 25(a). many more such structures can be identified as. and implementing each two-pair in normalized form (cf.) The internal properties of the system though. (b) Error vector model for quantization noise.10) . at time n. The quantization error is typically modeled by introducing an error vector e(n) in the feedback loop. Since the model does not permit any quantizers inside the lattice sections. we have identified an energy balanced structure. Hence (9. the state-space parameters {A.6b) b 2+ d'd = 1 a (9.5) Writing (9. Now. the instantaneousoutput energy y'(n)y(n) plus the instantaneousirfcrease in state 1) x(n 1) .but the converse is not necessarilytrue. roundoff noise. we can derivean unlimited number of structures to implement the given transfer function. = T . Note that this statement is stronger than that of (2.6a) + c2c: = I (9.A)-% (9. I + CC' = P b'P b + d'd = 1 A'Pb + cd = 0. IO). given any lossless structure satisfying(2. such as scaling at internal nodes.d + c'(z1 . in fact.9) Fig. d By considering the (N + 1) x (N + 1) matrix R formed as Ag2 (9.4a) (9. there are no pole-zero cancellations). and limit cycle behavior.d } results in (9. given any nonsingular N x N matrix T. (a) State-space filter description. the structure is known [14]. and coefficient sensitivities.3) This transformation has no effect on the external transfer function Y(z)IU(z). 3.1) i s depicted in Fig. In a practical implementation.1) may be written as (9. properly scaled wave digital filters [191.b2. Consider again the cascaded lattice structure of Fig. Consider the new set of state-space parameters which result from the (inverse)similarity transformation A2 = T A T-' b2 = T b C: = c'T-'..x(n)'x(n)] i s precisely equal to energy [x'(n the instantaneousinput energy u'(n) u(n). scaling properties.

indicates an energy balanced filter is inherently scaled in an t2 sense. and can be considered a"noise gain" forthe realization in question. though. and &(n) i s the response at the output to a unit pulseatthekth statevariable. c} are such that K and W satisfy the following two properties: 1) K = A W A for some diagonal matrix A of positive elements. For a structure scaled in an t2 sense.16) wl = r!.' = = ry2 r = diag {1/11fkkll}. subject to the constraint that the transfer function to each state variable be properly scaled to minimize the probability of overflow. NO. although this accumulation i s finite (proportional to N ) . (9. rl w r:. 34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE.13) are unique [70].20) 11 fk1I2 = ngofk(n)I2 I m cm (9. We point out that this result holds independent of the pole locations of the filter.17) as N U: = U2 k=l K k k W k k = NU: (9. This i s easily accomplished by using adiagonal similarity transformation matrix T.12b) In fact. For such structures. the solutions Kand Win (9. i Assume now that Y(z)/U(z)s an all-pass function realized in an energy balanced structure.12a) (9. Hence. the constraints of internal scaling and minimum roundoff noise are automatically satisfied.19) W = n=O g(n) g'(n) = n=O (c'A")'(C'A"). 76. The orthogonality of R also implies orthogonality of R'. Accordingly. and can be identified as solutions to the equations K = A K A' + b b' W = A'W A + c c'.14b) wkk = llgk1I2 = n=O Igk(n)I2* Assume now that the components of the noise vector e(n) areuncorrelatedand thateach iswhitewithvariancea:.normsofthe impulse reponsesequences fk(n)to the state variable nodes.17) For a given transfer function. the covariance matrix of e(n) i s a:/. the roundoff noise variance appearing at the output can be found as ai = 2Na:. JANUARY 1988 . VOL. the conditions (9. These matrices are positive-definite provided there are no pole-zero cancellations in the filter [69]. these quantities should equal unity. (9.e. so that R R' = Iyields three equations analogous to (9.14a) (9. Our goal is to minimize the error component in the output sequence introduced by the quantization error vector e(n). (9. to keep the discussion manageable.19) with (9. the diagonal elements of either matrix are the squares of the P2 norms of the elements of f and g Kkk = The comparison of (9. the output noise variance is found from (9.Thesevectorsareeasily found as f ( n ) = Anb g'(n) = C'A". It has been shown [69] that this noise gain i s minimized when { A .18) above. Let us introduce two vectors In effect. (9. Upon effecting this modification. We shall proceed with the model of Fig. In other words. in practice it may be convenient to introduce quantizers into both upper and lower branches connecting adjacent sections to preventword lengthsfrom accumulating in the successive lattice stage computations.13) reveals W = I so that the roundoff noise i s minimized according to .gressing from left to right along the upper portion of the lattice. Under these assumptions. the term k=l e N KkkWkk and g(n) = [gl(n) * * * gN(n)l' such that f&) i s the response at the kth state variable to a unit pulse input. 2) K k k w k k = constant independent of k. Such accumulation can be avoided by inserting two quantizers (rather than one) between successive lattice sections. 1. if A has all its eigenvalues inside the unit circle. the variance of the error at the filter output caused by the quantizers i s equal to N sothat the noisegain isfound knowingonlythefilterorder.15) Now.6).6a) with (9. the matrices Kl and Wl for such structures are given by K~ = r. = a2 k=l Wkk. (9. comparing (9.18) (9. for any energybalanced structure.. 25(b). i. the roundoff noisevariance for a scaled realization in terms of the unscaled parameters i s N N = 0 : k=l I)fk11211gk112= of k=l K k k Wkk. b. depends on the state-space description. a minimum-noise description satisfyingthese properties always exists [69]. Likewise. and each term &(n) is replaced by 11 fkII &(n) to compensate. each term fk(n)i s replaced by fk(n)/llf k l l . so that the matrix R in (9.11) It is convenient to introduce the controllability and observability Grammian matrices K and W associated with these two vectors: m m K= n=O m f ( n ) f'(n) = Anb(Anb)' n=O m (9. The first of these is A A ' + b b ' = I.13) Moreover. Referring again to the normalized lattice structure.13) reveals K = I which . such that The state-space descriptions corresponding to the other Gray-Markel lattice structures can be obtained from that of the normalized form via a diagonal similarity transformation matrix T. (9. the diagonal elements K k k of the matrix K represent thesquareoftheP.8) i s orthogonal.IK r. In particular.

"A normalized filter structure. (9. In circuits using such quantizers. Mitra and K. pp. 633- - This transformation matrix is unitary. Apr. I€€€ Int. Mitra. Dec.. 1721. REFERENCES A. 1974.21). Feb. I€€€. We assume that the quantizers use magnitude truncation in the absence of an overflow. Mitra. H.. "Digital phase equalizer. pp. Limit Cycle Behavior The quantizers in the feedback loop of Fig. share the attractive properties of their real arithmetic counterparts. P. Gray. "Pseudopassivity. 452-455.. Jr. "Multidimensional wave digital filters-Problems and progress.A'DoA 2 0. Gray. For example. X. Markel. the resulting statespacedescription coincideswith that of the normalized form. Vaidyanathan. ASSP-33.1975. Signal Processing. which indicates that scaledversionsof these structures are minimum noise structures. A sufficient condition [72] for the absence of zero-input limit cycles i s the existence of a diagonal matrix Doof positive elements such that4 where a jb = y is the pole of the filter. Symp. the (nonminimal) first-order complex all-pass structure of Fig. CAS-32.Hence scaling does . pp. for example. "Digital allpass filters. we see that (9. etc. Furthermore. 1 . Upon setting the input u(n) to zero. AU-21. if A satisfies condition (9. vol. one can show that complex filters which satisfy the energy balance constraint are minimum noise structures and are free from limit cycles. CAS-27. pp. May 1980. vol. matrix transposition operations with conjugate transposition operations. by using filter structures which satisfy the energy balance relation of Section IX.23) Now. (San Jose. K. vol. S." in Proc. 337-344. Jr. Jackson. 72. 668673. H. CA. Fadavi. pp. Englewood Cliffs. 7 admits the state-space description 636. Fettweis. NJ: Prentice-Hall. sensitivity. V. 688-700. . B. Circuits Syst. "A unified structural inter.. the energy balance condition ensures the . B. Of course. H. and J. Markel. provided this property is structurally induced. and can cause nonlinear oscillations known as limit cycles. Schafer. vol. /E€€. D. W. and J.Iy12 > 0 (9. 1234-1245. 1985."A general family of multivariable digital lattice filters. Liu and R. 7986 Int. 96. stability of the filter implies (9. ASSP-23. 506-509.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 35 . and stabilityof wave digital filters. Speech. Gray. ensures the absence of zero-input limit cycles.. Hirano." I€€€ Trans. pp. 1975. Mitra.(n + + 1) = yx. Oppenheim and R. o n Circuits and Systems (Philadelphia. Fettweis. absence of limit cycles. resulting in a periodic output even after the input signal has been removed. 491-500. Szczupak. limit cycles are avoided and the roundoff noise of the filter is minimized. pp." /E€€ Trans.. K. Circuits Syst. 1987. Finally. A. The many results above easilygeneralize to complex filters by replacing. Oct. for example. 1984. As such. 1985.jb] a u(n) 4The inequality in (9.24) which. 1970. S. vol.. "Digital lattice and ladder filter synthesis. CONCLUDING REMARKS In this paper we have outlined the use of all-pass filters in a variety of signal processing applications. such that T = diag {e'4k}. May 19861. vol. Mitra. "Low passband sensitivity digital filters: A generalized viewpoint and synthesis procedures. DigitalSignalProcessing. frequency response equalization. the complex transformation of (3. vol. 90-97. pp.21) i s satisifiedwith Do = 1 That is. upon scaling these structures in an 4 sense.(n)." I€€€Trans.21) (with Do= 1andA = y).6a).K." U. Signal Processing. vol. and i t s application to low sensitivity filter design. on Circuits and Systems (San Jose. Thus the complex lattice filters. REGALIA et al. 268-270. the desirable features in each application exhibit very robust performance in the face of coefficient quantization. P. (9. Symp. K.. Complex all-pass filters derived from other methods have desirable finite word-length properties as well. Apr. Jr. "Passive cascaded lattice digital filters.1973." /E€€ Trans. A. Nov. 75.These matrices still satisfy conditions (9. CT-19." in Proc. Regalia. May 1987). Conf. multirate filtering. Moreover. "Bounded complex transfer function. May 1 8 ) pp. pp. CircuitsSyst. including complementary filtering and filter banks. Bellanger for useful criticisms.21)indicates that the (symmetric) matrix o n the left i s positive semidefinite. Patent 3 537015. the feedback portion reduces to x. and P. "A class of low-noise computationally efficient recursive digital filters. Speech. PA. S. Audio Electroacoust.S. namely granular oscillations and overflow oscillations [71]." Proc. J. o n Circuits and Systems. not sacrifice the freedom from limit cycle property. D. 1972. and J. A." in Proc. CAS-21. P. so does T-'A Tfor any diagonaltransformation matrix T simply by replacing Dowith T DOT.. Acoust." /€€E Trans. P P Vaidyanathan and S.18). M. pp. in view of (9. Fundamentalto many of these results is the lossless property exhibited by an all-pass function. Ansari. Acoust. two types of limit cycles are commonly observed. A." Proc. + [. and two's-complement overflow followed by magnitude truncation otherwise. "Realization of structurally LBR digital allpass filters. Applications to Complex All-Pass Functions Inquotingthe discretetime LBR lemmawe have assumed real coefficient filtering. CA. P. K. with applications to sampling rate alterations. ." /€E€ Trans. Vaidyanathan and S. L. 404-423.. 25(b) are nonlinear elements. Circuits Syst.21) In view of condition (9.22) ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Dr.pp.. and accordingly. A. Do . pretation of some well-known stability tests for linear systems.7) may be interpreted as a diagonal similarity transformation T. A. all the Gray-Markel lattice structures are devoid of limit cycles 1141. vol. Sept. 7986 Int. 478-497." I€€€Trans. and as such has no effect on the energy balance properties (or lack thereof) of the structure to which it is applied.

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and M. pp. Moore. Calcutta. and transferred to the Santa Barbara campus i n 1977 as a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering.” /€€€ Trans. P. of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS Sanjit K. 1976. He currently serves as an Associate Editor ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS. Circuits Syst. He i s a member of the Advisory Council of the George R. 933-945. (Hons. ASSP-24. Kailath. IEEE) received the B. Liu. Signal Processing. TX and an Honorary Professor of the Northern Jiaotong University. Mecklenbrauker. CAS-31. Optimal Filtering. Sept. from 1962 to 1965. ”Synthesis of minimum roundoff noise fixed point digital filters. Phillip A. C. 517-529. Cuttack. IEEE) was born i n Walnut Creek.ization of real multiport digital filters. pp. H. Circuit Theory Appl. S. a Visiting Professorship from the JapanSociety for Promotion of Science in 1972. Mullis and R. NJ: Prentice-Hall. CAS-23. Anderson and J. Tampere. vol. “An improved sufficient condition for the absence of limit cycles in digital filters. 1980. /.. and 1979. Dr. A. Beijing. D.. Circuits Syst. he i s a Ph. (Hons. and Yugoslavia. 319-322. W.D. vol. Roberts. degrees in radiophysics and electronics from the Universityof Calcutta.Sc.Sc. and the Distinguished Fulbright Lecturer Award for Brazil in 1984 and Yugoslavia i n 1986. pp. degree (highest honors) in electrical engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1985. 1979. 1987. Houston. Santa Barbara..Tech. G. Claasen. he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Technology degree by the Tampere University of Technology. REGALIA et al.1977. (Tech. Since March 1983 he has been with the California Instituteof Technology. 551-562.) degree i n physics i n 1953from Utkal University. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California. EURASIP. Dec.Tech. pp. Vaidyanathan(Member. Finland. 1976. His research interests include analog circuit theory and digital signal processing.” /€E€ Trans.. China.D. T. in 1960 and 1962. from September 1982 to February 1983. He received the B. the M. He has held visiting appointments at universities i n Australia. Ithaca. Mitra (Fellow. Mitra i s a Fellow of the AAAS. P. linear systems. T. Hewasa memberof thefacultyoftheCornell University. where he works as a research assistant in the Signal Processing Laboratory. CAS-34.E. 245-277. vol. and a recipient of NSF’s Presidential Young Investigator Award. P. B. ”Orthogonal digital filters for VLSl implementation. NOV. o n October 16. F.) degree i n physics. Dr. Santa Barbara.S.1984. and the B.) degree in radio physics and electronics in 1956 from Calcutta University.1954. Circuits Syst. and a member of the ASEE.” Int. Pasadena. Peek. 0. K. India. Vaidyanathan served as the Vice Chairman of the Technical Program Committee forthe 1983 IEEE International Symposium o n Circuits and Systems. NY. A. C. Sigma Xi. and the Ph. and Ph. Speech. in 1982. Davis. Acoust. in 1974. IEEE)was born i n Calcutta. and Eta Kappa Nu. and a member of theTechnical Staff of the Bell Laboratories from 1965 to 1967. where he served as Chairman of the Department from July 1979 to June 1982. and filter design. Presently. Rao and T. Finland. starting from the year 1986. in 1967. vol. He received the B. His main research interests are in digital signal processing.D. P. Brown School of Engineering of the Rice University.Sc. Terman Award and the 1985 AT&T Foundation Award of the American Society of Engineering Education. India. Brazil. degrees i n electrical engineering from the University of California. Englewood Cliffs. India. respectively.” /€€€ Trans. B. Vaidyanathan and V. M.Sc.” /€€€ Trans. “Effects of quantization and overflow i n recursive digital filters. CA. and J. India. India. He was the recipient of the Award for Excellence i n Teaching at the California Institute of Technology for 1983-1984. West Germany. He i s the recipient of the 1973 F. Berkeley. respectively. vol. as an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering. I n May 1987. candidate at UCSB. Regalia (Student Member. in 1962. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California. He joined the faculty of the University of California. pp.: THE DIGITAL ALL-PASS FILTER 37 . Mar.. 8. and the M.

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