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TRAINING REPORT

OF FOUR WEEKS VOCATIONAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN AT

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, HARIDWAR

IN

TURBINE UNIT MANUFACTURING (TUM)

ON

STUDY OF STEAM TURBINES

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:

SUBMITTED BY:

NAME: Mr. S. Haldar HEMANT RANA

DESIGNATION: DGM IPE DEPARTMENT.

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DEPARTMENT: TUM DIT, DEHRADUN.

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page No.

Declaration

5

Certificate

6

Acknowledgement

7

Vision

8

  • 1. Introduction

9

  • 1.1 Business Sectors

10

  • 1.2 Power Sector

10

  • 1.3 Industry Sector

11

  • 1.4 International Operations

13

  • 1.5 Research and Development

14

  • 1.6 Human Resource Development

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  • 2. Turbine

16

  • 2.1 Types of Turbine

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  • 2.2 Other

19

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  • 3.1 Introduction to the Steam Turbine

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  • 3.2 Description

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  • 3.3 Nozzles and Blades

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  • 3.4 Bearings and Lubrication

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  • 3.5 Shaft Seals

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  • 3.6 Turning Gear

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  • 3.7 Vibration

25

  • 3.8 Steam Turbine- Definition

26

  • 3.9 Types

27

  • 3.9.1 Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions

27

  • 3.9.2 Casing or Shaft Arrangements

28

  • 3.10 Theory of Operation

29

  • 3.11 Operation and Maintainence

34

  • 3.12 Speed Regulation

34

  • 3.13 Turbine Types

35

  • 3.14 Mode of Operation of the Steam Turbine

37

  • 3.15 Multi-level Steam Turbines

37

  • 3.16 Coupling of several Turbines

38

  • 3.17 Direct Drive

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  • 3.18 Speed Reduction

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4.

Uses of Turbines

40

4

  • 6. Manufacturing Facilities

42

  • 7. Description of Heavy Machines

47

  • 7.1 Lathe Machine

47

  • 7.1.1 Parts of Lathe

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  • 7.1.2 Accessories

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  • 7.2 Milling Machine

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  • 7.2.1 Milling Machine variants and terminology

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  • 7.3 Drilling Machine

53

  • 7.3.1 Types of Drill Press

55

  • 7.4 Boring Machine

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  • 7.5 Grinding Machine

57

  • 7.5.1 Types of Grinders

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  • 8. Heavy Machines in STM

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  • 8.1 Operations Performed

66

  • 8.2 Products

66

  • 9. Blades of Steam Turbines

67

  • 9.1 Types of Blades

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  • 9.2 Classification of Blades

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  • 9.3 Bar Type Blades

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5

  • 9.5 Free Standing Blades

71

  • 9.6 Gas Turbine Blades

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in this training report, submitted to HRDC, BHEL Haridwar as part of curriculum is an authentic record of my own work, carried within the premises of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Haridwar.

Robin Tyagi Dated: 3 rd July, 2010 Place: Haridwar

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CERTIFICATE

This

is

to

certify

that

the

vocational

project

training

report which

has

been submitted to HRDC,

BHEL Haridwar as part of the curriculum by ROBIN TYAGI bearing Roll NO. 07120104044 of Mechanical Engineering Department, TULAS INSTITUTE is a record of authentic work carried out by him under our supervision and guidance to the best of our knowledge.

Mr. S. Haldar Training Coordinator Turbine Unit Manufacturing BHEL Haridwar

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am extremely grateful to Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Haridwar for giving me the opportunity to carry out my vocational training at their facility.

Special

thanks

are

due

Mr.

S.

Haldar, DGM, STM Division, for his

continuous support and guidance in being my mentor. And last but not the least, I would also like to extend my gratefulness to all the supervisors and

technicians,

right from the highest

to

the

simplest, for

their constant and

enthusiasing support.

Robin Tyagi

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VISION

BHEL’s vision is to become “a world-class engineering enterprise committed to enhancing stakeholder value”.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise of its kind in India and is one of the leading international companies in the field of power equipment manufacture. The first plant of BHEL, set up at Bhopal in 1956, signalled the dawn of the Heavy Electrical Industry in India. In the sixties, three more major plants were set up at Haridwar, Hyderabad and Tiruchirapalli that form the core of the diversified product range, systems and services that BHEL offers today. BHEL’s range of services extends from project feasibility studies to after-sales-service, successfully meeting diverse needs through turnkey capability. The company has 14 manufacturing units, 4 power sector regions, 8 service centers and 15 regional offices, besides project sites spread all over India and abroad. BHEL has a well recognised track record of performance, making profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian economy viz., Power Generation and Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Renewable Energy etc. The quality and reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its own R&D centers. The Company has been constantly adapting itself to face the challenges thrown- up by the business environment. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management and all the manufacturing units /divisions have been upgraded to the latest ISO 9001-2000 version. BHEL has also secured ISO 14001 certification for environmental management systems & OHSAS -18001 certification for occupational health and safety management systems for all its units/divisions. BHEL is continuing its journey towards Business Excellence. BHEL has committed to support the Global Compact & the set of core values enshrined in its ten principles in the areas of human rights, labour standards and environment.

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  • 1.1 BUSINESS SECTORS

BHEL’s

operations

namely Power,

are

organised

around

three

business sectors,

Industry including Transmission,

Transportation & Renewable Energy, and International Operations. This

enables BHEL to

have

a

strong

customer orientation and respond

quickly to the changes in the market.

  • 1.2 POWER SECTOR

Power is the focal area for BHEL and comprises thermal, nuclear, gas, diesel and hydro businesses. BHEL has taken India from a position of total dependence on overseas sources to complete self-reliance in power plant equipment. Today, BHEL sets account for nearly 65% of the total installed power generating capacity in the country. Significantly these sets contribute 73% of the total power generated in the country. BHEL has contracted for boilers and auxiliaries, turbo generator sets and associated controls, piping and station, corporate profile 1,000 MW Simhadri STPS set up by BHEL on turnkey basis in 45 months, control & instrumentation of up to 500 MW unit rating and has the technology and capability to produce thermal sets of higher unit ratings including 1000 MW. BHEL has access to technology for higher size gas turbines and can supply gas turbines of up to 279 MW unit size. It engineers and constructs custom built combined cycle power plants. Hydro sets of Francis, Pelton, Kaplan and Bulb types for different head - discharge combinations, with matching generators, are

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also designed and manufactured by BHEL. To give a thrust to refurbishing and modernisation for plant performance improvement of old fossil fuel power plants and provide repair and service for GE design gas turbines, two joint venture companies have been floated with Siemens and GE respectively, which have completed nine full financial years of commercial operation. With a focus to provide a single window facility to the customers for services & spares of power generation equipments, a ‘Spares & Services Business Group’ has been created.

1.3 INDUSTRY SECTOR

INDUSTRIES

BHEL manufactures and supplies major capital equipment and systems like captive power plants, centrifugal compressors, drive turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries, waste heat recovery boilers, gas turbines, pumps, heat exchangers, electric machines, valves, heavy castings and forgings, electrostatic precipitators, ID/FD fans, seamless pipes etc. These serve a number of industries like metallurgical, mining, cement, paper, fertilizers, refineries and petro-chemicals, etc. in addition to power utilities. BHEL has also emerged as a major supplier of controls and instrumentation systems, especially distributed digital control systems for various power plants and industries.

OIL & GAS

BHEL has the capability to supply complete onshore drilling rigs, super deep drilling rigs, desert rigs, mobile rigs, workover rigs and sub sea well heads. It supplies equipment / sub-assemblies for onshore drilling rigs viz. drawworks, rotary-table, travelling block, swivel, mast & sub

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structure, mud systems and rig electrics. BHEL also supplies X’mas tree valves & well heads up to a rating of 10,000 psi for onshore / offshore service and Casing Support System, Mudline Suspension System & Block Valves for offshore applications.

TRANSMISSION

BHEL supplies a wide range of products and systems for transmission & distribution applications. The products manufactured by BHEL include power transformers, instrument transformers, dry type transformers, shunt reactors, capacitors, vacuum and SF6 switchgear, gas insulated switchgear, ceramic insulators, etc. BHEL has developed and commercialized the country’s first indigenous 36 kV Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) and has also bagged first order for its indigenously developed 145 kV GIS. For enhancing the power transfer capability and reducing transmission losses in 400 kV lines, BHEL has indigenously developed and executed fixed series compensation schemes and has developed thyristor controlled series compensation scheme, involving thyristor controlled reactors, popularly known as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). BHEL has indigenously developed state of the art controlled shunt reactor for reactive power management of long transmission lines. With a strong engineering base, the company undertakes turnkey execution of substations upto 400 kV and has capability to execute 765 kV substations. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems have been supplied for economic transmission of bulk power over long distances. During the year, BHEL successfully bagged

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another order for installation of Balia-Bhiwadi HVDC link of 2500 MW capacity.

TRANSPORTATION

Most of the trains in the Indian Railways, whether electric or diesel powered, are equipped with BHEL’s traction propulsion systems and controls. The systems supplied are both with conventional DC drives and state of the art AC drives. India’s first underground metro at Kolkata runs on drives and controls supplied by BHEL. The company also manufactures complete rolling stock i.e. electric locomotives up to 5000 HP, diesel electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP for both mainline and shunting duty applications. Further, BHEL undertakes retrofitting and overhauling of rolling stock. In the area of Urban transportation, BHEL is geared up for turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems, light rail systems and metro systems. BHEL is contributing to the supply of electric systems for EMUs for 1500V DC & 25 kV AC to Indian Railways. Almost all the EMUs in service are with electrics manufactured and supplied by BHEL. The company has also diversified into the area of track maintenance machines. BHEL is well poised to meet the emerging requirements of Indian Railways for higher horsepower locos for freight and passenger applications.

RENEWABLE ENERGY

BHEL has been manufacturing & supplying various Renewable Energy systems and products. It includes Solar Energy systems namely PV modules, PV power plants, solar lanterns, street lighting, solar pumps and solar water heating systems. The Wind power generation business based on higher rating WEGs is being explored.

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  • 1.4 INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS

BHEL has over the years established its references in 68 countries of the world spanning across all the six-inhabited continents. These references encompass almost the entire range of BHEL products and services covering turnkey Power projects of Thermal, Hydro and Gas- based, Transmission Substation projects, Rehabilitation projects for Boilers, Power Stations etc., besides a wide variety of products, like Transformers, Reactors, Compressors, Valves and Oil field equipment, Electrostatic Precipitators, Photo Voltaic equipments, Insulators, Switchgears, Heat Exchangers, Castings & Forgings . Some of the major successes achieved by BHEL have been in Gas based power projects in Oman, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Libya, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, China, Kazakhstan; Thermal power projects in Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Malaysia, Sudan, Indonesia, Thailand; Hydro power plants in New Zealand, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Nepal, Taiwan, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Substation Projects & equipment in various countries of Africa, Europe, South & South East Asia. The company is taking a number of strategic business initiatives to fuel further growth in overseas business. This includes firmly establishing itself in target export markets, positioning of BHEL as a regular EPC Contractor in the global market and, exploring various opportunities for setting up overseas joint ventures etc.

  • 1.5 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

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The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad leads BHEL’s research and development efforts, suitably supported by Engineering and R&D groups at the manufacturing divisions. BHEL’s technology policy promotes a judicious mix of indigenous efforts and selective collaboration in essential areas. The company continuously upgrades its technology and products to contemporary standards. BHEL is one of the few companies worldwide involved in the development of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology which will usher it in clean coal technology. BHEL has set up Asia’s first 6.2 MW IGCC power plant with a indigenously designed pressurised fluidised bed gasifier. Presently, development efforts are underway to set up a 125 MW IGCC power plant. Four Centres of Excellence for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Simulators, Permanent Magnet Machines and Surface Engineering have been established at BHEL’s Corporate R&D Division, which has led to enhancement of BHEL’s design and analysis capability and also enabled development of new and improved products. BHEL’s R&D efforts have produced several new products. Some of the recent successful R&D products are: advanced software package for Performance Analysis, Diagnostics and Optimisation (PADO) of power plants to optimize power plant operations during varying operating conditions; High Velocity Oxy Fuel coating process to increase life of hydro turbine components, and other industrial products prone to erosion; an indigenously designed Bowl Mill of 91 tons per hour capacity for pulverising coal in thermal power stations; the largest size 60 MW Bubbling Fluidised Bed Boiler for power generation; a new eco- friendly, cost effective and less hazardous chemical cleaning system process for boilers using an organic chemical ‘Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid; a six jet Pelton hydro turbine with a head of 789 metres for the 4x200 Parbati hydro electric project; the first totally impregnated turbo generator stator for a 250 MW turbo generator; a 260 MW steam turbine designed to suit combined cycle power plant application; Smart

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wall blowing system for cleaning of boiler tubes during operation; Sonic system for detecting tube leaks in boilers; a By-pass Over Fire Air (BOFA) system which reduces NOx emission from coal fired power stations by upto 50%.

1.6 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed manpower. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and improve his position. Continuous training & retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and participative style of

management have engendered development of a committed and motivated work force ready to take up the challenge of making BHEL a competitive world-class organization.

As

a process

of linking HRM to market forces / stakeholder

driven policies, an e-enabled Performance Management System has been established for executives - a new benchmark in promoting performance-led growth. To encourage individuals for capability building and for continuous improvement through creativity & innovation in every sphere of activity, an e-network based Improvement Projects Rewards Scheme’ (IMPRESS) has been introduced company wide.

2. TURBINE

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17 A <a href=Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Claude Burdin (1788- 1873) coined the term from the Latin turbo , or vortex , during an 1828 engineering " id="pdf-obj-16-5" src="pdf-obj-16-5.jpg">

A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened.

A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Claude Burdin (1788- 1873) coined the term from the Latin turbo, or vortex, during an 1828 engineering

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competition. Benoit Fourneyron (1802-1867), a student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine.

The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.

Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the modern steam turbine is given to British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854 - 1931).

A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse is a compressor or pump. The axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example.

2.1 TYPES OF TURBINES

Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal or fuel oil or nuclear power. They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ship's propellors (e.g. the Turbinia), but most such applications now use reduction gears or an intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity, which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load. Gas turbines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such engines usually feature an inlet, fan, compressor, combustor and nozzle (possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines.

Transonic turbine . The gas flow in most turbines employed in gas turbine engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic turbine the gas

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flow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes, although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less efficient and uncommon. This turbine works well in creating power from water. Contra-rotating turbines . Some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit. However, the complication may be counter-productive.

Statorless turbine . Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary) inlet guide vanes that direct the gas flow onto the rotating rotor blades. In a statorless turbine the gas flow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered.

Ceramic turbine . Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are made

from nickel-steel alloys and often utilise intricate internal air-cooling passages to prevent the metal from melting. In recent years, experimental ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view to increasing Rotor Inlet Temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating air cooling. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts, and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure. Shrouded turbine . Many turbine rotor blades have a shroud at the top, which

interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce blade flutter. Shroudless turbine . Modern practise is, where possible, to eliminate the rotor shroud, thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling requirements.

Bladeless turbine uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine.

o

Pelton turbine , a type of impulse water turbine.

o

Francis turbine , a type of widely used water turbine.

o

Kaplan turbine , a variation of the Francis Turbine.

o

Voith , water turbine.

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Wind turbine . These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and interstage guide vanes. An exception is the Éolienne Bollée, which has a stator and a rotor, thus being a true turbine.

2.2 OTHER

Velocity compound "Curtis" . Curtis combined the de Laval and Parsons turbine by using a set of fixed nozzles on the first stage or stator and then a rank of fixed and rotating stators as in the Parsons, typically up to ten compared with up to a hundred stages, however the efficiency of the turbine was less than that of the Parsons but it operated at much lower speeds and at lower pressures which made it ideal for ships. Note that the use of a small section of a Curtis, typically one nozzle section and two rotors is termed a "Curtis Wheel"

Pressure Compund Multistage Impulse or Rateau . The Rateau employs simple Impulse rotors separated by a nozzle diaphragm. The diaphragm is essentially a partition wall in the turbine with a series of tunnels cut into it, funnel shaped with the broad end facing the previous stage and the narrow the next they are also angled to direct the steam jets onto the impulse rotor.

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3. STEAM TURBINE

3.1 Introduction to the Steam Turbine

De Laval, Parsons and Curtis developed the concept for the steam turbine in the 1880s. Modern steam turbines use essentially the same concept but many detailed improvements have been made in the intervening years mainly to improve turbine efficiency.

Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called.

Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Australian (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems.

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22 3.2 Description In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three

3.2 Description

In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam.

After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re- heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine.

A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction" turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the

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pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage isentropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilise percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction.

Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. Either way, the principles are the same for all steam turbines. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put, co-generation or pure electricity production. For co-generation, the steam pressure is highest when used as process steam and at a lower pressure when used for the secondary function of electricity production.

23 pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit

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3.3 Nozzles and Blades

Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade (or bucket). Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor.

Steam turbines are machines which must be designed, manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms, with two of the most important being:

Erosion due to moisture- The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. This has led to the imposition of an allowable limit of about

12%

wetness

in

the

exhaust

steam.

Solid particle erosion- The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam

causes wear to the turbine blades.

Cogeneration cycles

In cogeneration cycles, steam is typically generated at a higher temperature and pressure than required for a particular industrial process. The steam is expanded through a turbine

to produce electricity and the resulting extractions at the discharge are at the temperature and pressure required by the process.

Turbines can be condensing or non-condensing design typically with large mass flows and comparably low output. Traditionally, pressures were 6.21 MPa and below with temperatures 441º C or lower, although the trend towards higher levels of each continues.

There are now a considerable number of co-generation steam turbines with initial steam pressures in the 8.63 to 10 MPa range and steam temperatures of 482 to 510º C.

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25 3.4 Bearings and Lubrication Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the

3.4 Bearings and Lubrication

Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines:

Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony. Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. A thrust bearing is made up of a series of Babbitt lined pads that run against a locating disk attached to the turbine rotor.

High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Specially designed centrifuges remove any water from the oil.

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  • 3.5 Shaft Seals

The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking, merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part of the steam circuit.

  • 3.6 Turning gear

Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors.

  • 3.7 Vibration

The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious.

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3.8 Steam Turbine -Definition

Steam turbines are devices which convert the energy stored in steam into rotational mechanical energy. These machines are widely used for the generation of electricity in a number of different cycles, such as:

Rankine cycle

Reheat cycle

Regenerative cycle

Combined cycle

The steam turbine may consists of several stages. Each stage can be described by analyzing the expansion of steam from a higher pressure to a lower pressure. The steam may be wet, dry saturated or superheated.

27 3.8 Steam Turbine -Definition Steam turbines are devices which convert the <a href=energy stored in steam into rotational mechanical energy. These machines are widely used for the generation of electricity in a number of different cycles, such as: ∑ Rankine cycle ∑ Reheat cycle ∑ Regenerative cycle ∑ Combined cycle The steam turbine may consists of several stages. Each stage can be described by analyzing the expansion of steam from a higher pressure to a lower pressure. The steam may be wet, dry saturated or superheated. Consider the steam turbine shown in the cycle above. The output power of the turbine at steady flow condition is: P = m (h1-h2) " id="pdf-obj-26-38" src="pdf-obj-26-38.jpg">

Consider the steam turbine shown in the cycle above. The output power of the turbine at steady flow condition is:

P = m (h1-h2)

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where m is the mass flow of the steam through the turbine and h1 and h2 are specific enthalpy of the steam at inlet respective outlet of the turbine.

28 where m is the mass flow of the steam through the turbine and h1 andisentropic efficiency for expansion process. The presence of water droplets in the steam will reduce the efficiency of the turbine and cause physical erosion of the blades. Therefore the dryness fraction of the steam at the outlet of the turbine should not be less than 0.9. 3.9 Types Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment, to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. 3.9.1 Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions " id="pdf-obj-27-13" src="pdf-obj-27-13.jpg">

The efficiency of the steam turbines are often described by the isentropic efficiency for expansion process. The presence of water droplets in the steam will reduce the efficiency of the turbine and cause physical erosion of the blades. Therefore the dryness fraction of the steam at the outlet of the turbine should not be less than 0.9.

3.9 Types

Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment, to 2,000,000 hp (1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines.

3.9.1 Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions

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These types include condensing, non condensing, reheat, extraction and induction.

Non condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. These are commonly found at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants, and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available.

Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state, typically of a quality near 90%, at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser.

Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. In a reheat turbine, steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.

Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. In an extracting type turbine, steam is released from various stages of the turbine, and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feedwater heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve, or left uncontrolled.

Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional power.

3.9.2 Casing or Shaft Arrangements

These arrangements include single casing, tandem compound and cross compound turbines. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. A cross compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that

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often operate at different speeds. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications.

3.10 Theory of operation

An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or constant entropy process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly “isentropic”, however, with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the turbine. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades, or “buckets” as they are more commonly referred to. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances, with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.

A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic

(velocity

head).

The

fluid

may

be

Turbine Efficiency

To maximize turbine efficiency, the steam is expanded, generating work, in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. Typically, higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.

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31 <a href=Impulse turbines These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid in the turbine rotor blades. Before reaching the turbine the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle . Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the runner since the fluid jet is prepared by a nozzle prior to reaching turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Reaction turbines These turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's pressure or weight. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must " id="pdf-obj-30-5" src="pdf-obj-30-5.jpg">

Impulse turbines

These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid in the turbine rotor blades. Before reaching the turbine the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the runner since the fluid jet is prepared by a nozzle prior to reaching turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.

Reaction turbines

These turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's pressure or weight. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must

32

be fully immersed in the fluid flow (wind turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids, multiple turbine stages may be used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.

Turbine designs will use both these concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor (this is a form of reaction). Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Crossflow turbines are designed as an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel. Turbines with multiple stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam Turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in Gas Turbines. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction style tip.

Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used at first. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae, and others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made.

Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity V a1 . The rotor rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor

33

entrance is V r1 . The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at velocity V r2 . However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is V a2 . The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub, tip, midsection and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler equation:

33 entrance is V . The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to

Typical velocity triangles for a single turbine stage

33 entrance is V . The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to

Whence:

33 entrance is V . The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to

34

where:

  • specific enthalpy drop across stage

    • turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature

    • turbine rotor peripheral velocity change in whirl velocity

34 where: specific enthalpy drop across stage turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature turbine rotor peripheralComputational fluid dynamics dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years. The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed . This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected. The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance. Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic. " id="pdf-obj-33-16" src="pdf-obj-33-16.jpg">
34 where: specific enthalpy drop across stage turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature turbine rotor peripheralComputational fluid dynamics dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years. The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed . This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected. The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance. Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic. " id="pdf-obj-33-18" src="pdf-obj-33-18.jpg">

The turbine pressure ratio is a function of and the turbine efficiency.

Modern turbine design carries the calculations further. Computational fluid dynamics dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years.

The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed. This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected.

The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance.

Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic.

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  • 3.11 Operation and Maintenance

When warming up a steam turbine for use, the main steam stop valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and proceed to heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. Also a turning gear is engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even heating to prevent uneven expansion. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear, allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing), then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine, first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine.

Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements are relatively small. Any imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration, which in extreme cases can lead to a blade letting go and punching straight through the casing. It is, however, essential that the turbine be turned with dry steam. If water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the blades (moisture carryover) rapid impingement and erosion of the blades can occur, possibly leading to imbalance and catastrophic failure. Also, water entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of the thrust bearing for the turbine shaft. To prevent this, along with controls and baffles in the boilers to ensure high quality steam, condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine.

  • 3.12 Speed regulation

The control of a turbine with a governor is essential, as turbines need to be run up slowly, to prevent damage while some applications (such as the generation of alternating current electricity) require precise speed control. Uncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to an overspeed trip, which causes the nozzle valves that control the flow of steam to the turbine to close. If this fails then the turbine may continue accelerating until it breaks apart, often spectacularly. Turbines are expensive to make, requiring precision manufacture and special quality materials.

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3.13 Turbine Types

When people began to use water power to win mechanical work, they looked first for the best forms of impellers. Three types were established thereby and variations of them are used today in various applications, among other in steam turbines in power stations, as marine propellers, as compressors in gas turbines etc. These three types are introduced here:

36 3.13 Turbine Types When people began to use water power to win mechanical work, they

The Pelton Turbine

The pelton turbine (also free-jet turbine) was invented 1880 by L.A. Pelton. It possesses spoon-shaped shovels, the jet hits the impeller tangentially, gets divided by the two shovels and transfers an impulse. The pelton turbine is used in storage power stations with downward gradients up to 2000 meters and can contain up to 6 nozzles.

36 3.13 Turbine Types When people began to use water power to win mechanical work, they

The Francis Turbine

The reaction turbine invented by J.B. Francis 1849 is hit by the jet almost axially (toward the axle) and radially (away from the center). The rotor blades can be adjusted, in order to ensure an even run. It looks similar to the type shown below as Steam turbine.

37

The Kaplan Turbine

The Kaplan turbine, developed around 1915 by the Austrian V. Kaplan, looks like a marine propeller. The jet is led thereby axially on the freely adjustable shovel pages.

37 The Kaplan Turbine The Kaplan turbine, developed around 1915 by the Austrian V. Kaplan, looks

Besides the types described above, there are still other types of water turbines, e.g. the Bànki turbine.

From the water- to the steam turbine

The won realizations with water power let the researchers expect similar results with steam, too. Numerous engineers took part in the development of the steam turbine in the second half of the 19 th Century. To mention are the Englishman Charles Parsons, the Swede Carl Gustav Laval and the American Charles Curtis, who made crucial contributions for the development of the steam turbine.

37 The Kaplan Turbine The Kaplan turbine, developed around 1915 by the Austrian V. Kaplan, looks

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2-step steam turbine after Parsons (1883). This turbine possesses two impellers and an idler in the center.

  • 3.14 Mode of Operation of the Steam Turbine

Since it is a steam jet and no more a water jet who meets the turbine now, the laws of thermodynamics are to be observed now. The modern steam turbine is an action turbine (no reaction turbine), i.e. the steam jet meets from a being certain nozzle the freely turning impeller. There's a high pressure in front of the turbine, while behind it a low pressure is maintained, so there's a pressure gradient: Steam shoots through the turbine to the rear end. It delivers kinetic energy to the impeller and cools down thereby: The

pressure sinks.

"Steam"

Steam is produced in a steam boiler, which is heated in

Steam

turbines

are operated

power stations by the burn of coal or gas or by atomic

today of course no longer with

energy. Steam

doesn't

escape

then,

but

after

the

normal water vapour only, but

passage through the turbine it is condensed

in

a

depending on the field of

condensor and then pushed back into the steam boiler

application

also

with other

again by a pump. This has the advantage that for

materials, e.g. with freons).

example in nuclear power stations work- and cooling

 

water

are

clearly

 

separated.

 
 
  • 3.15 Multi-level Steam Turbines

In modern steam turbines not only one impeller is propelled, but several being in a series. Between them idlers are situated, which don't turn. The gas changes its direction passing an idler, in order to perform optimally work again in the next impeller. Turbines with several impellers are called multi-level. The principle was developed 1883 by Parsons. As you know, with the cooling gas expands. Therefore it is to be paid attention when building steam turbines to a further problem: With the number of passed impellers also the volume increases, which leads to a larger diameter of the impellers. Because of that,

39

multi-level

turbines

are

always

conical.

3.16 Coupling of several Turbines

39 multi-level turbines are always conical. 3.16 Coupling of several Turbines Coupled steam turbine In power

Coupled steam turbine

In power stations today, different types of turbines are used in a series, e.g. one high pressure -, two medium- and four low pressure turbines. This coupling leads to an excellent efficiency (over 40%), which is even better than the efficiency of large diesel engines. This characteristic and the relatively favourable production make the steam turbine competitionless in power stations. Coupled with a generator and fired by an atomic reactor, they produce enormously much electric current. The strongest steam turbines achieve today performances of more than 1000 megawatts.

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  • 3.17 Direct drive

Electrical power stations use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 80%) of the world's electricity. Most of these centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators. As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. In installations with high steam output, as may be found in nuclear power stations, the generator sets may be arranged to operate at half these speeds, but with four-pole generators.

  • 3.18 Speed reduction

40 3.17 Direct drive <a href=Electrical power stations use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 80%) of the world's electricity. Most of these centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants . The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators. As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system, the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems, and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. In installations with high steam output, as may be found in nuclear power stations, the generator sets may be arranged to operate at half these speeds, but with four-pole generators. 3.18 Speed reduction The Turbinia - the first steam turbine-powered ship Another use of steam turbines is in ships ; their small size, low maintenance, light weight, and low vibration are compelling advantages. ( Steam turbine locomotives were also tested, but with limited success.) A steam turbine is only efficient when operating in the thousands of RPM range, while use in propulsion applications may require only in the hundreds of RPM. Therefore precise (thus expensive) reduction gears are generally used, although several ships, such as Turbinia , had direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts. The purchase cost is offset by much lower fuel and maintenance requirements and the small size of a turbine when compared to a reciprocating engine " id="pdf-obj-39-20" src="pdf-obj-39-20.jpg">

The Turbinia - the first steam turbine-powered ship

Another use of steam turbines is in ships; their small size, low maintenance, light weight, and low vibration are compelling advantages. (Steam turbine locomotives were also tested, but with limited success.) A steam turbine is only efficient when operating in the thousands of RPM range, while use in propulsion applications may require only in the hundreds of RPM. Therefore precise (thus expensive) reduction gears are generally used, although several ships, such as Turbinia, had direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts. The purchase cost is offset by much lower fuel and maintenance requirements and the small size of a turbine when compared to a reciprocating engine

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having an equivalent power. However, diesel engines are capable of higher efficiencies:

steam turbine efficiencies have yet to break 50%, yet diesel engines routinely exceed 50%, especially in marine applications.

4. USES OF TURBINES

Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. Very high efficiency turbines harness about 40% of the thermal energy, with the rest exhausted as waste heat.

Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their working

fluid and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants. Turbines are often part of a larger machine. A gas turbine, for example, may refer to an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine, ducts, compressor, combustor, heat-exchanger, fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an alternator. However, it must be noted that the collective machine referred to as the turbine in these cases is designed to transfer energy from a fuel to the fluid passing through such an internal combustion device as a means of propulsion, and not to transfer energy from the fluid passing through the turbine to the turbine as is the case in turbines used for electricity provision etc.

Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by

their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor, a configuration known as a turbocharger (turbine supercharger) or, colloquially, a "turbo". Turbines can have very high power density (i.e. the ratio of power to weight, or power to volume). This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. The Space Shuttle's main engines use turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70,000 hp (52.2 MW).

Turboexpanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes.

Turbines could also be used as powering system for a remote controlled plane that creates thrust and lifts the plane of the ground. They come in different sizes and

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could be as small as soda can, still be strong enough to move objects with a weight of 100kg.

5. BASIC LAYOUT OF TURBINE BLOCK

Turbine Block consists of the following 11 sections:

Bay 1 Assembly

Bay 1 M/C Shop

Bay 2 M/C Shop

Bay 2 Rotor Assembly

Bay 2 Turning

Bay 3 M/C Shop

Bay 3 Governing Assembly

Bay 3 H.T. Assembly

OSBT (Over Speed Balancing Tunnel)

Block 5 Forge Shop

Heat Treatment

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6. MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

For manufacturing of steam turbines, turbine block has the following sections:

Circular Components Machining Section

This section is equipped with a number of large/ heavy sizes Horizontal and Vertical Boring Machines, Drilling Machines, Center Lathes, Marking Table and Assembly Bed. The major components machined in this section are spiral casing with Stay Ring, spherical and Disc Valve bodies and Rotors.

Guide Vanes and Shaft Machining Section

This section is equipped with Heavy-duty Lathe machines up to 16 metres bed, CNC Turning machines, Horizontal Boring Machine, Heavy planer, Deep Drilling Machine, Boring Machines, Marking Table, Marking Machines and Assembly Beds. Turbine Shafts, Guide Vanes, Journals and Rotors of Spherical and Disc Valves are machined here. Rotors of steam turbines are also machined in this section.

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Assembly Section

In this section, assembly and testing of Guide Apparatus, Disc Valve, Spherical Valves, Servo motor shaft and combined boring of coupling holes are done.

Preservation and Packing Section

Final preservation and packing of all the Steam Turbine components/ assemblies is done here.

Small Components Machining Section

This is equipped with Planetary Grinding Machine, Cylindrical Grinding Machines, Small Size Lathes, Planers, Vertical and Horizontal Boring Machines. Small components like Bushes, Levers, Flanges, etc. and governing assemblies are machined here.

Governing Elements Assembly and Test Stand Section

This section is equipped with facilities like Oil Pumping Unit, Pressure Receiver, Servomotors, etc. for assembly and Testing of Governing Elements.

Turbine Casing Machining Section

It is equipped with large size Planer, Drilling, Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, CNC Horizontal and Vertical Boring Machines, etc. Fabrication works like Casings, Pedestals, etc. are received from Fabrication Block-2.

Rotor Machining Section

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It is equipped with large size machining tools like Turning Lathe, CNC Lathes, Horizontal Boring Machines, special purpose Fir Tree Groove Milling Machine, etc. Some rotor forgings are imported from Russia and Germany and some are indigenously manufactured at CFFP, BHEL Haridwar.

Rotor Assembly Section

This is equipped with Indicating Stand, Small size Grinding, Milling, Drilling machines, Press and other devices for fitting Rotors and Discs. Machined Rotor, Discs and Blades are assembled here. Balancing and over speeding of Rotor is done on the dynamic balancing machine.

Test Section

Test station for testing of 210 MW USSR Steam Turbine at no load is equipped with Condensers, Ejector, Oil Pumps, Oil Containers, Steam Connections, etc. required for testing. Over speed testing is done for emergency Governor. Assembly Test Stands for different modules of Siemens design are equipped with accessory devices.

Bearing and Miscellaneous Parts Machining Section

This section is equipped with small and medium size basic machine tools, e.g. Lathes, Milling Machine, Horizontal Borer, Vertical Borer, Drilling Machine, etc. for manufacture of bearings and other miscellaneous parts of turbine.

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Sealing and Diaphragm Machining Section

It is equipped with medium size Vertical Boring, Horizontal Boring, Planning, Drilling Machines, etc. wherein castings of Sealing Housings, Liner Housings, Forgings of Rotor Discs, castings and fabricated Diaphragms and components are machined. It is also equipped with CNC Machining Center.

Precision Horizontal Boring, Plano-Milling Machines, etc. for manufacture of Governing Casting, Servo Castings and other medium parts of Governing and Main Turbine Assemblies.

Governing Machining Section

This section is equipped with medium size and small size lathes, medium CNC lathe, Milling, Grinding, Drilling, Slotting and Honing Machines. Governing assembly parts are machined here.

Diaphragm and Governing Assembly Section

It is equipped with deflection testing equipment for Diaphragms, Dynamic Balancing Machine for Balancing Impeller of Centrifugal Oil Pumps and small fitting and assembly equipment. Governing Test Stand is equipped with the facilities like Oil Pumping Unit, Pressure Receiver, Servomotor, Over speed testing of Emergency Governor, etc.

Light Machine Shop

In addition to normal conventional machine tools, it is equipped with CNC Lathes, CNC Milling, CNC Vertical Boring, Precision Milling, Planetary Grinding Machines, etc. for manufacture of small and medium precision components of governing and other turbine parts.

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Hydraulic Lifting Platform

This facility is used for assembly and disassembly of Steam Turbine Rotor. This is a hydraulically operated platform which travels up to 10 metres height to facilitate access to different stages of Rotor. This is installed in Bay-1 assembly area.

CNC Creep Feed Grinding Machine

This is installed in Steam Turbine machining area Bay-2 Extn. This machine grinds the hearth serration rotor disc faces. Hearth serrations are radial grooves teeth on both the faces of rotor discs. Torque is transmitted through these serrations, which are very accurately ground.

External Broaching Machine

This machine is installed in Steam Turbine machining area and is used to make groove on the outer dia of rotor discs for the fitting of moving blades on the discs.

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7. DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY MACHINES

7.1 Lathe Machine

A lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. The material is held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths.

49

49 7.1.1 Parts of Lathe 1. Legs : A lathe may or may not have a

7.1.1 Parts of Lathe

  • 1. Legs : A lathe may or may not have a stand (or legs), which sits on the floor and elevates the lathe bed to a working height. Some lathes are small and sit on a workbench or table, and do not have a stand.

  • 2. Bed : Almost all lathes have a "bed", which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (although some CNC lathes have a vertical beam for a bed to ensure that swarf, or chips, falls free of the bed).

  • 3. Headstock : At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a "headstock". The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings.

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  • 4. Spindle : Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called the "spindle". Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which accessories which hold the workpiece may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a handwheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the workpiece.The spindle is driven, either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt drive to a power source. In some modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand.

  • 5. Tailstock : The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed, by undoing a locking nut, sliding it to the required area, and then relocking it. The tailstock contains a barrel which does not rotate, but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock spindle. The barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel centre, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible.

  • 6. Cross slide : Metalworking lathes have a "cross slide", which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is a toolpost, which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the workpiece. There may or may not be a leadscrew, which moves the cross slide along the bed.

7.1.2 Accessories

Unless a workpiece has a taper machined onto it which perfectly matches the internal taper in the spindle, or has threads which perfectly match the external threads on the

51

spindle (two things which almost never happen), an accessory must be used to mount a workpiece to the spindle.

A workpiece may be bolted or screwed to a faceplate, a large flat disk that mounts to the spindle. Alternatively faceplate dogs may be used to secure the work to the faceplate.

A workpiece may be clamped in a three- or four-jaw chuck, which mounts directly to the spindle or mounted on a mandrel.

In precision work (and in some classes of repetition work), cylindrical workpieces are invariably held in a collet inserted into the spindle and secured either by a drawbar, or by a collet closing cap on the spindle. Suitable collets may also be used to mount square or hexagonal workpieces. In precision toolmaking work such collets are usually of the draw in variety, where as collet is tightened the workpiece moves slightly back into the headstock, whereas for most repetition work the dead length variety is preferered as this ensures that the position of the workpiece does not move as the collet is tightened, so the workpiece can be set in the lathe to a fixed position and it will not move on tightening the collet.

A soft workpiece (wooden) may be pinched between centers by using a spur drive at the headstock, which bites into the wood and imparts torque to it.

A soft dead center is used in the headstock spindle as the work rotates with the centre. Because the centre is soft it can be trued in place before use. The included angle is 60 degrees. Traditionally a hard dead center is used together with suitable lubricant in the tailstock to support the workpiece. In modern practice the dead center is frequently replaced by a live center or (revolving center) as it turns freely with the workpiece usually on ball bearings, reducing the frictional heat, which is especially important at high RPM. A lathe carrier or lathe dog may also be employed when turning between two centers.

A circular metal plate with even spaced holes around the periphery, mounted to the spindle, is called an "index plate". It can be used to rotate the spindle a precise number of degrees, then lock it in place, facilitating repeated auxiliary operations done to the workpiece.

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7.2 Milling Machine

A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a table to which the workpiece is affixed. The milling operation involves movement of the rotating cutter sideways as well as 'in and out'. The cutter and workpiece move relative to each other, generating a toolpath along which material is removed. The movement is precisely controlled, usually with slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Often the movement is achieved by moving the table while the cutter rotates in one place, but regardless of how the parts of the machine slide, the result that matters is the relative motion between cutter and workpiece.

52 7.2 Milling Machine A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of

Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via CNC (computer numerical control).

Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some of them with quite complex toolpaths, such as slot cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc.

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Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to sluice away the resulting swarf.

7.2.1 Milling Machine variants and terminology

  • 1. Box or column mills : They are very basic hobbyist bench-mounted milling machines that feature a head riding up and down on a column or box way.

  • 2. Turret or vertical ram mills : They are more commonly referred to as Bridgeport-type milling machines. The spindle can be aligned in many different positions for a very versatile, if somewhat less rigid machine.

  • 3. Knee mill or knee-and-column mill : They refer to any milling machine whose x-y table rides up and down the column on a vertically adjustable knee. This includes Bridgeports.

  • 4. C-Frame mills : They are larger, industrial production mills. They feature a knee and fixed spindle head that is only mobile vertically. They are typically much more powerful than a turret mill, featuring a separate hydraulic motor for integral hydraulic power feeds in all directions, and a twenty to fifty horsepower motor. Backlash eliminators are almost always standard equipment. They use large NMTB 40 or 50 tooling. The tables on C-frame mills are usually 18" by 68" or larger, to allow multiple parts to be machined at the same time.

  • 5. Planer-style mills : They are large mills built in the same configuration as planers except with a milling spindle instead of a planing head. This term is growing dated as planers themselves are largely a thing of the past.

  • 6. Bed mill : They refer to any milling machine where the spindle is on a pendant that moves up and down to move the cutter into the work. These are generally more rigid than a knee mill.

  • 7. Ram type mill : They refer to a mill that has a swivelling cutting head mounted on a sliding ram. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or anywhere in between. Van Norman specialized in ram type mills through most of

54

the 20th century, but since the advent of CNC machines ram type mills are no longer made.

  • 8. Jig borers : They are vertical mills that are built to bore holes, and very light slot or face milling. They are typically bed mills with a long spindle throw. The beds are more accurate, and the handwheels are graduated down to .0001" for precise hole placement.

  • 9. Horizontal boring mills : They are large, accurate bed horizontal mills that incorporate many features from various machine tools. They are predominantly used to create large manufacturing jigs, or to modify large, high precision parts. They have a spindle stroke of several (usually between four and six) feet, and many are equipped with a tailstock to perform very long boring operations without losing accuracy as the bore increases in depth. A typical bed would have X and Y travel, and be between three and four feet square with a rotary table or a larger rectangle without said table. The pendant usually has between four and eight feet in vertical movement. Some mills have a large (30" or more) integral facing head. Right angle rotary tables and vertical milling attachments are available to further increase productivity.

10.Floor mills : They have a row of rotary tables, and a horizontal pendant spindle mounted on a set of tracks that runs parallel to the table row. These mills have predominantly been converted to CNC, but some can still be found (if one can even find a used machine available) under manual control. The spindle carriage moves to each individual table, performs the machining operations, and moves to the next table while the previous table is being set up for the next operation. Unlike any other kind of mill, floor mills have floor units that are entirely movable. A crane will drop massive rotary tables, X-Y tables, and the like into position for machining, allowing the largest and most complex custom milling operations to take place. 11.Portical mills : It has the spindle mounted in a T structure.

55

7.3 Drilling Machine

A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill, or bench drill) is a fixed style of drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. A drill press consists of a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill), and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The table can be adjusted vertically and is generally moved by a rack and pinion; however, some older models rely on the operator to lift and reclamp the table in position. The table may also be offset from the spindle's axis and in some cases rotated to a position perpendicular to the column. The size of a drill press is typically measured in terms of swing. Swing is defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the spindle to the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch (410 mm) drill press will have an 8-inch (200 mm) throat distance.

A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:

Less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of the

chuck and spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the operator considerable mechanical advantage. The table allows a vice or clamp to position and lock the work in place making the

operation much more secure. The angle of the spindle is fixed in relation to the table, allowing holes to be drilled accurately and repetitively.

56

56 Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley arrangement. Some

Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley arrangement. Some drill presses add a third stepped pulley to increase the speed range. Modern drill presses can, however, use a variable-speed motor in conjunction with the stepped-pulley system; a few older drill presses, on the other hand, have a sort of traction- based continuously variable transmission for wide ranges of chuck speeds instead, which can be changed while the machine is running.

Drill presses are often used for miscellaneous workshop tasks such as sanding, honing or polishing, by mounting sanding drums, honing wheels and various other rotating accessories in the chuck. This can be dangerous on many presses, where the chuck arbor is held in the spindle purely by the friction of a Morse taper instead of being held securely by a drawbar.

7.3.1 Types of Drill Press

57

Geared head drill : The geared head drill is identical to the drill press in most respects, however they are generally of sturdier construction and often have power feed installed on the quill mechanism, and safety interlocks to disengage the feed on overtravel. The most important difference is the drive mechanism between motor and quill is through a gear train (there are no vee belts to tension). This makes these drills suitable for use with larger drill bits. Radial arm drill : A radial arm drill is a geared head drill that can be moved away from its column along an arm that is radiates from the column. These drills are used for larger work where a geared head drill would be limited by its reach, the arm can swivel around the column so that any point on the surface of the table can be reached without moving the work piece. The size of work that these drills can handle is considerable as the arm can swivel out of the tables area allowing an overhead crane to place the workpiece on the fixed table. Vises may be used with these machines but the work is typically bolted to the table or a fixture. Mill drill : Mill drills are a lighter alternative to a milling machine. They combine a drill press (belt driven) with the X/Y coordinate abilities of the milling machine's table and a locking collet that ensures that the cutting tool will not fall from the spindle when lateral forces are experienced against the bit. Although they are light in construction, they have the advantages of being space-saving and versatile as well as inexpensive, being suitable for light machining that may otherwise not be affordable.

7.4 Boring Machine

In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast), by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools), for example as in boring a cannon barrel. Boring is used to achieve greater

58

accuracy

of

the

diameter

of

a

hole,

and

can

be

used

to

cut

a

tapered

hole.

58 accuracy of the diameter of a hole, and can be used to cut a tapered

The boring process can be carried out on a lathe for smaller operations, but for larger production pieces a special boring mill (work piece rotation around a vertical axis) or a horizontal boring machine (rotation around horizontal axis) are used. The dimensions

59

between the piece and the tool bit can be changed about two axes to cut both along and into the internal surface. A tapered hole can also be made by swiveling the head.

The boring machines (similar to the milling machines such as the classic Van Norman) come in a large variety of sizes and styles. Work piece diameters are commonly 1-4m (3- 12 ft) but can be as large as 20m (60ft). Power requirements can be as much as 200 hp. The control systems can be computer-based, allowing for automation and increased consistency.

Because boring is meant to decrease the product tolerances on pre-existing holes, several design considerations must be made. First, large length-to-bore-diameters are not preferred due to cutting tool deflection. Next, through holes are preferred over blind holes (holes that do not traverse the thickness of the work piece). Interrupted internal working surfaces—where the cutting tool and surface have discontinuous contact—should be avoided. The boring bar is the protruding arm of the machine that holds cutting tool(s), and must be very rigid.

7.5 Grinding Machine

A grinding machine is a machine tool used for producing very fine finishes or making very light cuts, using an abrasive wheel as the cutting device. This wheel can be made up of various sizes and types of stones, diamonds or of inorganic materials.

7.5.1 Types of Grinders

1. Belt grinder : It is usually used as a machining method to process metals and other materials, with the aid of coated abrasives. Sanding is the machining of wood; grinding is the common name for machining metals. Belt grinding is a versatile process suitable for all kind of applications like finishing, deburring, and stock removal

60

  • 2. Bench grinder : It usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench. It is used for shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or repaired. Bench grinders are manually operated.

  • 3. Cylindrical grinder : It includes the centerless grinder. A cylindrical grinder may have multiple grinding wheels. The workpiece is rotated and fed past the wheel/s to form a cylinder. It is used to make precision rods.

  • 4. Surface grinder : It includes the wash grinder. A surface grinder has a "head" which is lowered, and the workpiece is moved back and forth past the grinding wheel on a table that has a permanent magnet for use with magnetic stock. Surface grinders can be manually operated or have CNC controls.

  • 5. Tool and Cutter grinder and the D-bit grinder : These usually can perform the minor function of the drill bit grinder, or other specialist toolroom grinding operations.

  • 6. Jig grinder : It as the name implies, has a variety of uses when finishing jigs, dies, and fixtures. Its primary function is in the realm of grinding holes and pins. It can also be used for complex surface grinding to finish work started on a mill.

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8. HEAVY MACHINES IN STM

Craven Lathe Machine (20/A/33)

Speed

0.5

to 5 rpm

Feed

0.02 to 6.35 mm/rev

Distance from center

 
  • 7620 mm

Maximum overspeed

 
  • 1676 mm

Face plate gripping capacity

203 to 1270 mm

Load status

  • 80 tonne (with staydis)

  • 80 tonne (without staydis)

Barithez Vertical Boring And Turning Machine (20/A/88)

Speed

2.5

to 125 rpm

Feed

0.066 to 6 mm/rev

Table diameter

1800

mm

62

Maximum dia that can be turned

2900

mm

Height beneath arm

1660

to 6550 mm

 

Vertical Barithez Boring Machine (20/A/70)

Speed

Max. 60 rpm

Feed

1 micron/rev

Chuck diameter

1800

mm

Maximum swing

3600

mm (with extension)

Control System

 

Sinumerik

Homma Plano Milling Machine (20/A/2087)

Speed

  • 20 to 1000 rpm

Feed

10 to 1000 rpm/min (Horizontal)

  • 20 to 2000 rpm/min ( Vertical)

Table dimension

2000

to 5000 mm

Cutting length

5000

mm

Maximum load on table

 

25000 Kg

Taper on spindle nose

 

ISO no. 50

63

Drilling And Boring Machine (20/A/2080)

Speed

2.5

to 20 rpm

Feed

3 to 69 mm

Spindle Diameter

102

mm

Dist. from spindle center to top

737

to 3175 mm

Drilling slot

89

mm

Boring capacity

457

mm

Milling cutter

152

mm

 

Craven Lathe Machine (20/A/36)

Speed

0.5

to 51 rpm

Feed

0.02 to 0.35 mm

Distance from center

 
  • 7620 mm

Maximum swing over

 
  • 1676 mm

Head stock face plate dia.

 
  • 1524 mm

Face plate gripping capacity

203

to 1270 mm

Load status

  • 80 tonne (with staydis)

  • 50 tonne (without staydis)

64

Horizontal Boring Machine (20/A/2111)

Spindle diameter

127 mm

Feed

1.29 to 38 mm

Facing head

1524

mm

Table width

1524

mm

Maximum boring bar diameter

 

158.80 mm

 

Craven rotor adjusting Lathe Machine (20/A/27)

Speed

0.195 to 20 rpm

Feed

0.06 to 3.77 mm/rev

Distance from center

7315

mm

Maximum swing over speed

3048

mm

Face plate gripping capacity

203 to 1575 mm

Head stock face plate dia.

1829

mm

65

 

Control system

Siemens 8-40-D

Column Cross travel

8000

mm

Head stock vertical travel

3500

mm

Ram travel

700

mm

Spindle travel

1000

mm

Table size

2500

* 3000 mm

Longitudinal travel

2000

mm

 

Vertical Barithez boring Machine

Chuck diameter

3000

mm

Ram travel

1000

mm

Horizontal traverse

1925

mm

Column height

3000

mm

 

Morando CNC Lathe Machine (20/A/2012 & 20/A/2013)

Speed

1.5 to 200 rpm

Feed

0.5 to 2000 mm/min

Distance between center

6000

mm

Height from center

770

mm

Swing over bed

1520

mm

Maximum load between center

30

tonne

Maximum load on face plate

60

tonne

66

Richards Vertical Bore Machine

Speed

0.88

to 13 rpm

Feed

0.4

to 230 mm/min

Maximum table diameter

4900

mm (approx)

Swivel diameter

5400

mm(approx)

Keichan & Bed Cross Rail Drilling, Boring & Tapering Machine

 

(20/A/12)

Speed

 

2.5

to 500 rpm

Feed

 

0.21

to 2.11 m/rev

Table dimension

 

3050

* 3050 mm

Loading capacity

 

6 tonne

Longitudinal traverse

 

3050

m

Vertical traverse

 

1219

mm

 

CNC Stub Borar Machine

 

Max. Boring Dia

 

2500

mm

Min. Boring Dia

 

625

mm

Table dimension

 

4000

mm* 4000 mm

Max. Weight of Job

 

100

tonne

Head Stock Travel

 

4000

mm

Control System

 

Sinumerik

67

Speed of vertical traverse of spindle

 
  • A. Main boring and milling spindle

3.5 to 500 rpm

  • B. High speed spindle

65 to 2200 rpm

Feed

0.64 to 1700 mm

Boring spindle traverse

3000 mm

Horizontal traverse of column on bed

  • 27600 mm

Full bed length

  • 40800 mm

MIB Double Column & Drilling Machine (20/A/300)

Speed

6 to 1000 rpm

Feed

0.6 to 1600 mm

Horizontal traverse

1400

mm

Vertical traverse

3000

mm

Longitudinal traverse of column

16100 mm

Rotating table size

2100

* 3000 mm

Minimum dist. between spindle arm & table

300 mm

8.1 Operations Performed

Turning

68

 

Drilling

Boring

Reaming

Facing

Milling

Tapping

8.2

Products

 

Steam turbine rotor Steam turbine assembly

Butterfly valve

Fixed blades

Marine Turbine Rotor

9. BLADES OF STEAM TURBINES

69

Bar type

Brazed type

Free standing (Forged type)

Gas turbine compressor blades

The bar type and brazed type blades are also known as drum stage blades.

9.2 Classification of Blades

70

L.P. Moving Blade Forged 1 st Stage

L.P. Moving Blade 500 MW Last Stage

100MW 25 th Stage Impulse Blade

Compressor Blade Sermental Coated

Compressor Blade ‘O’ Stage

Gas Turbine Compressor Blade

T-2 Blade

T-4 Blade

3DS Blade

Brazed Blade

Russian Design Blades

Z-Shroud Blade

Twisted Blade

Present Range of Blades

71

9.3 Bar Type Blades

S. No.

Process/ Operation

Machine Tool/ Equipment Used

1.

Blanking of area material

Circular saw/ Band saw

2.

Sizing to rectangular shape

Horizontal Milling Machine

3.

Thickness grinding

Surface grinder

4.

Rhomboid milling

Duplex Milling Machine

5.

Rhomboid grinding

Duplex Grinding Machine

6.

Milling perpendicularity on both

Horizontal Milling Machine

ends

7.

Milling radius on surround

Horizontal Copy Milling Machine

8.

Finish milling of convex and

Horizontal Copy Milling/ CNC

concave profile

Horizontal Milling Machine

9.

Milling expansion faces of convex

Horizontal Copy Milling/ CNC

and concave sides at root and

Milling Machine

shroud

10.

Root slot/ root chamfer and radii at

2 spindle T-root Roughing Machine,

root and shroud milling

Root Radius Copy Milling Machine,

T-root Machining Center

11.

Taper grinding

Surface Grinder

12.

Grinding and polishing of profile

Abrasive Belt Polishing Machine

and expansion faces

13.

Final rounding, chamfering, etc.

Manual fitting

72

9.4

Brazed Type Blades

 

S. No.

Process/ Operation

Machine Tool/ Equipment Used

1.

Cutting of drawn profile & spacer

Horizontal Milling Machine

blank

2.

Sizing to rectangular shape

Horizontal Milling Machine

3.

Thickness grinding

Surface Grinder

4.

Rough and finish milling of internal

Horizontal Milling Machine

profile of spacer

5.

Cutting-off spacer

Abrasive Cutting

6.

Brazing of drawn profile and spacer

Right frequency inducting brazing

installation

7.

Milling of width

Duplex Milling machine

8.

Pin rough and root slot

Vertical Milling Machine

9.

External profile rough and finish

Horizontal Milling Machine

machining

10.

Pin turning

Pin Turning Lathe

11.

Grinding and polishing

Abrasive Belt Polishing Machine

12.

Deburring and rounding

Manual fitting

9.5

Free Standing Blades

 

73

  • S. No.

Process/ Operation

Machine Tool/ Equipment Used

1.

Grinding of reference belts

Abrasive Belt Polishing

2.

Milling of inlet and outer edge

3D Vertical Copy Milling Machine

3.

Center hole drilling

CNC Machining Center

4.

Encapsulating with Cerro bend alloy

Cerro bend casting equipment

5.

Remelting of Cerro bend alloy

Fir-tree Root Machining Center

6.

Remelting of Cerro bend alloy

Cerro bend casting equipment

7.

Machining of fillets

Vertical 3D Copy Milling Machine

8.

Grinding and polishing

Abrasive Belt Polishing

9.

Cutting-off blade tip

Abrasive Cutting Machine

10.

Inlet edge hardening

Frame hardening equipments (if

required)

11.

Blade tip rounding

Vertical 3D Copy Milling Machine

12.

Tip thinning (if required)

Vertical 3D Copy Milling Machine

9.6 Gas Turbine Blades

  • S. No.

Process/ Operation

Machine Tool/ Equipment Used

1.

Cerro bend casting

Cerro bend casting equipment

2.

Root machining

Horizontal Machining Center

3.

Remelting of Cerro bend alloy

Cerro bend casting equipment

4.

Profile checking

Vertical Stand

5.

Length cutting

Circular Saw/ horizontal Milling Machine

6.

Tenon

Horizontal Milling Machine

7.

Grinding and polishing of fillet

Abrasive Belt Polishing Machine